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Encyclopedia > Lehi (group)
Lehi emblem

Lehi (IPA: ['lɛxi], Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel", לח"י - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish state. Although the name of the group only became "Lehi" after founder, Avraham Stern's death, this article follows the common practice of calling it that throughout its history. Lehi refers to: Lehi, a prophet in the Book of Mormon Lehi, a city in Utah Lehi, a Zionist paramilitary group in Palestine/Israel Lehi, a location in southwest Palestine/Israel Lehi, a traditionally Mormon agricultural neighborhood in northern Mesa, Arizona This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Image File history File links Lehilogo. ... Image File history File links Lehilogo. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... On June 24, 1922 the League of Nations agreed upon a document called the Palestine Mandate. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ...


Lehi was described as a terrorist organisation[1] by the British authorities, the mainstream Yishuv, and by the United Nations mediator Ralph Bunche.[2] The group was known after its first commander Avraham Stern as the Stern Group or Stern Gang, a denunciatory label originated by the British authorities. This article is becoming very long. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Ralph Bunche, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1951 Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1904 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation in Palestine in the late 1940s that led to an armistice agreement between the Israelis and... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied...


Lehi was responsible for the assassination of Lord Moyne and focused their actions primarily against the British presence. Israel has honored the group by instituting the military decoration of the Lehi ribbon, which may be worn by the organization's former members. Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne (29 March 1880 - 6 November 1944) was a British politician. ... The Israeli Military decorations are the decorations awarded to soldiers in the Israel Defense Forces who exhibit extraordinary bravery and courage. ...

Contents

Foundations and founding

Avraham Stern
Avraham Stern

Avraham ("Yair") Stern was originally an adherent of the Revisionist Zionist movement founded by Ze'ev Jabotinsky in the early 1920s and a member of Irgun Zevai Leummi or simply Irgun. In June 1940, when Irgun decided to put on hold its underground military activities against the British during the World War II, he separated from Irgun to form his own group, which he called Irgun Zevai Leummi be-Israel (National Military Organization in Israel). Image File history File links Avraham_Stern. ... Image File history File links Avraham_Stern. ... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Zeev Jabotinsky in military uniform Zeev Vladimir (Evgenevich) Jabotinsky (or Zhabotinski) (October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. During World War II a similar and larger unit known as the Jewish Brigade would follow. ... Irgun emblem. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Specifically, Stern believed that the Jewish population should focus its efforts on fighting the British rather than supporting them in World War II; and that forceful methods were an effective means to achieve those goals. His strongest objection was to the White Paper of 1939 which effectively set its goal to end Jewish immigration and land purchasing in Eretz Israel. He believed that the "gates" of the country should be opened to the Jewish refugees fleeing from Europe, and that this was the utmost importance at the time. It was over this issue where Yair and his long-time friend David Raziel split. Raziel believed that the Irgun should assist Britain in their fight against Germany. Raziel was killed in Iraq during a mission for the British forces. Yair believed that dying for the "foreign occupier" who was obstructing the creation of the Jewish State was useless. He differentiated between "enemies of the Jewish people" (e.g., the British) and "Jew haters", (e.g. the Nazis), believing that the former needed to be defeated, and the latter neutralized. To this end, he initiated contact with Nazi authorities, a decision which also proved useless in retrospect. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... David Raziel (December 19, 1910 - May 17, 1941) was a Jewish freedom fighter during the British Mandate of Palestine, and one of the founders of the Irgun. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Goals and methods

Lehi had three main goals:

  • to bring together all those interested in liberation (that is, those willing to join in active fighting against the British)
  • to appear before the world as the only active Jewish military organization
  • to take over the Land of Israel by armed force[3]

The group believed in its early years that its goals would be achieved by finding a strong international ally that would expel the British from Palestine in return for help from the Jewish military; this would in turn require the creation of a broad and organised military force "demonstrating its desire for freedom through military operations."[4]


An article titled "Terror" in He Khazit (The Front, a Lehi underground newspaper) argued as follows: "Neither Jewish morality nor Jewish tradition can negate the use of terror as a means of battle... We are particularly far from this sort of hesitation in regard to an enemy whose moral perversion is admitted by all."[5] The article described the goals of terror:

  • It demonstrates... against the true terrorist who hides behind his piles of papers and the laws he has legislated.
  • It is not directed against people, it is directed against representatives. Therefore it is effective.
  • If it also shakes the Yishuv from their complacency, good and well.[5]

Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ...

