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Encyclopedia > Legality of cannabis

Since the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation or a fine, rather than imprisonment. Punishment focuses more on those who traffic and sell the drug on the black market. Some jurisdictions/drug courts use mandatory treatment programs for young or frequent users with freedom from "narcotic" drugs as goal and zero tolerance for any use or possession. The risk for spread of the habit from users to new users is seen as one of the reasons for the zero tolerance. A few jurisdictions permit cannabis use for medicinal purposes. There are also changes in a more restrictive direction as in Canada, Denmark or Netherlands and drug tests, more or less mandatory, are more common than before in many countries. Some countries allow the sale through drug companies.[citation needed] However, simple possession can carry long jail sentences in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Confiscation, from the Latin confiscato join to the fiscus, i. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Trafficking is a term to describe a transnational illegal activity, involving transporting, usually smuggling drugs, transporting small arms or people. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... Drug courts are specialized courts designed to handle cases involving offenders who abuse addictive substances. ... Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ... For the episode of the American television series The Office, see Drug Testing. A drug test is commonly a technical examination of urine, semen, blood, sweat, or oral fluid samples to determine the presence or absence of specified drugs or their metabolized traces. ... This article is about the geographical region. ...

Contents

History

Propaganda used by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics in the late 1930s and 1940s.
Propaganda used by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics in the late 1930s and 1940s.

Under the name cannabis, 19th century medical practitioners sold the drug, (usually as a tincture) popularizing the word amongst English-speakers. It was rumored that Queen Victoria's menstrual pains were treated with cannabis, because her personal physician, Sir John Russell Reynolds, wrote an article in the first edition of the medical journal The Lancet about the benefits of cannabis.[1] Cannabis users included nineteenth century literary figures Robert Louis Stevenson, [2] and Le Club des Hashishins members Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas[3], Charles Baudelaire and Eugene Delacroix. Image File history File links Killerdrug. ... Image File history File links Killerdrug. ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ...


Cannabis was also openly available from shops in the US. The 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago included a Turkish booth complete with hashish smoking and authors like Louisa May Alcott included hashish encounters in their stories.[4] Eli Lilly and Company and others sold cannabis tinctures over the counter for a variety of maladies. By the end of the 19th century, its medicinal use began to fall as other drugs like aspirin took over its use as a pain reliever. One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... Louisa May Alcott (November 29, 1832 – March 6, 1888) was an American novelist. ... Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) is a global pharmaceutical company and one of the worlds largest corporations. ... This article is about the drug. ...


In 1894, the Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission commissioned by the UK Secretary of State and the government of India, was instrumental in the decision not to criminalize the drug in those countries.[5] From 1906 different states in the United States started to implement regulations for sales of Cannabis indica. In 1925 a change of the International Opium Convention [6] banned exportation of Indian hemp to countries that have prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes." Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


In 1937 the F.D. Roosevelt administration crafted 1937 Marihuana Tax Act the first national US law making cannabis possession illegal in the US via an unpayable tax on the drug. Hollywood supported that effort with the release of "misinformation documentaries" such as the iconical "Reefer Madness" (1937) and Nathanael West wrote about it in his Hollywood novel, The Day of the Locust.[7] There was of course also misinformation in the other direction describing cannabis as totally harmless. In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of cannabis. ... Reefer Madness is a 1936 drama film revolving around the tragic events that follow when high school students are lured by pushers to try marihuana: a hit and run accident, manslaughter, suicide, rape, and descent into madness all ensue. ... Nathanael West (October 17, 1903 – December 22, 1940) was the pen name of US author, screenwriter and satirist Nathan Wallenstein Weinstein. ... The Day of the Locust is a 1939 novel by American author Nathanael West, set in Hollywood, California during the Great Depression, depicting the alienation and desperation of a disparate group of individuals whose dreams of success have effectively failed. ...


The name marijuana (Mexican Spanish marihuana, mariguana) is associated almost exclusively with the plant's psychoactive use. The term is now well known in English largely due to the efforts of American drug prohibitionists during the 1920s and 1930s, which deliberately used a Mexican name for cannabis in order to turn the populace against the idea that it should be legal, playing upon attitudes towards the nationality. (See 1937 Marihuana Tax Act). Those who demonized the drug by calling it marihuana omitted the fact that the "deadly marihuana" was identical to cannabis indica, which had at the time a reputation for pharmaceutical safety.[8] It must however be noted that cannabis indica in the 1930s had lost most of its former popularity as a medical drug.[9], This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Mexican may have several meanings. ... In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of cannabis. ...


Although cannabis has been used for its psychoactive effects since ancient times, it first became well known in the United States during the jazz music scene of the late 1920s and 1930s. Louis Armstrong became a prominent and life-long devotee.[10] Bing Crosby[11], Gene Krupa[12], Anita O'Day[13], and other jazz stars were "vipers", as written about by Mezz Mezzrow in Really the Blues[14]. It was popular in the blues scene as well. In 1948 film star Robert Mitchum[15] was arrested for marijuana and served time in jail. Embraced by Beat generation writers like Alan Ginsberg[16], it eventually became a prominent part of the 1960s counterculture and human rights movements, used by Bob Dylan[17], John Lennon[18], Paul McCartney[19] and even John Denver[20]. Anthropologist Margaret Mead testified before Congress advocating marijuana legalization in 1969 and admitted she'd tried it herself. [21] For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Harry Lillis “Bing” Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American popular singer and Academy Award-winning actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Gene Krupa (January 15, 1909 – October 16, 1973) was a famous and influential American jazz and big band drummer, known for his highly energetic and flamboyant style. ... Anita ODay (October 18, 1919 – November 23, 2006) was an American jazz singer. ... Milton Mesirow, much better known as Mezz Mezzrow (9 November 1899 - 5 August 1972) was an American Jewish jazz clarinetist and saxophonist from Chicago, Illinois. ... Robert Charles Durman Mitchum (August 6, 1917 – July 1, 1997) was an Academy award nominated American film actor and singer. ... Beats redirects here. ... Allen Ginsberg in San Francisco. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, poet, entrepreneur, painter, record producer, film producer, and animal-rights activist. ... John Denver (December 31, 1943 â€“ October 12, 1997), born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ...


