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Encyclopedia > Legal systems of the world
World distribution of major legal traditions
World distribution of major legal traditions

The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. However, each country (see State (law)) often develops variations on each system or incorporates many other features into the system. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 359 pixel Image in higher resolution (1400 × 628 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Legal systems of the world From: http://en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 359 pixel Image in higher resolution (1400 × 628 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Legal systems of the world From: http://en. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... For the purposes of Public International Law and Private International Law, a state is a defined group of people, living within defined territorial boundaries and subject, more or less, to an autonomous legal system exercising jurisdiction through properly constituted courts. ...

Contents

Civil law

God hands King Hammurabi a code of law
God hands King Hammurabi a code of law

Civil law is the most widespread system of law in the world. It is also known as European Continental law. The central source of law that is recognised as authoritative are codifications in a constitution or statute passed by [[legislaturItalic texte]], to amend a code. Civil law systems mainly derive from the Roman Empire, and more particularly, the Corpus Juris Civilis issued by the Emperor Justinian ca. 529AD. This was an extensive reform of the Italic textlaw in the Eastern Empire, bringing it together into codified documents. Civil law today, in theory, is interpreted rather than developed or made by judges. Only legislative enactments (rather than judicial precedents) are considered legally binding. However, in reality courts do pay attention to previous decisions, especially from higher courts. Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... In law, a precedent or authority is a legal case establishing a principle or rule that a court may need to adopt when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. ...


Scholars of comparative law and economists promoting the legal origins theory usually subdivide civil law into three distinct groups: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In economics, the Legal Origins Theory states that many aspects of a countrys economic state of development are the result of their legal system, most of all where a particular country received its law from. ...

A comprehensive list of countries that base their legal system on a codified civil law follows: In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... The modern German legal system is a system of law which is grounded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of the most important laws as for example most regulations of the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or BGB) were... Motto none Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Demonym Taiwanese Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ...

Country Description
Flag of Albania Albania The Civil Code of the Republic of Albania, 1991 really[1]
Flag of Angola Angola Based on Portuguese civil law
Flag of Argentina Argentina The Spanish legal tradition had a great influence on the Civil Code of Argentina, basically a work of the Argentinean jurist Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield, who dedicated five years of his life on this task. The Civil Code came into effect on January 1, 1871. Beyond the influence of the Spanish legal tradition, the Argentinian Civil Code was also inspired by the Draft of the Brazilian Civil Code, the Draft of the Spanish Civil Code of 1851, the Napoleonic code and the Chilean Civil Code. The sources of this Civil Code also include various theoretical legal works, mainly of the great French jurists of the 19th century. It was the first Civil Law that consciously adopted as its cornerstone the distinction between i. rights from obligations and ii. real property rights, thus distancing itself from the French model.

The Argentinian Civil Code was also in effect in Paraguay, as per a Paraguayan law of 1880, until the new Civil Code went in force in 1987. Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... Argentina is a Spanish-speaking country in southern South America, situated between the Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield (born in Amboy, Valle de Calamuchita, Córdoba, on February 18, 1801; died in Buenos Aires on June 30, 1875) was an Argentine lawyer and politician. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force...


During the second half of the 20th century, the German legal theory became increasingly influential in Argentina.

Flag of Andorra Andorra Courts apply the customary laws of Andorra, supplemented with Roman law and customary Catalan law.[1]
Flag of Armenia Armenia
Flag of Aruba Aruba Based on Dutch civil law
Flag of Austria Austria The Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB) of 1811
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Flag of Belarus Belarus
Flag of Belgium Belgium Influenced by the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Benin Benin
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia Influenced by the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag of Brazil Brazil Derived from the Portuguese civil law
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso
Flag of Burundi Burundi
Flag of Chad Chad
People's Republic of China based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles.
Flag of Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo
Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia
Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde Based on Portuguese civil law
Flag of Central African Republic Central African Republic
Flag of Chile Chile The Spanish legal tradition exercised an especially great influence on the civil code of Chile. On its turn, the Chilean civil code influenced to a large degree the drafting of the civil codes of other Latin-American states. For instance, the codes of Ecuador (1861) and Colombia (1873) constituted faithful reproductions of the Chilean code, but for very few exceptions. The compiler of the Civil Code of Chile, Andrés Bello, worked for its completion for almost 30 years, using elements, of the Spanish law on the one hand, and of other Western laws, especially of the French one, on the other. Indeed, it is noted that he consulted and used all of the codes that had been issued till then, starting from the era of Justinian.

