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Encyclopedia > Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis

Position of Roman legions in 80. X Fretensis was in Jerusalem (mark 23).
Active 41 BC to after 410
Country Roman Empire
Type Roman legion (Marian)
Garrison/HQ Iudaea (20s BC)
Syria (c. 6-66)
Jerusalem (73-4th century)
Aila (4th century-after 410s)
Nickname Fretensis, "of the sea strait"
Mascot Bull, ship, Neptune, boar
Battles/wars Battle of Naulochus (36 BC)
Battle of Actium (31 BC)
Corbulo Parthian campaign
First Jewish-Roman War (6673)
Siege of Masada (72-73)
Trajan Parthian campaign
Bar Kokhba's revolt (132-135)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo
Vespasian (campaign)
Titus
Lucilius Bassus
Trajan (campaign)
Sextus Julius Severus

Legio X Fretensis (Latin: "Tenth legion of the sea strait") was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic. X Fretensis is recorded to exist at least until 410s. Image File history File links Roman_Legions_camps_-_AD_80. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... September 22 - Emperor Nero creates the legion I Italica Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... The Romans capture Masada, one of the last battles of the First Jewish-Roman War. ... Ayra the Isaacian swordfighter (official artwork) Ayra as Swordmaster (from Fire Emblem Trading Card Game). ... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 360s - 370s _ 380s - 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s 460s Years: 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 Events: Sack of Rome by the Visigoths under Alaric Britain lost to the Roman Empire Categories: 410s ... For other uses of the word Taurus see Taurus. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... The naval Battle of Naulochus was fought on 3 September 36 BC between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, near Naulochus, Sicily. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... September 22 - Emperor Nero creates the legion I Italica Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire. ... The Romans capture Masada, one of the last battles of the First Jewish-Roman War. ... Combatants Jewish Zealots Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown, if any Masada (a romanization of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on... For other uses, see number 72. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... Events The messianic, charismatic leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Sextus Julius Severus was an accomplished Roman general of the 2nd century AD. He was consul in 127 and then served as governor of Moesia; he was appointed governor of Roman Britain around AD 131. ... The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 360s - 370s _ 380s - 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s 460s Years: 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 Events: Sack of Rome by the Visigoths under Alaric Britain lost to the Roman Empire Categories: 410s ...


X Fretensis symbols were the bull, the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia), a ship (probably a reference to the battles of Naulochus and/or Actium), the god Neptune, and a boar. The symbol of Taurus may also mean that it was organized between 20 April and 20 May. For other uses of the word Taurus see Taurus. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... Julius (fem. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ...

Contents

History

Civil wars of the Republic and early Empire

Octavian, later known as Augustus, levied a legion and gave it the number ten, as a reference to Julius Caesar's famous Tenth Legion. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Legio X Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. ...


In 36 BC, the Tenth Legion fought under Octavian against Sextus Pompeius in the Battle of Naulochus, where it earned its cognomen Fretensis. The name refers to the fact that the battle took place near the sea Strait of Messina (Fretum Siculum). Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... The naval Battle of Naulochus was fought on 3 September 36 BC between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, near Naulochus, Sicily. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ...


In 31 BC, it fought in the Battle of Actium against Mark Antony. Although Actium was a battle at sea, the legion was able to board enemy ships that had been hooked close by means of an iron grapnel. Its key participation in this battle is probably the reason that the legion also used a trireme as one of its symbols. Actium marked the end of the civil war and the rise to power of Octavian, who was proclaimed Augustus some years later. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC–August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... A grapple is a hook or claw used to catch or hold something. ... A Greek trireme Triremes (Greek Τριήρεις) are several different types of ancient warships. ...


Tiles found in Caesarea Maritima, built in the second decade BC, suggest that the legion was at that time based in Iudaea. Later X Fretensis moved to Syria. In 6 it was stationed in that province together with legions III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and XII Fulminata. In the same year, Publius Sulpicius Quirinus, governor of Syria, led these legions in the suppression of the revolt that sprung out after the killing of Herod Archelaus. Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... Legio III Gallica was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar around 49 BC, for his civil war against the conservative republicans led by Pompey. ... Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) was a Roman legion. ... Legio XII Fulminata, also known as Paterna or Antiqua, was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and accompanied him during the Gallic wars until 49 BC. They were stationed in Pharsalus in 48 BC and probably fought in the Battle of Pharsalus. ... The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius. ... Herod Archelaus (23 BC–c. ...


Under Nero, in 58, X Fretensis participated in the campaign of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo against the Parthians. Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


First Jewish-Roman War

Ruins of the city of Gamala, conquered by X Fretensis in 68.
Ruins of the city of Gamala, conquered by X Fretensis in 68.