Some advocate legalization of marijuana, believing that it will reduce illegal trade & associated crime and yield a valuable tax-source. Marijuana is now available as a palliative agent, in Canada, with a medical prescription. Yet 86% of Canadians with HIV/AIDS, eligible for a prescription, continue to obtain marijuana illegally (AIDS Care. 2007 Apr;19(4):500-6.)


Current status

See also: Legal and medical status of cannabis, Drug prohibition, and Drug liberalization
A large scale anti-prohibition demonstration in Vancouver, Canada, on April 20, 2005.
A large scale anti-prohibition demonstration in Vancouver, Canada, on April 20, 2005.

Most if not all countries have laws regarding the cultivation, possession, supply or use of cannabis. Non-psychoactive cannabis products (e.g. fibre and seed) are legal in many countries, and these countries may license cultivation for these purposes. The herb is a controlled substance in most, though its use is condoned in some locales for medicinal purposes. In some countries, cannabis drug material is legal for personal use. In the example of Portugal, restrictions apply to its sale, distribution or consumption, and amount one is legally allowed to possess is limited to 25 grams. In many countries the consumption of cannabis is legal although it is illegal to possess, sell or distribute it or allow others to consume it on one's property. If the amount of cannabis a person possessed is considered as "minor", charges may be dropped. In the U.S.A (nationwide, in 2004) a person is arrested on "marijuana charges" every 42 seconds, on average [22]. Most other countries have very strict laws against the possession or consumption of cannabis. World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing drug prohibition laws. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 420_9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 420_9. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Cannabis sativa extract. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


At a 1925 conference to amend the International Opium Convention[23], Egypt and other nations complained of abuse problems with hashish and proposed requiring Parties to prohibit non-medical, non-scientific use of the drug. India and others, citing traditional uses of the drug and its prevalence as a wild-growing plant, objected to the measure. A compromise was made that banned exportation of Indian hemp to countries that have prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes". [24]. The word Indian hemp was used so that trade with fiber and similar products from traditional European hemp was excluded from the convention. European hemp was considered as almost useless for use as a drug due to tradition and low narcotic effect. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ...


By Country

Australia

In the Australian Capital Territory, possession of up to 25 grams, or two plants, is not a criminal offence but carries a $100 fine.[citation needed] In South Australia possession of small quantities of cannabis is decriminalised attracting fines similar to a parking ticket. However, penalties for cultivation of marijuana have become harsher since the widespread advent of large scale indoor crops in South Australia.[25] There is much confusion on the subject, with many people believing that possession of a certain amount is legal. In Western Australia, possession of up to two plants is accepted for private use, excess of the latter can face fines of over $150. In New South Wales and Tasmania, cannabis use is illegal and attracts fines. In Queensland it is a criminal offence to be in possession of any amount of cannabis, people charged must face court and can be convicted. Possession of cannabis or any schedule 1 or 2 drug specified in the Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987 carries a maximum prison sentence of 15 years in Queensland, however jail terms for minor possessions are very rare. Possession of smoking utensils or anything used to smoke cannabis is also a criminal offence in Queensland. Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... NSW redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


Bangladesh

Cannabis has grown throughout the Bengal region, which is currently split between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. In both parts of Bengal, cannabis (Bengali language: গাঁজা gãja or গাঞ্জা ganja) has been widely used for centuries. Cannabis was banned in Northern Bangladesh in 1984.[26] For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Bangla redirects here. ...


Belgium

Individual use by adults has the lowest priority to police and government instances, if the use doesn't cause any problems to his environment. Which basically means the use on public places, possession of more than 3 grams, or the sale are pursued in court. Furthermore the use in the presence of minors is strictly forbidden. The cultivation of one feminine cannabis plant for personal use is decriminalized.


Canada

  • A July 13, 2007 decision in Ontario Provincial court has ruled that criminal possession laws for cannabis are unconstitutional (R. v. Long). However, Toronto police spokesman Mark Pugash said that nothing will change about how the police deal with marijuana possession for the time being. [27]
  • Possession of cannabis is legal in Canada according to Justice Edmonson of the Ontario Court of Justice in R. v. Bodnar/Hall/Spasic - "there is no offence known to law which the accused have committed." [28] [29]
  • However, the federal prosecution service is attempting to enforce an unconstitutional law. [30]
  • In 2003 nearly 30 per cent of teens in Ontario, accounting for approximately 286,000 Ontario high school students. The marijuana party will have voters once the next generation is old enoughhttp://www.fims.uwo.ca/newmedia2005/default.asp?id=125

In October 2007, Prime Minister Harper announced a new National Anti-Drug Strategy. A proposed Bill would have dealers facing one-year mandatory prison sentences if they’re operating for organized crime purposes, or if violence is involved. Dealers would also face a two-year mandatory jail sentence if they’re selling to youth, or dealing drugs near a school or an area normally frequented by youth. Additionally, people in Canada who run a large marijuana grow operation of at least 500 plants would risk facing a mandatory two-year jail term. Maximum penalties for producing cannabis would increase from 7 to 14 years. [31] The cultivation and possession of cannabis is currently illegal in Canada, with exceptions only for medical usage. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Perhaps the biggest proposed policy change is mandatory six-month sentencing for those growing as little as one marijuana plant for the purposes of trafficking. If the Bill passes, this is certain to be felt by small-time distributors who are not linked to the ring of organized crime, and who usually face no more than a fine if caught. [32]


Currently the Conservative Government holds a minority in Parliament, so the Bill would require support of at least one other political party before it can become law. Previous attempts by past Liberal Governments in the late 1990s and early 2000s to decriminalize marijuana for personal use have failed to become law - this is a distinct policy contrast from the current minority Conservatives who aspire to a more US-style 'War on Drugs'.[33] For the Barenaked Ladies song War on Drugs, see Everything to Everyone. ...