Principles of Rebirth

Avraham Stern crystallized the ideology of his organization in what was called the "18 Principles of Rebirth":[6]


1. THE NATION The Jewish people is a covenanted people, the originator of monotheism[7], formulator of the prophetic teachings, standard bearer of human culture, guardian of glorious patrimony. The Jewish people is schooled in self-sacrifice and suffering; its vision, survivability and faith in redemption are indestructible.


2. THE HOMELAND The homeland in the Land of Israel within the borders delineated in the Bible ("To your descendants, I shall give this land, from the River of Egypt to the great Euphrates River." Genesis 15:18) This is the land of the living, where the entire nation shall live in safety.


3. THE NATION AND ITS LAND Israel conquered the land with the sword. There it became a great nation and only there it will be reborn. Hence Israel alone has a right to that land. This is an absolute right. It has never expired and never will.


4. THE GOALS 1. Redemption of the land. 2. Establishment of sovereignty. 3. Revival of the nation. There is no sovereignty without the redemption of the land, and there is no national revival without sovereignty.


These are the goals of the organization during the period of war and conquest:


5. EDUCATION Educate the nation to love freedom and zealously guard Israel's eternal patrimony. Inculcate the idea that the nation is master to its own fate. Revive the doctrine that "The sword and the book came bound together from heaven" (Midrash Vayikra Rabba 35:8)


6. UNITY The unification of the entire nation around the banner of the Hebrew freedom movement. The use of the genius, status and resources of individuals and the channeling of the energy, devotion and revolutionary fervour of the masses for the war of liberation.


7. PACTS Make pacts with all those who are willing to help the struggle of the organization and provide direct support.


8. FORCE Consolidate and increase the fighting force in the homeland and in the Diaspora, in the underground and in the barracks, to become the Hebrew army of liberation with its flag, arms, and commanders.


9. WAR Constant war against those who stand in the way of fulfilling the goals.


10. CONQUEST The conquest of the homeland from foreign rule and its eternal possession.


These are the tasks of the movement during the period of sovereignty and redemption:


11. SOVEREIGNTY Renewal of Hebrew sovereignty over the redeemed land.


12. RULE OF JUSTICE The establishment of a social order in the spirit of Jewish morality and prophetic justice. Under such an order no one will go hungry or unemployed. All will live in harmony, mutual respect and friendship as an example to the world.


13. REVIVING THE WILDERNESS Build the ruins and revive the wilderness for mass immigration and population increase.


14. ALIENS Solve the problem of alien population [i.e. the Arab inhabitants of Palestine] by exchange of population.


15. INGATHERING OF THE EXILES Total in-gathering of the exiles to their sovereign state.


16. POWER The Hebrew nation shall become a first-rate military, political, cultural and economical entity in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean Sea.


17. REVIVAL The revival of the Hebrew language as a spoken language by the entire nation, the renewal of the historical and spiritual might of Israel. The purification of the national character in the fire of revival. “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


18. THE TEMPLE The building of the Third Temple as a symbol of the new era of total redemption. The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...


