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Encyclopedia > Legion of Merit

The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued both to United States military personnel and to military and political figures of foreign governments. The Legion of Merit is one of only two United States decorations to be issued as a neck order (the other being the Medal of Honor), and the only United States decoration which may be issued in award degrees (much like an Order of chivalry or certain Orders of Merit).[1][2] File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... Awards and decorations of the United States military are military decorations which recognize a service members service and personal accomplishments while a member of the United States armed forces. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Texas Medal of Valor A neck order is a type of military decoration which is designed to be worn and displayed around a persons neck, rather than hung from the chest as is the standard practice for displaying military decorations. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... See also Orders of Chivalry in the British honours system After the failure of the crusades, the crusading military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. ... There are several Orders with the name Order of Merit Order of Merit A British Order, possibly the best known. ...


The Legion of Merit is seventh in the order of precedence of U.S. military decorations, and is worn after the Defense Superior Service Medal and before the Distinguished Flying Cross. Defense Superior Service Medal The Defense Superior Service Medal of the United States is a senior decoration of the Department of Defense. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ...

Contents

Criteria

The award is given for service rendered in a clearly exceptional manner. Performance of duties normal to the grade, branch, specialty or assignment, and experience of an individual is not an adequate basis for this award. For service not related to actual war the term "key individual" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war and requires evidence of significant achievement. In peacetime, service should be in the nature of a special requirement or of an extremely difficult duty performed in an unprecedented and clearly exceptional manner. However, the award may be justified by exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of important positions.


Degrees

Members of the United States military receive the Legion of Merit medal which is issued without degree. However, when bestowing the Legion of Merit upon members of foreign militaries or governments, the Legion of Merit is issued in the following degrees:

  • Chief Commander - Chief of State or Head of Government
  • Commander - Equivalent of a U.S. military Chief of Staff or higher position but not to Chief of State.
  • Officer - General or Flag Officer below the equivalent of a U.S. military Chief of Staff; also a Colonel or equivalent rank for service in assignments equivalent to those normally held by a General or Flag Officer in U.S. military service or Military Attaches.
  • Legionnaire - All recipients not included above

The degrees and the design of the decoration were clearly influenced by the French Légion d'honneur. Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


History

Although recommendations for creation of a Meritorious Service Medal were initiated as early as September 1937, no formal action was taken toward approval. In a letter to the Quartermaster General (QMG) dated December 24, 1941, the Adjutant General formally requested action be initiated to create a Meritorious Service Medal and provide designs in the event the decoration was established. Proposed designs prepared by Bailey, Banks, and Biddle and the Office of the Quartermaster General were provided to Assistant Chief of Staff G1 (Colonel Heard) by the QMG on January 5, 1942. The Assistant Chief of Staff G1 (BG Hilldring), in a response to the QMG on April 3, 1942, indicated the Secretary of War approved the design recommended by the QMG and directed action be taken to assure that the design of the Legion of Merit (change of name) would be ready for issue immediately after legislation authorizing it was enacted into law. The Meritorious Service Medal is a military award presented to members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguished themselves by outstanding non-combat meritorious achievement or service to the United States subsequent to January 16, 1969. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


An Act of Congress (Public Law 671 - 77th Congress, Chapter 508, 2d Session) on July 20, 1942, established the Legion of Merit and provided that the medal "shall have suitable appurtenances and devices and not more than four degrees, and which the President, under such rules and regulations as he shall prescribe, may award to (a) personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States and of the Government of the Commonwealth Philippines and (b) personnel of the armed forces of friendly foreign nations who, since the proclamation of an emergency by the President on 8 September 1939, shall have distinguished themselves by exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services." The medal was announced in War Department Bulletin No. 40, dated August 5, 1942. Executive Order 9260, dated October 29, 1942, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, established the rules for the Legion of Merit and required the President's approval for the award. However, in 1943, at the request of General George C. Marshall, approval authority for U.S. personnel was delegated to the War Department. Executive Order 10600, dated March 15, 1955, by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, revised approval authority. Current provisions are contained in Title 10, United States Code 1121. July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... FDR redirects here. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (also known as Ike) (born David Dwight Eisenhower on October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ...


Notable recipients

The Legion of Merit was the first American decoration awarded to citizens of other nations.