Czech Republic

In 1938 production and possession (but not the consumption) of drugs became a punishable crime in Czechoslovakia. The law did not distinguish between different types of drugs. Until the Velvet Revolution (1989) the narcotics were only minor problem in the society. A law from 1992 stopped criminalization of drug possession for personal use. This has changed with a 1998 law when the "possession of more than a small amount of drugs" (the amount was not defined by the law) became criminal offence again. The limits were defined later for internal police use: for marijuana possession of less than about 20 grams was not a crime but the owner could be fined. Consumption was not punishable. Enforcement of the law was spotty and sometimes inconsistent. Non-violent protesters face armed policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government there;[1] it is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989. ...


Young people are the most frequent users of marijuana: a research from 2007 estimated that almost 30% of Czechs under 24 tried it. In 2007 the Supreme Court of the Czech Republic decided a case where it stated that mere cultivation of hemp should not be punishable unless production of drug is proven; a police officer from anti-drug unit said this decision is irrelevant for their work. As of 2007 several initiatives demand either decriminalization of marijuana or creating a more tolerated category of soft drugs. [34]


Finland

Possession, manufacture and use of cannabis products were prohibited by law in Finland in 1972. The parliamentary discussion and the following vote resulted in a stalemate, so the issue was resolved by drawing lots - which resulted in cannabinoid products becoming illegal. In practise, possession or manufacture of cannabis products is considered to be a minor misdemeanor punishable by a minor fine (normally in the range of 120-500 euros). A supreme court decision of 2004 set up a "half a dozen" precedent: Cultivation of up to 6 plants for personal use is subject to the same penalties as personal use. The same applies to distribution and use within a "closed circle of users". However, open distribution is generally punished very severely. Aside from criminal penalties, users are often persecuted by welfare authorities on the pretext of child welfare (if the user has offspring); withdrawal of driving license is also commonplace.


Hong Kong

Cannabis is regulated under section 9 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Cultivation and dealing with cannabis plant is illegal and a fine of $100,000 and to imprisonment for 15 years can be laid by the court. Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be fined $10,000 HKD. The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment. Possession of the substance for consumption without license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 fine and/or 7 years of jail time. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Hong Kong Dollar (ISO 4217: HKD) is the official currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) within the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Ireland

The most recent Misuse of Drugs (Designation) Order (S.I. No. 69/1998) lists cannabis, cannabis resin, cannabinol and its derivatives as Schedule 1 drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Acts of 1977 and 1984. As a consequence manufacture, production, preparation, sale, supply, distribution and possession of cannabis is unlawful for any purpose, except under licence from the Minister for Health. The gardaí (Irish police) have a level of discretion when dealing with recreational cannabis users. To procure a conviction any cannabis seized has to be sent for analysis to the Garda Forensic Science Laboratory. This, along with the time needed to process the arrest, means that individual gardaí may decide not to arrest for small amounts, but the drug will be seized and the name and address of the individual will be taken. Possession of cannabis is an arrestable offence and, in 2003, 53 per cent of all drug seizures and 70 per cent of all drug-related prosecutions were for cannabis. Trafficking or possession with intent to supply are serious offences under Irish law. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... The Irish Misuse of Drugs Act is a drug control law that lumps all controlled substances into one Schedule. ... The Minister for Health and Children is the senior minister at the Department of Health and Children (An Roinn Sláinte agus Leanaí) in the Irish Government and is responsible for health care in the Republic of Ireland and related services. ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ... The Republic of Ireland has a common law legal system with four main sources of law: Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) Legislation Primary Legislation - Acts of the Oireachtas Secondary Legislation - Statutory Instrument Case law European Community Law Historical The state became independent in 1922 as the Irish Free...


Upon being brought to court, the penalties for possession are outlined as follows: This article is about courts in the Republic of Ireland. ...

  • First offence: On summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding €381, or on conviction on indictment, to a fine not exceeding €635.
  • Second offence: On summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding €508, or on conviction on indictment, to a fine not exceeding €1,269.
  • Third or subsequent offence: On summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding €1,269 or, at the discretion of the court, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months, or to both the fine and the imprisonment, or on conviction on indictment, to a fine of such amount as the court considers appropriate or, at the discretion of the court, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or to both the fine and the imprisonment.

There is no law against possession or sale of cannabis seeds, however, the growing cannabis, even for its medicinal benefits by genuine sufferers, is often treated harshly by the courts. Various movements have been founded to legalize the drug, including an attempt at starting a cannabis legalization political party.


Mexico

See Wikinews:Mexico on the verge of decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs


On April 29, 2006, the Congress of Mexico passed a bill decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs intended for recreational use (up to 5g for marijuana).[35] The new bill was hoped to relieve cartel-related crime as well as reduce drug-related arrests. A possibly unintended consequence would have been increased tourism. The move caused many in the US government to question Mexico's commitment to the "War on Drugs." However, President Fox sent the legislation back, asking that the decriminalization be removed. This action showed the U.S. government's influence over the Mexican Government's decisions, [36] sparking broad controversy over the bill.[37][38][39] is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Netherlands

The possession/purchase of Cannabis is "tolerated" in small amounts. One can purchase cannabis in special shops (called "coffee shops") if one is age eighteen and over. Cultivation and wholesale of cannabis is likewise "tolerated" in small amounts (guidelines here are no more than five plants). The tolerance guidelines appear in appendix of the Opium Act. The Opium Act states very clearly that every part of the hemp plant is banned except for the seeds -- this is in accordance with many of the international treaties which the Netherlands have signed. It is for this reason Cannabis cannot be legalised in the Netherlands. Thus, it remains illegal but it is "tolerated." A recent court decision allowed a medical cannabis user to avoid legal prosecution for possession of a small number of cannabis plants; however, the state is appealing the decision.[40] The drug policy of the Netherlands is based on 3 principles: Drug use is a public health issue, not a criminal matter A distinction between hard drugs and soft drugs exists High drug related public expenditure, the highest drug related public expenditure per capita of all countries in EU (139...