Evolution and tactics of the organization

The group was initially unsuccessful. Early attempts to raise funds through criminal activities, including a bank robbery in Tel Aviv in 1940 and another robbery on 9 January 1942 in which Jewish passers-by were killed, brought about the temporary collapse of the group, and an attempt to assassinate the head of the British secret police in Lod in which three police personnel were killed, two Jewish and one British, elicited a severe response from the British and Jewish establishments who collaborated in an effort to eliminate the underground organisation.[8] is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Stern's group was seen as a major threat by the British authorities, who regarded it as a terrorist organisation and instructed the Defence Security Office (the colonial branch of MI5) to track down its leaders. In 1942, Stern, after he was arrested, was murdered by Inspector Geoffrey Morton of the CID.[9] Several of the group members were arrested, and the group went into eclipse, but was revived after the September 1942 escape of two of its leaders Yitzhak Shamir and Eliyahu Giladi (later killed by the group under circumstances that remain mysterious) aided by two other escapees Natan Yellin-Mor (Friedman) and Israel Eldad (Sheib).[10] Shamir (who would later become Prime Minister of Israel), was known by the codename "Michael" which was a reference to one of Shamir's heroes, Michael Collins. Lehi was guided by spiritual and philosophical leaders such as Uri Zvi Greenberg and Israel Eldad. The smallest by far of any of the Jewish armed groups during the mandatory era, it never attracted more than a few hundred followers, and was reviled by most of its contemporaries. After the killing of Giladi, the organization was lead by a triumvirate of Eldad, Shamir, and Yellin-Mor. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Israel Eldad: Scholar, historian and Zionist revolutionary Israel Eldad (1910 – 1996) born Israel Schieb in Podvolochisk, Galicia, was a philospher and one of the leaders of the Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) or Lehi. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Uri Zvi Greenberg, late in life. ... Israel Eldad: Scholar, historian and Zionist revolutionary Israel Eldad (1910 – 1996) born Israel Schieb in Podvolochisk, Galicia, was a philospher and one of the leaders of the Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) or Lehi. ...


Lehi adopted a non-socialist platform of Anti-Imperialist ideology. It viewed the continued British rule of Palestine as a violation of the mandate's provision generally, and its restrictions on Jewish immigration to be an intolerable breach of international law. Lehi's focus, both in rhetoric and in action, was against the British administration in Palestine. However they also targeted Jews whom they regarded as traitors, and towards the end of the British Mandate they joined in operations with the Haganah and Irgun against Arab targets, for example Deir Yassin. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Irgun emblem. ... Deir Yassin, also Dayr Yasin, was an Arab village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


According to a compilation by Nachman Ben-Yehuda, Lehi was responsible for 42 assassinations altogether, more than twice as many as those of the Irgun and Haganah combined during the same period. Of those Lehi assassinations that Ben-Yehuda classified as political, more than half the victims were Jews.[11]


Lehi also rejected the authority of the Jewish Agency and related organizations, operating entirely on its own throughout nearly all of its existence. The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ...


Lehi prisoners captured by the British generally refused to present a defence when brought to trial in British courts. They would only read out statements in which they declared that the court, representing an occupying force, had no jurisdiction over them and is illegal. For the same reason, Lehi prisoners refused to plea for amnesty, even when it was clear that this would have them spared from the death penalty. In one case Moshe Barazani, a Lehi man, and Meir Feinstein, an Irgun member, committed suicide in prison in order to deprive the British of the ability to hang them. Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Moshe Barazani or Moshe Barzani (1928-1947), was a Kurdish Jew and a member of Lehi (The Freedom Fighters of Israel). ... A version of this article in Hebrew has been listed at Wikipedia:Translation into English. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Contact with Nazi authorities

German cover letter from January 11 1941 attached to a description of an offer for an alliance with Nazi Germany attributed to Lehi.
German cover letter from January 11 1941 attached to a description of an offer for an alliance with Nazi Germany attributed to Lehi.

In 1940, Lehi proposed intervening in World War II on the side of Nazi Germany. It offered assistance in "evacuating" the Jews of Europe, in return for Germany's help in expelling Britain from Mandate Palestine. Late in 1940, Lehi representative Naftali Lubenchik was sent to Beirut where he met the German official Werner Otto von Hentig. Lubenchik told von Hentig that Lehi had not yet revealed its full power and that they were capable of organizing a whole range of anti-British operations. Download high resolution version (1040x1632, 179 KB)A the document ( January 1941) sent by the Stern Gang offering alliance to Nazi Germany If I understand this letter correctly, it is not Sterns offer but rather the covering letter attached to Sterns offer by the Germans when they forwarded... Download high resolution version (1040x1632, 179 KB)A the document ( January 1941) sent by the Stern Gang offering alliance to Nazi Germany If I understand this letter correctly, it is not Sterns offer but rather the covering letter attached to Sterns offer by the Germans when they forwarded... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ...