The Civil Code came into effect on January 1, 1857. Its technique is regarded as perfect; it is distinguished for the clarity, logic and cohesiveness of its provisions. As mentioned by Arminjon, Nolde, and Wolff ('Traite de droit comparé', Paris, 1950-1952) Andrés Bello may be regarded as one of the great legislators of mankind. The influence of the Napoleonic code is great; it is observed however that e.g. in many provisions of property law, the solutions of the French code civil were put aside in favor of pure Roman law. Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... The Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB) is the Civil Code of Austria, enacted in 1811 after about 40 years of preparatory works. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Andrés Bello (Caracas, Venezuela, November 11, 1781 - Santiago, Chile, October 15, 1865), Venezuelan humanist, poet, lawmaker, philosopher, educator and philologist, whose work constitutes an important part of Spanish American culture. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Andrés Bello (Caracas, Venezuela, November 11, 1781 - Santiago, Chile, October 15, 1865), Venezuelan humanist, poet, lawmaker, philosopher, educator and philologist, whose work constitutes an important part of Spanish American culture. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ...

Flag of Colombia Colombia Civil code introduced in 1873. Nearly faithful reproduction of the Chilean civil code
Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica First Civil Code (a part of the General Code or Carrillo Code) came into effect in 1841; its text was inspired by the South Peruvian Civil Code of Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz. The present Civil Code is into effect since January 1st, 1888, and reveals the influenced by the Napoleonic Code and the Spanish Civil Code of 1889 (from its 1851 draft version).
Flag of Croatia Croatia Kazneni zakon RH- Great influence of Austro- Hungarian law system
Flag of Cuba Cuba Influenced by Spanish and American law with large elements of Communist legal theory.
Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic
Flag of Denmark Denmark Scandinavian-German civil law
Flag of Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador Civil code introduced in 1861. Nearly faithful reproduction of the Chilean civil code
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador
Flag of Estonia Estonia
Flag of Finland Finland
Flag of France France Based on the Napoleonic code (code civil of 1804)
Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia
Flag of Gabon Gabon
Flag of Guinea Guinea
Flag of Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia
Flag of Germany Germany The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch of 1900
Flag of Greece Greece The Greek civil code of 1946, highly influenced by the German civil code of 1900 (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch); the Greek civil code replaced the Byzantine-Roman civil law in effect in Greece since its independence (Νομική Διάταξη της Ανατολικής Χέρσου Ελλάδος, Legal Provision of Eastern Mainland Greece, November 1821: 'Οι Κοινωνικοί Νόμοι των Αειμνήστων Χριστιανών Αυτοκρατόρων της Ελλάδος μόνοι ισχύουσι κατά το παρόν εις την Ανατολικήν Χέρσον Ελλάδα', 'The Social [i.e. Civil] Laws of the Dear Departed Christian Emperors of Greece [referring to the Byzantine Emperors] alone are in effect at present in Eastern Mainland Greece')
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala has had three Civil Codes: the first one from 1877, a new one introduced in 1933, and the one currently in force, which was passed in 1963. This Civil Code has suffered some reforms throughout the years, as well as a few derogations relating to areas which have subsequently been regulated by newer laws, such as the Code of Commerce and the Law of the National Registry of Persons. In general, it follows the tradition of the roman-french system of civil codification.

Regarding the theory of 'sources of law' in the Guatemalan legal system, the 'Ley del Organismo Judicial' recognizes 'the law' as the main legal source (in the sense of legislative texts), although it also establishes 'jurisprudence' as a complementary source. Although jurisprudence technically refers to judicial decisions in general, in practice it tends to be confused and identified with the concept of 'legal doctrine', which is a qualified series of identical resolutions in similar cases pronounced by higher courts (the Constitutional Court acting as a 'Tribunal de Amparo', and the Supreme Court acting as a 'Tribunal de Casación') whose theses become binding for lower courts. Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Carillo is a surname which may refer to: Enrique Gomez Carrillo, Guatemalan writer Fernando Carrillo, Venezuelan actor. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | 1792 births | 1865 deaths | Bolivian presidents ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ...