By 2009, 27 coffee shops selling cannabis in Rotterdam, Netherlands, all within 200 meters from schools, must close down. This is nearly half of the coffeeshops that currently operate within its municipality. This is due to a new policy of city mayor Ivo Opstelten and the town council as a result of increased use of soft drugs among pupils.[41] [42] Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ...


New Zealand

Possession of any amount of cannabis is illegal in New Zealand and can result in a fine of up to $500 or even a 3-month prison sentence (though the latter is rarely used). Anyone caught in possession of more than 28 grams of cannabis or 100 cannabis joints is classed as a dealer unless s/he can prove they are not. Cannabis is a class C drug in New Zealand, of which the penalty for dealing can result in a maximum prison sentence of 14 years under the New Zealand Misuse Of Drugs Act 1975. There have been many public campaigns to decriminalise Cannabis but so far none have succeeded. It is generally accepted that the usage rate is high and possession in small quantities may not often be prosecuted. In some cases first offences may not always result in convictions.


Two political parties have a clear stance on the liberalisation of cannabis use. The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand has a policy that calls for a legal age limit on usage of 18 years of age, no penalty on it's use for those over 18 years of age, a limit defined in law on growing cannabis for personal use and a ban on commercial cultivation.[43] The Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party advocate legalisation of "cannabis for recreational, spiritual, medicinal and industrial purposes".[44] Wikinews has related news: Greens Party refines Buy Kiwi Made scheme The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... The Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party (sometimes known as the ALCP) is a small political party in New Zealand (Aotearoa). ...


Spain

Personal consumption and home cultivation of cannabis have been decriminalized, but buying or selling remains a criminal offense.


Sweden

Cannabis is not seen as a soft drug. Sweden has a official goal of creating a drug-free society by the means of zero tolerance; any possession or consumption is illegal. Upon suspicion of consumption, police are eligible to arrest and take a drug test, which is seen as a cogent proof of consumption. Police officers are trained with Drug Recognition Expert Training program (DRE) in order to recognize the signs and symptoms as to whether a person has come under the influence of some type of drug.[45] The police make about two million breath tests per year[45], a test for alcohol, and in the same time look for signs of drug use. The punishment for a single small drug use is normally a fine, in some cases it also includes participation in a treatment program or some other type of follow-up by local authorities. There are formalized networks between the Police, the social service, the public health and sick care service.[45] Punishment for driving a car while under the influence of drugs is the loss of your driver's license, and one month or more in prison. If the person is younger than 18, the police or the school must ask permission from the parents before the first drug test. Suspected users of drugs are offered some kind of free drug treatment program, a right supported by law. Cooperation with the treatment program can be mandatory if the user is below 18 or in some cases 20. Under very special circumstances, if the abuse has consequences that poses a serious threat to the life or heath of the addict or it's surroundings (generally only applicable, in the case of cannabis, on chaotic poly drug users with cannabis as dominating drug), a similar law can be used for those above 18 after a court decision or in very acute cases after a decision by the chairman of the social service in the municipality.[46] Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ... For the episode of the American television series The Office, see Drug Testing. A drug test is commonly a technical examination of urine, semen, blood, sweat, or oral fluid samples to determine the presence or absence of specified drugs or their metabolized traces. ... Poly drug use refers to the use two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. ...


The penalty for sale of cannabis is imprisonment, from 6 months to 10 years, 18 years in exceptional cases. In spite of this, Sweden has few citizens in prison for drug offenses or other offenses; the total is 1 in 1400, compare with 1 in 100 in the USA. Many prisons have internal drug treatment programs for prisoners, often inspired by cognitive behavioral therapy. Sweden has fewer users of cannabis and other drugs than many other comparable countries and is reported as a positive example by UNODC[47] A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ...


Cultivation of industrial hemp, cannabis varieties with less than 0.2% THC, is legal if the farmer reports the fields in advance and follow some other restrictions but the cultivated area is small. U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a...


Switzerland

Cannabis is classified as an illegal narcotic in Switzerland.[48] The production, possession, consumption and sale of illegal narcotics, even for personal use, is punishable by a monetary penalty or by imprisonment of up to three years, as are public incitements to the consumption of illegal narcotics.[49]


The enforcement of the prohibition on cannabis is spotty, because around 500'000 Swiss people (or 7% of young people from 15 to 39) are believed to regularly use cannabis.[50] Also, in 1998, some 250 hectares of land were used in Switzerland to grow cannabis,[51] yielding more than 100 tons of narcotics per year.[52] The produce is sold mostly on the street and – under the guise of e.g. "scent bags" – through "cannabis shops" clustered in the urban centers. These shops, of which there were about 135 in 1999 and which authorities believe earn about 85-95% of their income with illegal narcotics,[53] are the target of irregular police crackdowns in some cities, while in others they are tolerated to some degree. Overall, enforcement varies substantially depending on the canton.[54] Some tolerate limited public consumption[55] while others periodically attempt to limit it. In Zürich, for instance, a fine of CHF 50 to 300 for first infractions was the usual practice in 1999.[56] Nationwide, police registered some 27,000 cannabis-related infractions in 1999.[57] A hectare (symbol ha) is a metric unit of surface area, equal to 100 ares (the name is a contraction of the SI prefix hecto + are). ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ...