On the assumption that the destruction of Britain was the Germans' top objective, the organization offered cooperation in the following terms: From the NMO side: full cooperation in sabotage, espionage and intelligence and up to wide military operations in the Middle East and in eastern Europe anywhere where the Irgun had Jewish cells, active and trained and in some places with weapons. From the German side, the following declarations and actions were demanded: (1) Full recognition in an independent Jewish state in Palestine/Eretz Israel (2) On the same level of importance and in practice, to allow all the Jews wishing so, or about to leave anyway from their place in Europe, by their own will or because of government injunctions, with no restrictions on their numbers, the ability to migrate to Palestine. For this purpose there was expressed a need to cancel any transfer plans of Jews to distant countries like Madagascar. The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ...


On January 11, 1941 a letter was sent from Der Marvitz, the German Naval attaché in Ankara, depicting an offer to "actively take part in the war on Germany's side" in return for German support for "the establishment of the historic Jewish state on a national and totalitarian basis, bound by a treaty with the German Reich".[12][13] There are three possibilities as to how the offer reached the German Naval attaché in Ankara. One is that en route to Germany, von Hentig was delayed in Ankara and delivered his version of the offer orally to Der Marvitz and Marvitz wrote the letter using his words. The second is that Colombani (a general in French intelligence) invented the offer because of personal rivalry between himself and other Vichy officials: this rivalry is known from a paragraph in Der Marvitz's letter, "Colombani is of the opinion that his return to France is a consequence of co-operation of Conti with Minister Pierroton", or, third, that Colombani wanted the offer to fail: he had co-operated with the Mufti of Jerusalem in Lebanon in 1938-1939 and was also the one who took him in his car through Syria to the Iraqi border in 1939. is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... An attaché is a person who is assigned to the staff of a diplomatic mission and often has special responsibilities or expertise. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...


In any case, Der Marvitz delivered the offer, classified as secret, to the German Ambassador in Turkey and on January 21, 1941 it was sent to Berlin. There was never any response. von Hentig would later say that he believed it was important to help the Jews establish a country. [14] [15] German plans such as the Madagascar Plan eventually failed and ultimately led the Nazis to initiate the Holocaust, the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in 1942, but this was still in the future at the time of the Lehi proposal. is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Madagascar Plan was a policy of the Third Reich government of Nazi Germany to forcibly relocate the entire Jewish population of Europe to the French island colony of Madagascar, off the coast of Africa. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Later history

As a group that never had over a few hundred members, Lehi relied on audacious but small-scale operations to bring their message home, as such they adopted the tactics of groups such as the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party in Czarist Russia,[16] and the Irish Republican Army, who had successfully used guerrilla warfare to force the British out of the Southern Republic of Ireland in the 1920s. To this end, Lehi conducted small-scale operations such as assassinations of British soldiers and police officers and Jewish "collaborators". Another strategy, (1947) was to send bombs in the mail to many British politicians. Other actions included sabotaging infrastructure targets: bridges, railroads, and oil refineries. Lehi financed their operations from private donations, extortion, and bank robbery. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... Postcard released by PPS around 1905-1907. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... volcanic rock. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... A donation is to give a fund or cause or such donated gift usually for charitable reasons. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... It has been suggested that Safecatch be merged into this article or section. ...


Lehi was one of groups said to be involved in massacres according to Israeli historian Benny Morris, see List of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


Assassination of Lord Moyne

Further information: Lord Moyne#Assassination

On 6 November 1944 Lehi assassinated Lord Moyne in Cairo. Moyne was the highest ranking British government representative in the region. Yitzhak Shamir claimed later that Moyne was assassinated because of his support for a Middle Eastern Arab Federation and anti-Semitic lectures in which Arabs were held to be racially superior to Jews.[17] The assassination act rocked the British government, and outraged Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister. The two assassins, Eliahu Bet-Zouri and Eliahu Hakim were captured and used their trial as a platform to make public their political philosophy. In 1975 their bodies were returned to Israel and given a state funeral.[18] In 1982, postage stamps were issued for 20 Olei Hagardom, including Bet-Zouri and Hakim, in a souvenir sheet called "Martyrs of the struggle for Israel's independence". [19] [20] Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne (29 March 1880 - 6 November 1944) was a British politician. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne (29 March 1880 - 6 November 1944) was a British politician. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Eliyahu Bet-Zuri (1922 – 22 March 1945) was a member of Lehi, who was executed in Egypt for assassinating of Lord Moyne, the British Minister Resident in the Middle East. ... Eliyahu Hakim (1925-22 March 1945) was a member of the Lehi who was executed in Egypt for the assassination of Lord Moyne, the British Minister Resident in the Middle East. ... Monument commemorating those who were hanged in the gallows, situated in Ramat Gan Olei Hagardom (Hebrew: Those hanged in the gallows, עולי הגרדום) is the term commonly used for those Jewish fighters that were tried before British Mandate courts and executed by hanging, usually in the Acre prison. ...