Flag of Haiti Haiti Influenced by the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Honduras Honduras
Flag of Hungary Hungary
Flag of Iceland Iceland Based on Germanic traditional laws and influenced by Medieval Norwegian and Danish laws.
Flag of Italy Italy Based on codified Roman law, with elements of the Napoleonic civil code; civil code of 1942 replaced the original one of 1865
Flag of Japan Japan Modeled after European (primarily German) civil law system. Japanese civil code of 1895.
Flag of Latvia Latvia Largely influenced by Germany, medium influences from Russian and Soviet law.
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon Modeled after French civil law
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania Modeled after Dutch civil law
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg Influenced by the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Macau Macau
(China)
Based on the Portuguese strand of the continental tradition, itself much influenced by Germany; also influenced by the law of the PRC
Flag of Mexico Mexico "The origins of Mexico's legal system are both ancient and classical, based on the Greek, Roman and French legal systems, and the Mexican system shares more in common with other legal systems throughout the world (especially those in Latin America and most of continental Europe)..." From: http://www.mexonline.com/lawreview.htm Jaime B. Berger Stender Attorney at Law author, Tijuana, B.C., Mexico
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands Influenced by the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Norway Norway Scandinavian-German civil law. King Magnus VI the Lawmender unified the regional laws into a single code of law for the whole kingdom in 1274. This was replaced by Christian V's Norwegian Code of 1687.
Flag of Panama Panama
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay The Paraguayan Civil Code in force since 1987 is largely influenced by the Napoleonic Code and the Argentinian Code
Flag of Peru Peru
Flag of Poland Poland The Polish Civil Code in force since 1965
Flag of Portugal Portugal Influenced by the Napoleonic Code and later by the German Civil Law
Flag of Republic of China Republic of China (Taiwan)
Flag of Romania Romania Based on the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Russia Russia
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia A Civil Law system influenced mostly by Germanic and Austro-Hungarian law systems
Flag of Spain Spain Influenced by the Napoleonic Code
Flag of Sweden Sweden Scandinavian-German civil law. Like all Scandinavian legal systems, it is distinguished by its traditional character and for the fact that it did not adopt elements of Roman law. It is indeed worth mentioning that it assimilated very few elements of foreign laws whatsoever. It is also interesting that the Napoleonic Code had no influence in codification of law in Scandinavia. The historical basis of the law of Sweden, just as for all Nordic countries, is the Old German law. Codification of the law started in Sweden during the 18th century, preceding the codifications of most other European countries. However, neither Sweden, nor any other Nordic state created a civil code of the kind of the Code Civil or the BGB.
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland The Zivilgesetzbuch of 1908 and 1912 (obligations; fifth book)
Flag of Turkey Turkey Modeled after the Swiss civil law (Zivilgesetzbuch) of 1907; this has been a conscious choice of Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Turkish state, in order to abolish the Islamic law (Sharia), aiming at westernizing the country
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay
Flag of Vatican City Vatican City
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam Communist legal theory and French civil law

Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ... Christian V (April 14, 1646 in Flensburg - August 25, 1699 in Copenhagen), was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670-1699. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The Zivilgesetzbuch (ZGB) is the Swiss civil code. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The Zivilgesetzbuch (ZGB) is the Swiss civil code. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However...

Common law

Main article: Common law
King John of England signs the Magna Carta

Common law and equity are systems of law whose sources are the decisions in cases by judges. Alongside, every system will have a legislature that passes new laws and statutes, however these do not amend a collected and codified body of law. Common law comes from England and was inherited by Commonwealth of Nations countries, and almost every former colony of the British Empire (Malta and Scotland being exceptions). The doctrine of stare decisis or precedent by courts is the major innovation and difference to codified civil law systems. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (800x1120, 197 KB)John of England signs Magna Carta Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Download high resolution version (800x1120, 197 KB)John of England signs Magna Carta Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ...


Common law is currently in practice in Ireland, United Kingdom (excluding Scotland), Australia, India, South Africa, Canada (excluding Quebec), Hong Kong and the United States (excluding Louisiana) and many more places. In addition to these countries, several others have adapted the common law system into a mixed system. For example, Pakistan, India and Nigeria operate largely on a common law system, but incorporate religious law.


In the European Union the Court of Justice takes an approach mixing civil law (based on the treaties) with an attachment to the importance of case law. One of the most fundamental documents to shape common law is the Magna Carta[2] which placed limits on the power of the English Kings. It served as a kind of medieval bill of rights for the aristocracy and the judiciary who developed the law. The ECJ should not be mistaken for the European Court of Human Rights, a Council of Europe institution. ... Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...