An attempt to decriminalize possession and consumption of cannabis failed narrowly in Parliament in 2004.[58] As a reaction, a popular initiative that would amend the constitution to decriminalize cannabis has been introduced; it is scheduled for a nationwide referendum in 2008–10.[59] The Federal Assembly in the chamber of the National Council. ... In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizens initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment, or ordinance. ...


Portugal

Personal consumption limit is 2.5g per day of Marijuana and 0.5g per day of Hashish and you can have in your possession not more than 10 daily doses if you don´t want to take the risk of being considered a trafficker. Consumption still has a penalty that may be a fine or other penalty. Cultivation, even if for personal use is still totally illegal and cultivation of even one plant is assumed to indicate involvement with trafficking. Possession of seeds is also illegal and despite there being several Head or Grow Shops in Portugal, they are not allowed to sell seeds. It is also true that the number of Grow Shops has increased over the past few years which seems to indicate that cultivation for personal use (in Portuguese: auto-cultivo) is becoming a more common practice. There is also a forum, named hortadacouve, formed of people who cultivate for personal use.


It is very common in Portugal to see young people smoking in concerts and other party areas. There has also been, in the last decade, a increase of cafés where it is possible to smoke, although it is never an "open" experience, because there is still a lot of intolerance to public consumption of cannabis as a day to day practice.


In the 2006 the Global Marijuana March (Portuguese: Marcha Global da Marijuana) was celebrated for the first time in Lisbon and in 2007 both Lisbon and Porto celebrated it.


Turkey

Cultivation of cannabis is strictly controlled by government in Turkey. Non-drug usage of cannabis is a common practice in Aegean region of Turkey. Cannabis seeds are processed to remove the psychoactive effects, and used as a spice in many different foods, especially in different breads and other bakery. Usage of cannabis as a drug is forbidden in Turkey, but carrying small amounts of cannabis is fined, while drug trafficcing is punished in long term prisonment.


United Kingdom

Cultivation and use of cannabis were outlawed in 1928. Cannabis, in the original Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) was classed as a Class B drug [60], but was downgraded to a Class C drug in January 2004[61]


If a person is caught with just a small amount of cannabis on their person or premises, they may be prosecuted. The person may receive a formal warning and have the drug confiscated. If a person continues to offend, they may end up with a criminal record. Dealing is considered a "very serious" offense, and people who grow cannabis or possess large amounts on their premises may be charged with intent to supply.[62] The maximum penalty for supply is 14 years in prison, or an unlimited fine.[63]


On May 7th 2008, UK Home Secretary Jacqui Smith announced the government’s intention to reclassify Cannabis as a Class B drug.[64]


United States

History

The United States has had a long history of producing and using cannabis. The legal history of marijuana in the United States mainly involves the 20th and 21st centuries. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


Under federal law, it is illegal to possess, use, buy, sell, or cultivate marijuana in 49 of the U.S. states (the exception being Alaska, where you can possess up to 4 oz and numerous plants, and California, which as well now produces medical marijuana, along with 11 other states). The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classifies marijuana as a Schedule I drug, claiming it has a high potential for abuse and is not accepted medical use. Under the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution, Federal law in the United States preempts conflicting state and local laws. Nevertheless, some states and local governments have established laws attempting to decriminalize cannabis, which has reduced the number of "simple possession" offenders sent to jail, since federal enforcement agents rarely target individuals directly for such relatively minor offenses. Other state and local governments ask law enforcement agencies to limit enforcement of drug laws with respect to cannabis. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (CSA) In the USA, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and subsequent modifications require the pharmaceutical industry to maintain physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs. ... Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution is known as the Supremacy Clause: The Supremacy Clause establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as the supreme law of the land. ...


The National Center for Natural Products Research in Oxford, Mississippi is the only facility in the United States that is federally licensed by the National Institute on Drug Abuse to cultivate cannabis for scientific research. The Center is part of the School of Pharmacy at the University of Mississippi. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ...


Decriminalization

See also: Cannabis rescheduling in the United States

The Federal government has criminalized marijuana under the Interstate Commerce Clause, which gives the Federal Government the power to regulate the channels of commerce, the instrumentalities of commerce, and actions that substantially affect interstate commerce. Additionally, under the Supremacy Clause, any state law in conflict with federal law is not valid. These issues were addressed squarely by the United States Supreme Court in Raich v. Ashcroft, 352 F. 3d 1222 in 2005. Twelve US states had passed laws allowing some degree of medical use (9 of the 12 by majority vote of the citizenry), while a further six states had taken steps to decriminalize it to some degree. This movement sought to make simple possession of cannabis punishable by only confiscation or a fine, rather than prison. In the past several years, the movement had started to have some successes. These included Denver, Colorado legalizing possession of up to an ounce of cannabis for adults aged 21 and older, though this age restriction has been criticized as age discrimination, since adults under 21 cannot legally possess it.[20] These laws passed by states and cities to decriminalize marijuana did not result in marijuana being legal, however, and some cities (notably Denver) actually saw an increase in marijuana arrests after passing their decriminalization laws. Multiple places in the United States have decriminalized cannabis (referred to as marijuana in the United States), for non-medical purposes; although, voters in Alaska, Colorado, and Nevada rejected propositions to decriminalize marijuana. ... Schedules of Controlled Substances Schedule I The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. ... Ashcroft v. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated...