British police station in Haifa

January 12, 1947, members drove a truckload of explosives into a British police station in Haifa, Palestine, killing four and injuring 140.


Cairo-Haifa train bombings

Main article: Cairo-Haifa train bombings 1948

During the lead-up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli war the Cairo-Haifa train was mined several times. On February 29 1948, Lehi mined the train north of Rehovot, killing 28 soldiers and wounding 35. On March 31, the train was mined near Binyamina killing 40 civilians and wounding 60. The second attack was also attributed to Lehi but Lehi never took credit for this event. During the lead-up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, the Jewish undergound group Lehi mined the Cairo-Haifa train several times. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Rehovot (Hebrew רְחוֹבוֹת ) is a city in the Center District of Israel, about 20 km south of Tel Aviv. ... Binyamina (Hebrew: בינימינה) is a place in the north west of Israel, near the Mediterranean, south of Haifa and north of Netanya. ...


Deir Yassin massacre

Main article: Deir Yassin massacre

Lehi (and Irgun) took part in the killing of about 107 to 120 Palestinian Arabs at the village of Deir Yassin, an incident referred to as the Deir Yassin massacre. [21] Palestinian Arabs at the village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem in the British Mandatee by an Irgun-Lehi force between April 9 and April 11, 1948 as part of Operation Nachshon, an Israeli military offense intended to fend off the siege of Jerusalem. This occurred during a period of increasing local Arab-Jewish fighting about one month prior to the regional outbreak of the much larger 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Contemporary reports of this event, with their initial estimate of 250 killed, had considerable impact on the conflict,[22][23][24] and were a major cause of Arab civilian flight from Palestine. The circumstances, nature, evaluation, and scope of the Deir Yassin incident remain a source of controversy and debate decades later as the incident has been described as either harsh fighting in a fortified village which resulted in the need for the use of grenades[25] or that the village did not allow for a military force to take position and that a massacre of innocent civilians had occurred.[26]. The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between... Deir Yassin, also Dayr Yasin, was an Arab village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Irgun emblem. ... Lehi refers to: Lehi, a prophet in the Book of Mormon Lehi, a city in Utah Lehi, a Zionist paramilitary group in Palestine/Israel Lehi, a location in southwest Palestine/Israel Lehi, a traditionally Mormon agricultural neighborhood in northern Mesa, Arizona This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The objective of Operation Nachshon (or Nahshon), an Israeli military operation in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, was to open up the Jerusalem road that had been besieged by the Arabs. ... Combatants Israel, Jewish militias: (Haganah, Irgun, Lehi) British officers with the Israeli force Transjordan Army of the Holy War Other Palestinian militias British officers seconded to Transjordan Egypt Commanders David Shaltiel Sir Alan Cunningham Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Anwar Nusseiba , General Sir John Bagot Glubb... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


Dissolution

The conflict between Lehi and mainstream Jewish and subsequently Israeli organizations came to an end when Lehi was formally dissolved and integrated into the Israeli Defense Forces on May 31, 1948, its leaders getting amnesty from prosecution or reprisals as part of the integration. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte

UN mediator Count Folke Bernadotte was assassinated by Lehi in Jerusalem in 1948.
Further information: Folke Bernadotte#Assassinated in Jerusalem by Lehi

Although Lehi had stopped operating nationally after May 1948, the group continued to function in Jerusalem. On 17 September 1948, Lehi assassinated the UN Mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte, who had been sent to broker a settlement in the dispute. The assassination was directed by Yehoshua Zetler and carried out by a four-man team led by Meshulam Makover. The fatal shots were fired by Yehoshua Cohen. Lehi leaders Nathan Yellin-Mor and Matitiahu Schmulevitz were arrested two months later, with Yellin-Mor being sentenced to eight years in prison, though most of the other suspects involved were released immediately. The group was then forcefully broken up for good. Old well=known public photo of Count Folke Bernadotte File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a...


