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Encyclopedia > Legal psychology
Psychology

Portal - History Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ...

AREAS

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Social The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Biological psychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organisational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, or personnel psychology) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ...

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Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. Legal psychology is a field which takes basic social and cognitive theories and principles and applies them to issues in the legal system such as eyewitness memory, jury decision-making, investigations and interviewing. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Legal psychology and forensic psychology together form the field more generally recognized as "psychology and law". Following up on earlier efforts by psychologists to address legal issues, psychology and law became a field of study in the 1960s as part of an effort to enhance justice. The American Psychological Association's Division 41, the American Psychology-Law Society, is active, and there are similar societies in Britain and Europe. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


There are several legal psychology journals, including Law and Human Behavior, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, Psychology, Crime, and Law, and Journal of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. In addition, research by legal psychologists is regularly published in more general journals that cover both basic and applied research areas. Academic publishing describes a system of publishing that is necessary in order for academic scholars to review work and make it available for a wider audience. ...

Contents

Training and education

Legal psychologists typically hold a Ph.D. in some area of psychology (e.g., clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, etc.), and apply their knowledge of that field to the law. Although formal legal training (such as a J.D. or Master of Legal Studies degree) can be beneficial, most legal psychologists hold only the Ph.D. In fact, some argue that specialized legal training dilutes the psychological empiricism of the researcher. For instance, to understand how eyewitness memory "works," a psychologist should be concerned with memory processes as a whole, instead of only the aspects relevant to the law (e.g., lineups, accuracy of testimony). Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years...


A growing number of universities offer specialized training in legal psychology as either a standalone Ph.D. program or a joint J.D. / Ph.D. program. A list of American universities that offer graduate training in legal psychology can be found here on the website of the American Psychology-Law Society. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years...


Roles of a legal psychologist

Academics and research

Many legal psychologists work as professors in university psychology departments, criminal justice departments or law schools. Like other professors, legal psychologists generally conduct and publish empirical research, teach various classes, and mentor graduate and undergraduate students. Many legal psychologists also conduct research in a more general area of psychology (e.g., social, clinical, cognitive) with only a tangental legal focus. Those legal psychologists who work in law schools almost always hold a J.D. in addition to a Ph.D. A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ...


Expert witnesses

Main article: expert witness

Psychologists specifically trained in legal issues, as well as those with no formal training, are often called by legal parties to testify as expert witnesses. In criminal trials, an expert witness may be called to testify about eyewitness memory, mistaken identity, competence to stand trial, the propensity of a death-qualified jury to also be "pro-guilt," etc. Psychologists who focus on clinical issues often testify specifically about a defendant's competence, intelligence, etc. More general testimony about perceptual issues (e.g., adequacy of police sirens) may also come up in trial. An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, or profession, or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon his opinion. ... Mistaken Identity may refer to albums: Mistaken Identity (Kim Carnes album) Mistaken Identity (Delta Goodrem album) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A death-qualified jury is a jury in a criminal law case involving the death penalty which excludes jurors opposed to capital punishment. ...


Experts, particularly psychology experts, are often accused of being "hired guns" or "stating the obvious." Eyewitness memory experts, such as Elizabeth Loftus, are often discounted by judges and lawyers with no empirical training because their research utilizes undergraduate students and "unrealistic" scenarios. If both sides have psychological witnesses, jurors may have the daunting task of assessing difficult scientific information. Elizabeth F. Loftus (born October 16, 1944 in Los Angeles, CA) is a psychologist who works on human memory and how it can be changed by facts, ideas, suggestions and other forms of post-event information. ...


Policy making and legislative guidance

Psychologists employed at public policy centers may attempt to influence legislative policy or may be called upon by state (or national) lawmakers to address some policy issue through empirical research. A psychologist working in public policy might suggest laws or help to evaluate a new legal practice (e.g., the use of sequential lineups v.s. simultaneous lineups).


Trial consulting

Many psychologists act as trial consultants. No special training nor certification is needed to be a trial consultant, though an advanced degree is generally welcomed by those who would hire the trial consultant. The American Society of Trial Consultants does have a code of ethics for members, but there are no legally binding ethical rules for consultants.


Some psychologists who work in academics are hired as trial consultants when their expertise can be useful to a particular case. Other psychologist/consultants work for or with established trial consultant firms. The practice of law firms hiring "in-house" trial consultants is becoming more popular, but these consultants usually can also be used by the firms as practicing attorneys.


Trial consultants perform a variety of services for lawyers, such as picking jurors (usually relying on in-house or published statistical studies) or performing "mock trials" with focus groups. Trial consultants work on all stages of a case from helping to organize testimony, preparing witnesses to testify, picking juries, and even arranging "shadow jurors" to watch the trial unfold and provide input on the trial. There is some debate on whether the work of a trial consultant is protected under attorney-client privilege, especially when the consultant is hired by a party in the case and not by an attorney.


Advisory roles

Legal psychologists may hold advisory roles in court systems. They may advise legal decision makers, particularly judges, on psychological findings pertaining to issues in a case. The psychologist who acts as a court advisor provides similar input to one acting as an expert witness, but acts out of the domain of an adversarial system.


Amicus briefs

Psychologists can provide an amicus brief to the court. The American Psychological Association has provided briefs concerning mental illness, retardation and other factors. The amicus brief usually contains an opinion backed by scientific citations and statistics. The impact of an amicus brief by a psychological association is questionable. For instance, Justice Powell[1] once called a reliance on statistics "numerology" and discounted results of several empirical studies. Judges who have no formal scientific training also may critique experimental methods, and some feel that judges only cite an amicus brief when the brief supports the judge's predisposition. Definition and Explanation: Amicus curiæ (Latin for friend of the court; plural amici curiæ) briefs are legal documents filed by non-litigants in appellate court cases, which include additional information or arguments that those outside parties wish to have considered in that particular case. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Offender profiling, or more scientifically, psychological profiling, is a behavioral and investigative tool that helps investigators to profile an unknown subject (unsub) or offender(s). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... In the FBI offender profiling is conceptualised as “a technique for identifying the major personality and behavioural characteristics of an individual based upon an analysis of the crimes he or she has committed” (Douglas, Ressler, Burgess & Hartman, 1986). ...

External links

References

  1. ^ http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0435_0223_ZC2.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
legal psychology: Information from Answers.com (1780 words)
Legal psychology is a field which takes basic social and cognitive theories and principles and applies them to issues in the legal system such as eyewitness memory, criminal and civil jury decision-making, investigations and interviewing.
Legal psychology and forensic psychology together form the field more generally recognized as "psychology and law".
Experts, particularly psychology experts, are often accused of being "hired guns" or "stating the obvious." Eyewitness memory experts, such as Elizabeth Loftus, are often discounted by judges and lawyers with no empirical training because their research utilizes undergraduate students and "unrealistic" scenarios.
Forensic Psychology Programs (1792 words)
The field of psychology and law involves the application of psychological principles to legal concerns and the interaction of psychology and law, for individuals involved in the legal process.
Students trained in psychology and law provide psycho-legal research in a variety of areas, develop mental health legal and public polices, and work as both lawyers and psychologists within legal and clinical arenas.
The Forensic Psychology area is concerned with the application of psychology to the understanding of anti-social and criminal behaviours, and to all aspects of the criminal/justice system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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