X Fretensis was centrally involved in the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73), under the supreme command of Vespasian. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1783 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gamla Legio X Fretensis User:Amoruso Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1783 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gamla Legio X Fretensis User:Amoruso Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Ruins of the city of Gamla The remains of the city of Gamla lies on the Golan Heights. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


In 66, the X Fretensis and V Macedonica went to Alexandria for an invasion of Ethiopia planned by Nero. However, the two legions were needed in Iudaea to suppress a revolt. After spending the winter in Ptolemais Ace (modern Acre, Israel), X Fretensis and V Macedonica relocated in the coastal city of Caesarea Maritima (67/68). This was due to the large number of legions being mobilized in Ptolemais, under Marcus Ulpius Traianus, future governor of Syria and father of the emperor Trajan. During that same winter, the Caesarea camp of Xth and Vth hosted Vespasian, who was forced the following year, to go to Rome to seize power. Vespasian's son, Titus ended the suppression of the revolt. September 22 - Emperor Nero creates the legion I Italica Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire. ... This coin was issued by Roman emperor Gallienus to celebrate the V Macedonica, whose symbol, the eagle, is crowned of wrath by Victoria. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... The city of Acre [1] is in the Western Galilee district in northern Israel. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Marcus Ulpius Traianus Major (Major in Latin for the elder) was the father of the emperor Trajan. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... The Year of the Four Emperors refers to the year 69 AD, the four emperors being Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ...


When Tarichacae and Gamala were conquered, the X Fretensis moved to Scythopolis (modern Bet She'an), just west of Jordan River. In the summer of 68, X Fretensis destroyed the monastery of Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls are believed to have originated. Its winter camp was at Jericho. Ruins of the city of Gamla The remains of the city of Gamla lies on the Golan Heights. ... Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Bet Shean (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... The current version of the article or section is written like an essay. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet 2005- Entering Jericho from the South. ...

Herodium one of the fortresses of the Jewish revolt conquered by the X Fretensis.
Herodium one of the fortresses of the Jewish revolt conquered by the X Fretensis.

By 70, the rebellion in all of Iudaea had been crushed, except for Jerusalem and a few fortresses, including Masada. In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the siege of Jerusalem, stronghold of the rebellion. The Xth camped on the Mount of Olives. During the siege, Legio X gained fame in the effective use of their various war machines. It was noted that they were able to hurl stones that weighted a talent (about 25 kg) a distance of two furlongs (400 m) or further. The projectiles of their ballistae caused heavy damage to the ramparts. The siege of Jerusalem lasted five months and the besieged population experienced all the terrible rigors of starvation. Finally, the combined assaults of the legions succeeded in taking the city, which was then subjected to destruction. Image File history File linksMetadata Herodium_from_above. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Herodium_from_above. ... Herodium or Herodion is a hill shaped like a truncated cone (758 m. ... Combatants Jewish Zealots Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown, if any Masada (a romanization of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on... Legio XV Apollinaris (devoted to Apollo) was a Roman legion. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistÄ“s, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing a several loops of twisted skeins to power it using torsion rather than a prod. ... The Destruction of Jerusalem (specifically, the Second Destruction of Jerusalem) was the culmination of the successful campaign of Titus Flavius against Judea after an unsuccessful attack four years prior by Cestius Gallus. ...

The remains of the camp of X Fretensis at the siege of Masada.
The remains of the camp of X Fretensis at the siege of Masada.

During the spring of 71, Titus set sail for Rome. A new military governor was then appointed from Rome, Lucilius Bassus, whose assigned task was to undertake the "mopping-up" operations in Iudaea. Naturally, he used X Fretensis to oppose the few remaining fortresses that still resisted. As part of this, X Fretensis took Herodium, and then crossed the Jordan to capture the fortress of Machaerus on the shore of the Dead Sea. Due to illness, Bassus did not live to complete his mission. Lucius Flavius Silva replaced him, and moved against the last Jewish stronghold, Masada, in the autumn of 72. He used Legio X, auxiliary troops, and thousands of Jewish prisoners. After his orders for surrender were rejected, Silva established several base camps and a wall of circumvolution completely around the fortress. When the Romans finally broke through the walls of this citadel, they discovered that the Jewish defenders had chosen death with a mass suicide. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2049x1301, 318 KB) en:: Description: Massada, Israel, Roman Fort Author: Matthias Kabel, Foto taken himself, upload to German wikipedia 28. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2049x1301, 318 KB) en:: Description: Massada, Israel, Roman Fort Author: Matthias Kabel, Foto taken himself, upload to German wikipedia 28. ... Combatants Jewish Zealots Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown, if any Masada (a romanization of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 66 67 68 69 70 - 71 - 72 73 74 75 76 Events The Romans establish a fortress at York (Eboracum), as a base for their northern forces. ... Herodium or Herodion is a hill shaped like a truncated cone (758 m. ... Machaerus is a fortress fifteen miles southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river, in the wild and desolate hills that overlook the Dead Sea from the east. ... Lucius Flavius Silva was the commander of the Roman 10th legion in 73 AD. He led his army up to Masada. ... For other uses, see number 72. ...


After the conclusion of the Jewish revolt, Legio X was garrisoned at Jerusalem. Their main camp was positioned on the Western Hill, located in the southern half of the old city, now leveled of all former buildings. The camp of the Tenth was built using the surviving portions of the walls of Herod the Great's palace, demolished by order of Titus. The camp was at the end of the cardo maximus of Aelia Capitolia.[1] Hordos (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ...