Awardees included:

  • Officer:
    • First recipients were Colonel Johanes K. Meijer of the Royal Netherlands Army, Major Herbert J. Thompson of the British Army, and Major Stephan M. Dobrowalski of the Polish Army.
    • In 1996 LGen Roméo Dallaire of the Canadian Army was made an Officer of the Legion for his role as Commander of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the civil war and subsequent genocide.
    • At the beginning of the North African campaign, General Lyman L. Lemnitzer accompanied General Mark Wayne Clark by submarine to North Africa. Upon arrival, about 60 officers were awarded the Legion of Merit and were among the first awarded the medal. By some misunderstanding as to the rules governing the awards, these 60 American officers were awarded the degree of Officer. According to Lemnitzer, President Roosevelt was quite annoyed but did not rescind the awards. These were the only U.S. officers awarded the Legion of Merit with a degree.
    • Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy Head of the Royal Air Force, for his part in operation Telic/ Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  • Legionnaire/Legion of Merit:

General Hilmi Özkök (born 1940) is the current Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of Turkey (Turk Silahli Kuvvetleri, TSK). ... General Yaşar Büyükanıt Shoulder badge of rank Chief of the Turkish General Staff General Mehmet Yaşar Büyükanıt [1] is the 25th and current Chief of the Turkish General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa The first Indian Chief of Staff, Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa led the Indian forces on the Western Front during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947. ... Dragoljub Drazha Mihailovich (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also Čiča, Draža Mihailović), (April 26, 1893 – July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who led the Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland, also referred to as Chetniks during World War II. Mihailović was tried and executed by the Yugoslav Government because he was a... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Paco Moncayo Gallegos was born in Quito in 1940, he is a retired General of the Army of the Ecuadorian Army and a very important politician of Ecuador. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Fidel V. Ramos Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928), military hero of the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, became the 12th President of the Republic of the Philippines on June 30, 1992. ... General Peter Cosgrove AC, MC General Peter John Cosgrove AC MC CNZM (born 28 July 1947) was an Australian general. ... Sir Phillip Harvey Bennett, AC, KBE, DSO (27 December 1928) was the Governor of Tasmania from 1987 to 1995. ... John de Chastelain General Alfred John Gardyne Drummond de Chastelain, OC, CMM, CD, CH, LL.D., BA (born July 30, 1937) is a retired Canadian soldier and diplomat. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of 16 sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) (French: le Chef détat-major de la défense) is the senior member of the Canadian Forces and reports directly to the Minister of National Defence. ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (Fr: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the combined branches of the military of Canada. ... A chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ... When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... Stefan Paweł Rowecki (pseudonym: Grot, hence called Stefan Grot-Rowecki, 1895-1944?) was a Polish general, journalist and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Posthumous means after death. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Władysław Anders Lt. ... Polish II Corps Insignia. ... The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht) is the land forces element of the Military of the Netherlands. ... Roméo Dallaire Lieutenant-General Roméo Alain Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, MSC, CD, B.Sc, LL.D (University of Saskatchewan(Granting: 2007) (h. ... Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LF) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... UN Peacekeepers in Eritrea. ... Lyman Lemnitzer Lyman L. Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 - November 12, 1988) was an American general. ... Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was an American general during World War II and the Korean War. ... An Air Chief Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Chief Marshal is the most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force (RAF) today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts of the 1990s. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bataan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Balanga City Founded: —1754 Population: 2000 census—557,659 (46th largest) Density—406 per km² (12th highest) Area: 1,373. ... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ... David H. Hackworth (November 11, 1930 – May 4, 2005) known affectionately as Hack, was a retired United States Army colonel and prominent military journalist. ... The Silver Star is the fifth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Armed Forces, and the third highest given for valor (in the face of the enemy). ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army which is awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... Hyman G. Rickover (1955) Admiral Hyman George Rickover, U.S. Navy, (January 27, 1900 – July 8, 1986) was known as the Father of the Nuclear Navy, which as of November 2005 had produced 199 nuclear-powered submarines, and 19 nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and cruisers, though many of these U... Admiral Michael G. Mullen (born October 4, 1946) became the 28th Chief of Naval Operations of the United States Navy, relieving Admiral Vern Clark on 22 July 2005. ... Edward Latimer Beach, Jr. ... For other uses, see Triton. ... To circumnavigate a place, such as an island, a continent, or the Earth, is to travel all the way around it by boat or ship. ... Edwin Hubble Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer, noted for his discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way and the cosmological redshift. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army proving ground located in Harford County, Maryland at Aberdeen, Maryland. ... --> USS (FFG-58) is one of the final vessels in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... Captain William C. Rogers III of the United States Navy, a native of San Diego County, California, was the captain of USS Vincennes, a guided missile cruiser with the Aegis Combat System. ... The fourth USS Vincennes (CG-49) is a U.S. Navy Ticonderoga class AEGIS guided missile cruiser. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai. ...