Into politics

Some left-wing members of the Lehi founded a political party called the Fighters' List with the jailed Yellin-Mor as its head. The party took part in the elections in January 1949 and won one seat. Thanks to a general amnesty for Lehi members granted on 14 February, 1949, Yellin-Mor was released from prison to take up his place in the Knesset. However, the party disbanded after failing to win a seat in the 1951 elections. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... The Fighters List (Hebrew: רשימת הלוחמים, Reshimat HaLokhmim) was a political party in Israel. ... The Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held in newly-independent Israel on 25 January, 1949. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The Elections for the second Knesset were held on 30 July, 1951. ...


Lehi remembered

In 1980 Israel instituted the Lehi ribbon, red, black, grey, pale blue and white which is awarded to former members of the Lehi underground who wished to carry it. Image File history File links LechiRibbon2. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Israeli Military decorations are the decorations awarded to soldiers in the Israel Defense Forces who exhibit extraordinary bravery and courage. ...


Criticism

Some writers have claimed that Lehi's true goals were the creation of a totalitarian state.[27] Others have asserted that the organisation's ideology placed "its world view in the quasi-fascist radical Right, which is characterised by xenophobia, a national egotism that completely subordinates the individual to the needs of the nation, anti-liberalism, total denial of democracy and a highly centralised government."[28] Its leader, Avraham Stern, lost much support after seeking a modus vivendi with Nazi Germany.[29] Perliger and Weinberg claim that most Lehi members were admirers of the Italian Fascist movement.[30] However, authoritarianist principles do not appear in the Principles of Rebirth which is the organization's Charter.[citation needed] The founder of the group, "Yair" commented on the Principles saying that "We... want to establish the Kingdom of Israel and to rebuild it on the eternal foundations of Fraternity, Respect and Friendship to all the nation's sons whoever they are".[31] While Avraham Stern ("Yair") studied in Italy he refused to join the Fascist student association called "Gruppo Universitario Fascista" that foreign students were invited to, in spite of the fact that those joined were given serious reductions in tuition. [32] Moreover, during the time he spent in Russia, Stern was actually a member of the Pioneer movement which was the young pre-Komsomol layer of the communist Party in the USSR.[33] He also created the Histadrut of the Hebrew Tzofim Hashomer Hatzair in Suwałki which derived its ideology from youth organizations Hatzofim and socialist movements like Hashomer Hatzair and Hehalutz. [34] Modus vivendi is a Latin phrase. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... A pioneer movement is an organization for children operated by a communist party. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ... Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel (Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation) is the national Scouting and Guiding federation of Israel. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Semel Tnua, the official logo of Hashomer Hatzair. ... A Zionist youth movement is an organization formed for Jewish children and adolescents for educational, social and ideological development, including a belief in Jewish nationalism as represented in the State of Israel. ...


The Lehi Anthem "Unknown Soldiers"

The lyrics of "Unknown Soldiers" were written by Avraham 'Yair' Stern, the founder of Lehi. This was one of the first songs written by 'Yair'. Yair composed the song together with his wife Roni. The song became the anthem of Etzel and remained so until 1940 when Lehi broke into a separate group. The song expresses an unlimited willingness to sacrifice. The anthem is used by veteran members of the group in gatherings as well as by some political groups from time to time, from both ends of the political map. Etzel is The common Israeli name for Irgun Tzvai-Leumi, or Irgun, a militant group operating in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ...


Full text of the song : [35]

First stanza

חיילים אלמונים הננו, בלי מדים,
וסביבנו אימה וצלמוות.
כולנו גויסנו לכל החיים:.
משורה משחרר רק המוות.,

Unknown Soldiers are we, without uniform
And around us fear and the shadow of death
We have all been drafted for life.
Only death will discharge us from [our] ranks,

Refrain

בימים אדומים של פרעות ודמים,
בלילות השחורים של ייאוש.,
בערים ובכפרים את דגלנו נרים,.
ועליו: הגנה וכיבוש

On red days of riots and blood
In the dark nights of despair
In towns and villages shall we raise our banner
On which are inscribed defence and conquest