Country Description
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda based on English common law
Flag of Australia Australia based on English common law
Flag of The Bahamas Bahamas based on English common law
Flag of Barbados Barbados based on English common law
Flag of Belize Belize based on English common law
Flag of Bhutan Bhutan
Flag of British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands based on English common law
Canada based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails
Flag of Dominica Dominica based on English common law
Flag of England Flag of Wales England and Wales
(UK)
primarily common law, with early Roman and some modern continental influences
Flag of Fiji Fiji based on English common law
Flag of Ghana Ghana
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar based on English common law
Grenada based on English common law
Hong Kong
(China)
principally based on English common law
Republic of Ireland based on Irish law prior to 1920, which was itself based on English common law
Jamaica based on English common law
Kiribati based on English common law
Marshall Islands based on U.S. Law
Nauru based on English common law
New Zealand based on English common law
Northern Ireland
(UK)
based on Irish law prior to 1920, which was itself based on English common law
Palau based on U.S. Law
Saint Kitts and Nevis based on English common law
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines based on English common law
Tonga based on English common law
Trinidad and Tobago based on English common law
Tuvalu based on English common law
Uganda based on English common law
United States Federal court system based on English common law; each state has its own unique legal system, of which all but one ( Louisiana's, which is based on the Napoleonic Code) is based on English common law

Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_Virgin_Islands. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Quebec. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kiribati. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Marshall_Islands. ... The law of the United States is derived from the common law of England, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nauru. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Ireland. ... Northern Ireland law concerns the legal system in Northern Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palau. ... The law of the United States is derived from the common law of England, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Louisiana. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force...

Religious law

Main article: Religious law
Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing

Religious law refers to the notion of a religious system or document being used as a legal source. The use of religion for public law has a static and unalterable quality, precluding amendment through legislative acts of government or development through judicial precedent. In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x475, 258 KB) Summary Tanakh: Aleppo Codex (Yehoshua 1:1) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x475, 258 KB) Summary Tanakh: Aleppo Codex (Yehoshua 1:1) http://www. ...


The main kinds of religious law are Halakha in Judaism, Sharia in Islam, and Canon law in some Christian groups. In some cases these are intended purely as individual moral guidance, whereas in other cases they are intended and may be used as the basis for a country's legal system. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ...


The Halakha is followed by orthodox and conservative Jews in both ecclesiastical and civil relations. No country is fully governed by Halakha, but two Jewish people may decide, because of personal belief, to have a dispute heard by a Jewish court, and be bound by its rulings. Sharia Law governs a number of Islamic countries, including Saudi Arabia and Iran, though most countries use Sharia Law only as a supplement to national law. It can relate to all aspects of civil law, including property rights, contracts or public law. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ...


Canon law is not religious law, properly speaking, because it is not found in revelation. Instead, it is seen as human law inspired by the word of God and applying the demands of that revelation to the actual sitation of the church. Canon law regulates the internal ordering of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion. Canon law is amended and adapted by the legislative authority of the church, such as councils of bishops, single bishops for their respective sees, the Pope for the entire Catholic Church, and the British Parliament for the Church of England. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Many religions have religious texts which are sometimes described as the Word of God. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ...

Pluralistic systems

Civil law and common law

Country Description
Botswana South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception
Cameroon
Cyprus Based on English common law (Cyprus was a British colony 1878-1960), with admixtures of French and Greek civil and public law, Italian civil law, Indian contract law, Greek Orthodox canon law, Muslim religious law, and Ottoman civil law.
Guyana
Israel Originally (1948) based on English common law; in the process, influenced by German civil law—for instance, between 1962 and 1981, the Knesset issued twenty (20) wide-ranging laws, which were clearly influenced by European continental law, and were in the form of codes. Religious law plays a role, especially in matters of personal status and family law, and judicial and legislative decisions take into account Jewish law (halakhah) on occasion.[3]
Lesotho South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception
Louisiana
(U.S.)
Based on the French Napoleonic Code; the modern legal system of the state of Louisiana has its origin in the Louisiana Purchase (i.e. the sale of Louisiana—not coterminous with the present eponymous state—by Napoleon to the United States of America in 1803), while federal laws (based on common law) are in effect in Louisiana as well.
Malta Initially based on Roman Law and eventually progressed to the Code de Rohan, Code Napoleon with influences from Italian Civil Law. English common law however is also a source of Maltese Law, most notably in Public Law
Mauritius
Namibia South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception
Philippines Based on Spanish law; influenced by U.S. common law after 1898 Spanish and Philippine-American Wars.
Puerto Rico
(U.S.)
Based on Spanish law; influenced by U.S. common law after 1898 (victory of the U.S. over Spain in the Spanish-American war of 1898 and cession of Puerto Rico to the U.S.)
Quebec
(Canada)
After the defeat of the French in the battle at the Plains of Abraham, the British allowed them to keep their language (French), their religion (Roman Catholicism), and their legal system (civil law). However, as Quebec is part of the Canadian Confederation, English-based laws applied at the federal level are in effect in Quebec also.
Saint Lucia
Scotland
(UK)
based on Roman and continental law, with common law elements dating back to the High Middle Ages
Seychelles
South Africa An amalgam of English common law and Roman-Dutch civil lawas well as Customary Law.
Sri Lanka An amalgam of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law and Customary Law
Swaziland South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception
Thailand
Vanuatu
Zimbabwe South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception

Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Louisiana. ... Louisiana is the only U.S. state whose legal system is based on civil law, which is based on French and Spanish codes and ultimately Roman law, as opposed to English common law, which is based on precedent and custom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... The Louisiana Purchase. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead, 3,000 wounded 2,000 killed, dead, or wounded suffered by the Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Quebec. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Scottish legal institutions in the High Middle Ages are, for the purposes of this article, the informal and formal systems which governed and helped to manage Scottish society between the years 900 and 1288, a period roughly corresponding with the general European era usually called the High Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vanuatu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ...

Civil law and religious law

Country Description
Algeria
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt Based on Islamic law and French civil law system
Eritrea
Indonesia Based on civil law of Holland and adat(cultural law of Indonesia)
Morocco Based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system

Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ...

Common law and religious law

Country Description
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Brunei
Gambia
India based on English common law, separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Oman
Pakistan based on English Common Law, some Islamic Law applications in inheritance. Tribal Law in FATA
Qatar
Singapore based on English common law

Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brunei. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tribal sovereignty map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside any of the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). Neighbouring regions are: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier to the north, the Punjab... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ...

Systems by geography

Despite the usefulness of different classifications, every legal system has its own individual identity. Below are groups of legal systems, categorised by their geography. Click the "show" buttons on the right for the lists of countries.

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... The Law of the Soviet Union—also known as Soviet Law, or Socialist Law—was the law that developed in the Soviet Union following the Russian October Revolution of 1917; modified versions of it were adopted by many Communist states (see below) following the Second World War. ... Tribal sovereignty map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3164.htm
  2. ^ Magna Carta. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  3. ^ E.g., see see the work of Menachem Elon and Nahum Rakover.
  • Moustaira Elina N., Comparative Law: University Courses (in Greek), Ant. N. Sakkoulas Publishers, Athens, 2004, ISBN 960-15-1267-5
  • Moustaira Elina N., Milestones in the Course of Comparative Law: Thesis and Antithesis (in Greek), Ant. N. Sakkoulas Publishers, Athens, 2003, ISBN 960-15-1097-4

Subscript textInsert non-formatted text here For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Menachem Elon (1923 - ), an Israeli jurist, served as a justice on the Israeli Supreme Court (1977-1993) and its chief justice (1988-1993). ... Nahum Rakover is a former Deputy Attorney General in Israel, responsible for bringing modern Israeli law into conversation with traditional rabbinic law (Halakha). ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Tort is a legal term that means a civil wrong, as opposed to a criminal wrong, that is recognized by law as grounds for a lawsuit. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Labour law (American English: labor) or employment law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which addresses the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. ... Human rights law is a system of laws, both domestic and international which is intended to promote human rights. ... Legal procedure is the body of law and rules used in the administration of justice in the court system, including such areas as civil procedure, criminal procedure, appellate procedure, administrative procedure, labour procedure, and probate. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Commercial law or business law is the body of law which governs business and commerce and is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals both with issues of private law and public law. ... Corporations law or corporate law is the law concerning the creation and regulation of corporations. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The following analysis is based on English law. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Tax law is the codified system of laws that describes government levies on economic transactions, commonly called taxes. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with antitrust. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Product liability encompasses a number of legal claims that allow an injured party to recover financial compensation from the manufacturer or seller of a product. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about law in society. ... Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law, is the term usually applied to an approach to legal theory that incorporates methods and ideas borrowed from the discipline of economics. ... An approach to law stressing the actual social effects of legal institutions, doctrines, and practices and vice versa. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy means political rule of offices. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Syllabi 2004-2005 B-KUL-C0L24B Anthropology of Legal Systems (546 words)
Legal anthropology is a subfield of social and cultural anthropology.
Legal systems include for the purpose of the discussions : the codes and customs which have been devised as part of the cultural framework in societies and the law as it is practised both in settler societies (such as Australia, Africa, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and elsewhere) and in western societies.
The purpose is to arrive at a better synthesis of the major presuppositions concerning the formation and the continuation of legal systems in different cultural settings, rural and urban, non-western and western.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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