Appearance

Chief Commander Commander Officer Legionnaire
Ribbon

The Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit Medal is, on a wreath of green laurel joined at the bottom by a gold bow-knot (rosette), a domed five-pointed white star bordered crimson, points reversed with v-shaped extremities tipped with a gold ball. In the center, a blue disk encircled by gold clouds, with 13 white stars arranged in the pattern that appears on the United States Coat of Arms. Between each point, within the wreath are crossed arrows pointing outwards. The overall width is 2 15/16 inches (75 mm). The words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" are engraved in the center of the reverse. A miniature of the decoration in gold on a horizontal gold bar is worn on the service ribbon. File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Legion of Merit Categories: United States government images ...


The Commander of the Legion of Merit Medal is, on a wreath of green laurel joined at the bottom by a gold bow-knot (rosette), a five-pointed white star bordered crimson, points reversed with v-shaped extremities tipped with a gold ball. In the center, a blue disk encircled by gold clouds, with 13 white stars arranged in the pattern that appears on the United States Coat of Arms. Between each star point, within the wreath, are crossed arrows pointing outwards. The overall width is 2¼ inches (57 mm). A gold laurel wreath in the v-shaped angle at the top connects an oval suspension ring to the neck ribbon that is 1 15/16 inches (49 mm) in width. The reverse of the five-pointed star is enameled in white, and the border is crimson. In the center, a disk for engraving the name of the recipient surrounded by the words "ANNUIT COEPTIS MDCCLXXXII." An outer scroll contains the words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA." The service ribbon is the same as the ribbon for the degree of Commander, except the ribbon attachment is Silver.


The neck ribbon for the degree of Commander is 1 15/16 inches (49 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1/16 inch (2 mm) white 67101; center 1 13/16 inches (46 mm) crimson and 1/16 inch (2 mm) white.


The Officer of the Legion of Merit Medal is similar to the degree of Commander except the overall width is 1 7/8 inches (48 mm) and the pendant has a suspension ring instead of the wreath for attaching the ribbon. A gold replica of the medal, ¾ inch (19 mm) wide, is centered on the suspension ribbon.


The Legionnaire of the Legion of Merit Medal and the Legion of Merit Medal issued to U.S. personnel is the same as the degree of Officer, except the suspension ribbon does not have the medal replica.


The ribbon for all of the decorations is 1 3/8 inches (35 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1/16 inch (2 mm) white; center 1¼ inches (32 mm) crimson; and 1/16 inch (2 mm) white. The reverse of all of the medals has the motto taken from the Great Seal of the United States "ANNUIT COEPTIS" (He (God) Has Favored Our Undertakings) and the date "MDCCLXXXII" (1782), which is the date of America's first decoration, the Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart. The ribbon design also follows the pattern of the Purple Heart ribbon. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Badge of Military Merit is considered to be the first official military combat badge of the United States Armed Forces. ... For the plant genus, see Purpleheart. ...


References

  1. ^ Legion of Merit. Awards. Institute of Heraldry. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  2. ^ Types of the Medal of Honor: 1862 To Present. Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved on 23 Jul 2006.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Legion of Merit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1667 words)
The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.
The Officer of the Legion of Merit Medal is similar to the degree of Commander except the overall width is 1 7/8 inches (48 mm) and the pendant has a suspension ring instead of the wreath for attaching the ribbon.
The Legionnaire of the Legion of Merit Medal and the Legion of Merit Medal issued to U.S. personnel is the same as the degree of Officer, except the suspension ribbon does not have the medal replica.
Legion of Merit (902 words)
The Legion of Merit is awarded to members of the Armed Forces of the United States without degree for exceptionally outstanding conduct in the performance of meritorious service to the United States.
The first American recipient of the Legion of Merit was Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Ann Agnes Bernatitus, USN, whose award was approved on October 14, 1942 based on her service as a nurse during the campaign in the Manila-Bataan Peninsula areas from December of 1941 to April of 1942.
The first foreign recipient of the Legion of Merit in the grade of Legionnaire was Lieutenant de Vaisseau A. Bergeret of the Free French Navy and commander of the Corvette Roselys, whose award was approved on October 27, 1942.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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