In Alaska, cannabis was decidedly legal (under state, but not federal, law) for in-home, personal use under the Ravin vs. State ruling of 1975. This ruling allowed up to two ounces of cannabis and cultivation of less than 25 plants for these purposes. A 1991 voter ballot initiative recriminalized marijuana possession, but when that law was eventually challenged in 2004, the Alaska courts upheld the Ravin ruling, saying the popular vote could not trump the state constitution. In response to former Governor Frank Murkowski's successive attempt to re-criminalize cannabis, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against the state. On July 17, 2006, Superior Court Judge Patricia Collins awarded the Case Summary judgment to the ACLU. In her ruling, she said "No specific argument has been advanced in this case that possession of more than 1 ounce of cannabis, even within the privacy of the home, is constitutionally protected conduct under Ravin or that any plaintiff or ACLU of Alaska member actually possesses more than 1 ounce of cannabis in their homes." This does not mean that the legal possession threshold has been reduced to one ounce, as this was a mere case summary review filed by the ACLU, not a full case. Reinforcing Ravin, Collins wrote "A lower court cannot reverse the State Supreme Court's 1975 decision in Ravin v. State" and "Unless and until the Supreme Court directs otherwise, Ravin is the law in this state and this court is duty bound to follow that law". The law regarding possession of cannabis has not changed in Alaska, and the Supreme Court has declined to review the case, therefore the law still stands at 4 ounces.[citation needed] However, federal prosecutions under the CSA can be brought in Federal Court, and federal courts applying federal law are not bound by state court precedent. As such, federal courts in Alaska will recognize that possession of any quantity of marijuana remains illegal in Alaska under federal law. The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Summary judgment is a legal term which means that a court has made a determination (a judgment) without a full trial. ...


In 2002, Nevada voters defeated a ballot question which would legalize up to 3 ounces for adults 21 and older by 39% to 61%. In 2006, a similar Nevada ballot initiative, which would have legalized and regulated the cultivation, distribution, and possession of up to 1 ounce of marijuana by adults 21 and older, was defeated by 44% to 56%.


In 2006, South Dakota voters defeated Measure 4, voting 48% for and 52% against. Measure 4 was to allow the use of medical marijuana by patients deemed by their physicians to benefit from its use, and was to be regulated by state-issued ID cards and protection of legitimate medical distributors.


Crime

There have been over eight million cannabis arrests in the United States since 1993, including 786,545 arrests in 2005. Cannabis users have been arrested at the rate of 1 every 40 seconds. About 88% of all marijuana arrests are for possession - not manufacture or distribution. (FBI Uniform Crimes Report)


Large-scale marijuana growing operations are frequently targeted by police in raids to attack the supply side and discourage the spread and marketing of the drug, though the great majority of those in prison for cannabis are either there for simple possession or small scale dealing.[citation needed] A grow-op is a short term for a marijuana grow operation in which cannabis plants are grown in a (usually domestic) setting, sometimes with the intent of creating large amounts of marijuana for commercial purposes. ...


Use of capital punishment against the cannabis trade

Several countries have either carried out or legislated capital punishment for cannabis trafficking. Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ...

Country Status Notes
Saudi Arabia Has been used An Iraqi man named Mattar bin Bakhit al-Khazaali was convicted of smuggling hashish and was executed in the northern town of Arar, close to the Iraqi border.
Indonesia Available In 1997, the Indonesian government under international pressure[citation needed] added the death penalty as a punishment for those convicted of drugs in their country. The law has yet to be enforced on any significant, well-established drug dealers. Rather, the trend has been to execute unknown, first time and clueless, alleged drug traffickers, who don't have the cunning, resources, and contacts to persuade the authorities to set them free.[citation needed] The former Indonesian President, Megawati Sukarnoputri announced Indonesia's intent to implement a fierce war on drugs in 2002. She called for the execution of all drug dealers. "For those who distribute drugs, life sentences and other prison sentences are no longer sufficient," she said. "No sentence is sufficient other than the death sentence." Indonesia's new president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, also proudly supports executions for drug dealers. [65]
Malaysia Has been used Mustaffa Kamal Abdul Aziz, 38 years old, and Mohd Radi Abdul Majid, 53 years old, were executed at dawn on January 17, 1996, for the trafficking of 1.2 kilograms of cannabis. [66]
Philippines No Longer Used The Philippines abolished the death penalty on June 24, 2006. The Philippines introduced stronger anti-drug laws, including the death penalty, in 2002. [67] Possession of over 500 grams of marijuana usually earned execution in the Philippines, as did possessing over ten grams of opium, morphine, heroin, ecstasy, or cocaine. Angeles City is often a mecca for Filipino cannabis users and cultivators, although enforcement has been inconsistent.[68].
United Arab Emirates Sentenced In the United Arab Emirates city of Fujairah, a woman named Lisa Tray was sentenced to death in December 2004, after being found guilty of possessing and dealing hashish. Undercover officers in Fujairah claim they caught Tray with 149 grams of hashish. Tray claims that her stepfather had given her the bag of hashish to deliver to someone, but didn't know its contents. Her lawyers have appealed the sentence.
Thailand Frequently Used Death penalty is possible for drug offenses under Thai law. Extra-judicial killings also alleged. [69]
Singapore Frequently Used Death penalty carried out many times for cannabis trafficking. (July 20, 2004) A convicted drug trafficker, Raman Selvam Renganathan, 39, who stored 2.7 kilogrammes of cannabis or marijuana in a Singapore flat was hanged in Changi Prison. He was sentenced to death September 1, 2004 after an eight-day trial. (The Straits Times, July 20, 2004).
People's Republic of China Frequently Used Death penalty is exercised regularly for drug offenses under Chinese law, often in an annual frenzy corresponding to the United Nations' International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Drug Trafficking [70] The government does not make precise records public, however Amnesty International estimates that around 500 people are executed there each year for drug offenses. Those executed have typically been convicted of smuggling or trafficking in anything from cannabis to methamphetamine.
United States Available Former Speaker Newt Gingrich, in 1996, proposed to introduce a mandatory death penalty for a second offense of smuggling 50 grams of marijuana into the United States, in the proposed law H.R. 4170. [71][dead link][72] This proposal failed.