At the time, Legio X was the sole legion assigned to maintain the peace in Iudaea, and was directly under the command of the governor of the province, who was also legatus of the legion.[2] A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ...


Second Jewish-Roman War

After participating to Trajan Parthian campaign, Fretensis was caught in the Bar Kokhba's revolt (132-135). This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ...


The revolt, originated with the decision of Emperor Hadrian to build a Pagan temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem. Simon Bar Kokhba started a revolt that occupied Jerusalem and inflicted many casualties to the Romans. The war ended when the Roman army — which included Fretensis many other and Danubian troops under the command of Sextus Julius Severus — reconquered Jerusalem and successfully besieged the last Jewish stronghold, the fortress of Betar. Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Sextus Julius Severus was an accomplished Roman general of the 2nd century AD. He was consul in 127 and then served as governor of Moesia; he was appointed governor of Roman Britain around AD 131. ... Betar was the last standing Jewish fortress in the Bar Kochba revolt of the 2nd century CE, destroyed by the Roman army on Tisha Bav. ...


As a consequence of the unrest in the region, Fretensis was supported by a second legion, VI Ferrata, which camped in Lejjun. Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) was a Roman legion. ...


Later history

A vexillatio of Fretensis fought in the Marcomannic campaign of Marcus Aurelius. A Vexillatio was a detachment of a Roman legion usually consisting of about 1000 infantry and/or 500 cavalry. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ...


In 193, the legion supported Pescennius Niger against Septimius Severus, and was possibly involved in a local struggle between Jews and Samaritans. The legion was still in Jerusalem at the time of Caracalla or Elagabalus. Pescennius Niger as emperor. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... A bust depicting Elagabalus. ...


Under Gallienus, Fretensis was employed in the war against the Gallic Empire. Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... The Gallic Empire (in Latin, imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that lived a brief existence during the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274. ...


The legion moved to Aila (close to modern Aqaba),[3] probably during Diocletian reforms, and is recorded as still camping there at the time of redaction of Notitia Dignitatum, in 410s, when it is reported under the Dux Palaestinae.[4] Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( 245– 312), born Diocles (Greek Διοκλής) and known in English as Diocletian,[1] was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries. ... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 360s - 370s _ 380s - 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s 460s Years: 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 Events: Sack of Rome by the Visigoths under Alaric Britain lost to the Roman Empire Categories: 410s ... The Misspeling of Ducks ...


Archeology

A Latin inscription of the end of the 2nd century, found in the church of Abu Ghosh (at 15 km west of Jerusalem) marks the presence of a vexillatio (detachment) of X Fretensis: The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Abu Ghosh is an Arab village west of Jerusalem on the road to Tel Aviv whose inhabitants were known for their friendly relations with their Jewish neighbors. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... A Vexillatio was a detachment of a Roman legion usually consisting of about 1000 infantry and/or 500 cavalry. ...

VEXILLATIO
LEG X FRE

Some fragments bearing the "L.X.F" mark of the Legio X Fretensis are present at the Tower of David in Jerusalem. Roman Law required all pottery to bear the maker's stamp, and the Legion pottery works just to the West of Jerusalem were obviously no exception. A huge production of pottery bearing the marks of the Legio X Fretensis has been discovered in Jerusalem.[5] Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Pace, H. Geva, "The Camp of the Tenth Legion in Jerusalem: An Archaeological Reconsideration", IEJ 34 (1984), pp. 247-249.
  2. ^ leg(atus) Aug(usti) leg(ionis) X Fret(ensis) et leg(atus) pr(o) pr(aetore) [pr]ovinciae Iudaeae, CIL III 12117. See also X 6321.
  3. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Onomasticon.
  4. ^ "praefectus legionis decimae Fretensis, Ailae", Notitia dignitatum in partibus orientis, XXXIV 30.
  5. ^ Arubas, B., and H. Goldfus, "The Kilnworks of the Tenth Legion Fretensis", in J. H. Humphrey (ed.) The Roman and Byzantine Near East: Some Recent Archeological Research, Journal of Roman Archeology, Supplementay Series Number 14.

Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...

See also

This is a list of Roman legions. ... The Destruction of Jerusalem (specifically, the Second Destruction of Jerusalem) was the culmination of the successful campaign of Titus Flavius against Judea after an unsuccessful attack four years prior by Cestius Gallus. ... Combatants Jewish Zealots Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown, if any Masada (a romanization of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ...

References

  • Ritterling's "Legio X Fretensis"
  • Lendering, Jona, "Legio X Fretensis", livius.org

External links


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Legio X Fretensis (1458 words)
Legio X Fretensis: one of the Roman legions.
Patras was colonized by veterans of X Fretensis and XII Fulminata.
In the summer of 68, X Fretensis was active in the valley of the river Jordan and destroyed the monastery of Qumran, where the Dead See-scrolls have been found.
Legio X Fretensis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1418 words)
Legio X Fretensis (Latin: "Tenth legion of the sea strait") was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic.
X Fretensis symbols were the bull, the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia), a ship (probably a reference to the battles of Naulochus and/or Actium), the god Neptune, and a boar.
The remains of the camp of X Fretensis at the siege of Masada.
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