Second Stanza

לא גויסנו בשוט כהמון עבדים,
כדי לשפוך בנכר את דמנו.,
רצוננו להיות לעולם בני חורין,.
חלומנו למות בעד ארצנו

We were not drafted by the whip, like a mob of slaves[36]
To shed our blood in foreign lands
Our will is to be forever free
Our dream - to die for our country

Third Stanza

ומכל עברים רבבות מכשולים ,
שם גורל אכזרי על דרכנו,
אך אויבים, מרגלים ובתי אסורים,.
לא יוכלו לעצור בעדנו

From all directions, tens of thousands of obstacles
Cruel fate has placed on out path
But enemies, spies and prison houses
Will never be able to stop us

Fourth Stanza

ואם אנחנו ניפול ברחובות, בבתים ,
יקברונו בלילה בלאט,
במקומנו יבואו אלפי אחרים
להגן ולשמור עדי עד

And if we fall in the streets and homes
We will be buried silently in the night
Thousands of others will fill our places
To protect and defend forever

Fifth Stanza

בדמעות אימהות שכולות מבנים ,
ובדם תינוקות טהורים ,
כמו במלט נדביק הגופות ללבנים
את בניין המולדת נקים

With the tears of bereaved mothers
And the blood of pure babies
Like mortar shall we put together the cadaver buiding blocks
The edifice of the homeland shall we raise

Prominent members of Lehi

Nathan Yellin Mor [future member of Knesset, leader of Israeli peace movement   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "Stern Gang" A Dictionary of World History. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ "notorious terrorists long known as the Stern group"
  3. ^ Heller, p. 112, quoted in Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, pp. 106-107.
  4. ^ Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, p. 107.
  5. ^ a b He Khazit (underground publication of Lehi), Issue 2, August 1943. No author is stated, as was usual for this publication. Translated from original. For a discussion of this article, see Heller, p. 115
  6. ^ Amichal, page 316, a copy on the web exists here
  7. ^ It is worth noting that this assertion would widely be considered erroneous, Zoroastrianism was actually the first monotheistic religion.
  8. ^ Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, p. 109.
  9. ^ Boyer Bell, 1996, p. 71.
  10. ^ Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, p. 109.
  11. ^ N. Ben-Yehuda, Political Assassinations by Jews (State University of New York, 1993), p397.
  12. ^ Heller, 1995, p. 86.
  13. ^ David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics, 1889-1945, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel, 1974. Also see Otto von Hentig, Mein Leiben (Goettingen, 1962) pp 338-339
  14. ^ A Meeting in Beirut, Habib Canaan, Haaretz (musaf), 27 March 1970
  15. ^ Full details depicted in Ada Amichal Yevin, "In Purple", The Life of Yair - Abraham Stern", Hadar Publishing House Tel Aviv, 1986, pp. 225-230
  16. ^ Iviansky 1986, 72-73.
  17. ^ Yitzhak Shamir, 'Why the Lehi Assassinated Lord Moyne', Nation, 32/119 (1995) pp. 333-7 (Hebrew) cited in Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, p. 111.
  18. ^ Israel honours British minister's assassins, The TImes, June 26, 1975, p1.
  19. ^ http://www.israelphilately.org.il/stamps/stamp.asp?id=1382
  20. ^ http://www.israelphilately.org.il/catalog/series.asp?id=416 (detailed)
  21. ^ Kana'ana, Sharif and Zeitawi, Nihad (1987), "The Village of Deir Yassin," Bir Zeit, Bir Zeit University Press, 1987)
  22. ^ Milstein (1999), Chapter 16: Deir Yassin, Section 16: Brutality and Hypocrisy, page 388: the leaders of ETZEL, LEHI, Hagana and MAPAM leaders had a vested interest in spreading the highly inflated version of the true facts
  23. ^ Milstein (1999), Chapter 17: April 9, Section 1: The Palestinian Refugees: The Beginning, page 397-399
  24. ^ Morris (2004) Chanter 4: The second wave: the mass exodus, April—June 1948, Section: Operation Nahshon, page 239: IZL leaders may have had an interest, then and later, in exaggerating the panic-generating effects of Deir Yassin, but they were certainly not far off the mark. In the Jerusalem Corridor area, the effect was certainly immediate and profound.
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Heller, 1995, p. 70.
  28. ^ Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, p. 108.
  29. ^ "Stern Gang" The Oxford Companion to World War II. Ed. I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  30. ^ Perliger and Weinberg, 2003, p. 107.
  31. ^ Lochamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi) , writings, chapter 1, pages 70-71
  32. ^ Amichal, 77
  33. ^ Amichal, 14
  34. ^ Amichal, page 16
  35. ^ Lyrics and data about the song on the Betar site (Hebrew)
  36. ^ A reference to "a mob of slaves" or "a horde of slaves" ("horde d'esclaves") appears in the second stanza of the Marseillaise - with which Stern was likely to have been familiar - as a scornful description for the armies opposed to the French Revolution. Both anthems make the same opposition beween the oppressors' army which is composed of "slaves" - i.e. of soldiers who were drafted or impressed against their will - and the freedom-seekers, who volunteered to fight and give their all to the cuase they support.

Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural programme of the Arc de Triomphe. ...

References

  • (Hebrew) Amichal Yevin, Ada (1986). In purple: the life of Yair-Abraham Stern. Tel Aviv: Hadar Publishing House.
  • Bell, J. Bowyer (1977). Terror Out of Zion: Irgun Zvai Leumi, Lehi, and the Palestine Underground, 1929-1949. Avon. ISBN 0-380-39396-4
  • Ben-Yehuda, Nachman (1998). Political Violence. Political Assassinations as a Quest for Justice. In Robert R. Friedmann (Ed.). Crime and Criminal Justice in Israel: Assessing The Knowledge base Toward The Twenty-first Century (pp. 139-184). SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-3713-2.
  • Heller, J. (1995). The Stern Gang. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4558-3
  • Iviansky, Z. (1986) "Lechi's Share in the Struggle for Israel's Liberation", in: Ely Tavin and Yonah Alexander (Ed.).Terrorists or freedom fighters, Fairfax, Va.: HERO Books.
  • Lustick, Ian S. (1994). "Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Targets and Audiences." In Crenshaw, Martha (ed). Terrorism in Context (pp. 514-552). University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01015-0
  • Marton, K. (1994). A death in Jerusalem. Pantheon. ISBN 0-679-42083-5 — Bernadotte assassination
  • (Hebrew) Shamir, Moshe, Yair Biography, 2001, Zmora-Bitan
  • Munson, Henry (2005). Religion and violence. Religion, 35: 223-246.
  • Perliger, Arie and Weinberg, Leonard (2003). Jewish Self-Defence and Terrorist Groups Prior to the Establishment of the State of Israel: Roots and Traditions. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, Volume 4, Number 3, pp. 91-118.

Moshe Shamir (September 15, 1921–August 20, 2004) was an Israeli author, playwright, opinion writer, and public figure. ...

See also

Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... Irgun emblem. ... Israel Eldad: Scholar, historian and Zionist revolutionary Israel Eldad (1910 – 1996) born Israel Schieb in Podvolochisk, Galicia, was a philospher and one of the leaders of the Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) or Lehi. ... Magshimey Herut (Hebrew: מגשימי חרות; achievers of liberty) is a Zionist movement founded in 1999 by a group of Jewish activists who felt the need for a young adult movement dedicated to aliyah, social justice and the territorial integrity of the land of Israel. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... This is a list of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... During the lead-up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, the Jewish undergound group Lehi mined the Cairo-Haifa train several times. ... The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lehi (group)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lehi (group) at AllExperts (2129 words)
Lehi (, Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel",לח"י - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in pre-state Israel (British Palestine) that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine, to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish state.
Several of the group members were arrested, and the group went into eclipse until it was reformed as "Lehi" under a triumvirate of Israel Eldad, Natan Yellin-Mor, and Yitzhak Shamir.
Lehi was one of groups said to be involved in massacres according to Isreali historian Benny Morris, see List of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
Upto11.net - Wikipedia Article for Lehi (group) (971 words)
Lehi (Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel") was a radical underground Jewish paramilitary group, a terrorist group according to both its own description and that of its opponents.
Lehi was founded by Stern in 1940 as an offshoot from Irgun.
Lehi was formally dissolved after the state of Israel was created, but continued to operate especially in Jerusalem until it was forcefully broken up after the assassination of the UN-envoy Count Folke Bernadotte.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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