Current Federal law (1994 Crime Act) sets the threshold for a possible death sentence for marijuana offenses at 60,000 kilograms or 60,000 plants (including seedlings) regardless of weight. The death penalty is also possible for running a continuing criminal enterprise that distributes marijuana and receives more than $20 million in proceeds in one year, regardless of the weight of marijuana involved. is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sulong Angeles. ... The flag of the UAE Fujairah (Arabic: الفجيرة) is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, on the Gulf of Oman in the countrys east. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The United States Supreme Court has held that no crimes other than murder can constitutionally carry a death sentence (Coker v. Georgia) This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Non-drug purposes

Main article: Hemp

Hemp is the common name for cannabis and the name most used (in English) when this annual herb is grown for non-drug purposes. These include the industrial purposes for which cultivation licences may be issued in the European Union (EU). When grown for industrial purposes hemp is often called industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a variety of different ways. Fuel is often a by-product of hemp cultivation. U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... EU redirects here. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...


Hemp may be grown also for food (the seed) but in the UK at least (and probably in other EU countries) cultivation licences are not available for this purpose. Within Defra (the UK's Department for the Environment, Food and the Rural Affairs) hemp is treated as purely a non-food crop, despite the fact that seed can and does appear on the UK market as a perfectly legal food product. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities. ...


In the UK, at least, the seed and fibre have been always perfectly legal products. Cultivation for non drug purposes was however completely prohibited from 1928 until circa 1998, when Home Office industrial-purpose licenses became available under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ...


If industrial strains of the herb are intended for legal use within the EU then they are bred to be compliant with regulations which limit potential THC content to 0.2%. (THC content is a measure of the herb's drug potential and can reach 20% or more in drug strains). In Canada the THC limit is 1%.


Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that look quite different. Also, breeding since circa 1930 has focused quite specifically on producing strains which would perform very poorly as sources of drug material.


Hemp grown for fibre is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. Ideally, according to Defra in 2004, the herb should be harvested before it flowers. This early cropping is because fibre quality begins to decline as flowering starts and, incidentally, this cropping also pre-empts the herb’s maturity as potentially a source of drug material. UK licence conditions actually oblige farmers, however, to allow some flowering so that flower material can be tested for its drug potential.


Cannabis for religious use

Further information: Spiritual use of cannabis

Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. In India, it has been engaged by itinerant sadhus for centuries, and in modern times sections of the Rastafari movement have embraced it. Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was engaged as a religious sacrament by Muslims of the Sufi order.[citation needed] Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Many religions have beliefs about drug use; these vary greatly, with some traditions placing the ritual use of entheogens at the center of religious activity, while others prohibit drug use altogether. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...


Arguments for and against prohibition of cannabis

Arguments for prohibition include physical and mental health for the user and damage for non users, the increased concentration of THC in marijuana, more accidents, more risky behavior, public order grounds, the "gateway drug" argument, increased cost for public health and treatment of addicts, loss of manpower, loss of tax income and purely political grounds such as vote catching and simple dislike of the drug culture. Other types of arguments are the same as the arguments for prohibition of smoking of tobacco in public places like restaurants, trains, etc. The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a...


Arguments against prohibition include civil rights issues (including religious ones), loss of potential tax revenues, unnecessary criminalization of ordinary people and the enforced mixing of cannabis users with sellers of more dangerous drugs and the associated criminal underworld.


An often overlooked argument against prohibition is the inevitable increase in potentially dangerous impurities that distribution through criminal networks entails (although this is mainly relevant to hashish and, of course, other illegally manufactured drugs) and the health hazards and their costs that these impose.


An often overlooked argument pro prohibition is that legalization will promote drug tourism and criminal networks in other parts of the world where cannabis is not legal.


For more detail see Arguments for and against drug prohibition or Cannabis(drug). The prohibition of drugs is a subject of considerable controversy. ... A Cannabis sativa plant Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cannabis Consumption vs. Alcohol Consumption: Intent in Legalization

The legalization of cannabis in The U.S. has been hotly debated. A Primary argument points out that while cannabis and alcohol have comparable effects on the human body, alcohol is legal, and cannabis is not. The UK Science and Technology Select Committee underwent an assessment of 20 legal and illegal stimulants in order to classify them to their harmful rates. According to the New Scientist Magazine, Issue 2563, from August 2006, cannabis was classified beneath alcohol as a class C substance, with A being the most harmful. However, the classification of cannabis as a class C substance is controversial in the U.K. The present U.K. government is expected to change cannabis back to class B Substance, despite new reports. The major points brought to light compared cannabis consumption and alcohol consumption in temporary impairments, withdrawal, tolerance, and dependence.



Source: New Scientist Magazine. Issue 2563. August 2006, page 5. Drug-danger 'league table' revealed.


Temporary impairments: Alcohol consumption causes severe motor skill deficiency to the point where one cannot perform any physical or mental activities that deal with coordinated tasks. At the same time, judgement and decision making abilities severely decline. Marijuana share the same temporary impairments, but instead of severely damaging the abilities that one has sober, it only merely slows them down.


Withdrawal: The symptoms in alcohol withdrawal of frequent drinkers according to Symptoms of Alcohol Withdrawal written by Buddy T, About.com are as follows:


Feeling of jumpiness or nervousness, feeling of shakiness, anxiety, irritability or easily excited, emotional volatility, rapid emotional changes, depression, fatigue, difficulty with thinking clearly, bad dreams, headache - general, pulsating, sweating, especially the palms of the hands or the face, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, insomnia, sleeping difficulty, paleness, rapid heart rate (palpitations), enlarged, dilated pupils, skin being clammy, abnormal movements, tremor of the hands, involuntary, abnormal movements of the eyelids, a state of confusion and hallucinations (visual) -- known as delirium tremens, agitation, fever, convulsions.


Marijuana withdrawal symptoms, covered in Teens in Treatment Report Marijuana Withdrawal Symptoms written by University of Vermont, for About.com mention only Three symptoms: anxiety, aggression, and irritability.


Tolerance: Where one can drink to the point of death, there has been no cases of cannabis intake to the same extent. Alcohol tolerance increases through time, as the abuse becomes larger with more and more intake; Marijuana users show negligible differences in tolerance between new and advanced users.


Dependence: According to research conducted by Jack E. Henningfield, PhD for NIDA, Reported by Philip J. Hilts, New York Times, Aug. 2, 1994 "Is Nicotine Addictive?" Marijuana is far less addictive than alcohol. The difficulty to quit, the relapse rate, the percentage of people who eventually become dependent, the rating users give their own need for the substance and the degree to which the substance will be used in the face of evidence that it causes harm are all relevant in the statement. Marijuana has been smoked by nearly 50% of all Americans, and only 1% of that number smoke regularly. When compared to the ratio of alcoholics to the total people who tried alcohol, marijuana intake frequency is ten times lower.


There are hundreds of reported deaths due to alcohol consumption. The consumption of alcohol, and it's resulting impairment also directly cause tens of thousands of deaths in the U.S. each year. According to http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5337a2.htm, in 2001, there were 331 alcohol overdose deaths, while 0 marijuana overdose deaths. Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States and is associated with multiple adverse health consequences, including liver cirrhosis, various cancers, unintentional injuries, and violence. According to http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/alcohol.htm, The U.S. Centers for Disease Control reported 20,687 “alcohol-induced deaths” (excluding accidents and homicides) in 2003.


About Cannabis as drug see article Cannabis(drug). A Cannabis sativa plant Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Cannabis reform at the international level refers to efforts to ease restrictions on marijuana use under international treaties. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... This is a list of the legality of cannabis by country. ... School district drug policies are measures that teachers and administrators of a school put into place in order to discourage drug use by students. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ...

Further reading

Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market (2003) is a book written by Eric Schlosser. ... Eric Schlosser (born 1959) is an American journalist and author. ...

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  47. ^ UNODC: Sweden’s successful drug policy, 2007
  48. ^ Art. 8 par. 1 lit. d of the Federal Narcotics Law
  49. ^ Art. 19 of the Federal Narcotics Law
  50. ^ See the message to Parliament accompanying the government's decriminalization proposal; Federal Official Journal (BBl/FO) 2001 3715, p. 3719/21
  51. ^ 1999 Cannabis Report of the Federal Narcotics Commission, p. 18.
  52. ^ Id. at 20.
  53. ^ Ibid.
  54. ^ Message to Parliament, op.cit., at 3733.
  55. ^ 1999 Cannabis Report, op.cit., at 47.
  56. ^ Id. at 46, note 8.
  57. ^ Message to Parliament, op.cit., at 3721.
  58. ^ See documentation available under docket no. 01.024 on the Parliament website.
  59. ^ See the English language website of the campaign.
  60. ^ The Original Text of the Misuse of Drugs act 1971
  61. ^ [www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=561841&in_page_id=1770 Mental illnesses go up after cannabis downgrade.] The Daily Mail - 25th April 2008.
  62. ^ [www.talktofrank.com/drugs.aspx?id=172 Talk to Frank]
  63. ^ Home Office’s penalties for classified drugs
  64. ^ Cannabis laws to be strengthened. 7th May 2008
  65. ^ Death for pot in Indonesia
  66. ^ [1][dead link]
  67. ^ Philippines Enacts Death Penalty for Drug Dealing, Possession of a Pound of Marijuana or Tens Grams of Ecstasy
  68. ^ Preda Foundation, Inc. "Philippine minors in Jail: report 6th September 2002"
  69. ^ portland imc - 2003.05.07 - Is this the future of our own "War on Drugs"?
  70. ^ China Celebrates UN Anti-Drug Day With 59 Executions
  71. ^ http://www.mpp.org/archive/newtdth.html
  72. ^ http://www.druglibrary.org/olsen/norml/crazy/crazy_03.html
  • The cannabis problem: A note on the problem and the history of international action, Bulletin on Narcotics, 1962.
  • The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana - A Signal of Misunderstanding. 1972

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External links

  • European laws on possession of cannabis for personal use from EMCDDA
  • CannabisNews.com
  • National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML)
  • U.S. should legalize marijuana Argument Diagram at HonestArgument.com

Novel excerpts The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union. ...

  • The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer
  • The Natural Mind: What No One Wants to Know About Marijuana by Dr. Andrew Weil
  • George Michael defends cannabis use BBC interview with George Michael
Jack Herer is the author of The Emperor Wears No Clothes (ISBN 0-9524560-0-1) (several editions since c. ... This article is about the alternative medicine proponent. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other persons named George Michael, see George Michael (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... Cannabis smoking is the process of inhaling the smoke created by burning cannabis, mostly either the flowering buds of, or hashish, a preparation of, the cannabis plant. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... Egyptian hookah Hookah (Hindi: , Urdu: hukka) or shisha (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: נרגילה) or (Turkish:nargile) is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe device for smoking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Petition to: legalise cannabis. (213 words)
We the undersigned petition the Prime Minister to legalise cannabis.
Any possible dangers the government believes to be involved in the use of cannabis can only increase the need for the government to take the control of it's supply away from criminals and regulate it as alcohol and tobacco are regulated.
Add to this the proven medicinal uses of cannabis and it's religious use throughout the world, for which prohibition is illegal under human rights law, and legalisation can be the only logical way forward.
Legalise Cannabis Alliance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1018 words)
The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) was a political party registered in the United Kingdom in 1999 with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem.
Cannabis: legalise and utilise (ISBN 0-9535693-1-4) was published by the Legalise Cannabis Alliance (PO Box 198, Norwich, Norfolk, UK - NR3 3WB), in 2000 and it served in the 2001 UK general election as the party's election manifesto.
In 1992 the Campaign to Legalise Cannabis International was formed in Norwich to fight politically for the legalisation of cannabis worldwide and, under the name Legalise Cannabis Alliance, this organisation was registered as a political party in the United Kingdom in March 1999.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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