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Encyclopedia > Legal profession

A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. Most countries today require professional law advisors in their judicial systems. Lawyers have many names in different countries, including "advocate", "attorney", "barrister", counsel, "counsellor", "civil law notary" and "solicitor"; many of these names indicate specific classes or ranks of jurists. Classically, person refers to a living human being. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... A court is an official, public forum which a public power establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ... Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Letter versus Spirit List of legal abbreviations Legal code Pointless law Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties. ... This article is about law in society. ... It has been suggested that Barrister#Advocates in Scotland be merged into this article or section. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Civil law notaries are trained jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists — those with a legal education who become litigators such as barristers in England and Wales and Northern Ireland or avocats in France. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ...


Law is a theoretical and abstract discipline, and working as a lawyer represents the "practical" application of legal theory and knowledge to solve real problems or to advance the interests (usually financial and economic) of persons who retain (i.e., hire) lawyers for legal services. Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Letter versus Spirit List of legal abbreviations Legal code Pointless law Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The role of the lawyer can vary significantly across legal jurisdictions. For instance, in some countries, lawyers may be required to lead or manage criminal investigations. In the United States, lawyers have taken over functions that used to be performed by other jurists such as the civil law notary or paralegal. In law, jurisdiction refers to the aspect of a any unique legal authority as being localized within boundaries. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... Civil law notaries are trained jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists — those with a legal education who become litigators such as barristers in England and Wales and Northern Ireland or avocats in France. ... A paralegal is a non-attorney who works under the supervision of a lawyer whose work is usually billed to clients. ...

For information on legal systems see Common Law or Civil Law

Contents

This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Common Law Jurisdictions

In common law jurisdictions there are generally two kinds of lawyer solicitors and barristers. Each has a specific role in the legal system. In general, solicitors will work for a client, prepare the case and may present it in court (usually just the lower courts), whereas a barrister will present cases in court (particularly the higher courts where they can have exclusive rights of audience.) This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ...


In Scotland barristers are called Advocates. Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Scottish Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... It has been suggested that Barrister#Advocates in Scotland be merged into this article or section. ...


The Commonwealth

See main articles at Advocate, Barrister and Solicitor

In the Commonwealth solicitors may practice before lower courts, but their main (and traditionally only) work is outside the courts, in such areas as legal advice (which may be highly specialized), property conveyancing, wills and estates, preparing legal documents for business transactions and negotiating the legal terms of commercial contracts. It has been suggested that Barrister#Advocates in Scotland be merged into this article or section. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Commonwealth of Nations is an association of independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former colonies once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire. ... A contract is any legally-enforceable promise or set of promises made between parties. ...


Barristers may practice before lower, superior and high courts. Traditionally (and still for major cases) both a solicitor (for advice) and a barrister (for representation) were required for legal representation before the courts.


In recent years however, the exclusive rights of audience in higher courts held by barristers have been eroded by the introduction of Solicitor Advocates. Solicitors who are described as such have usually received specialised training including tuition on the practices and formalities of court. However, due to the costs and time associated with this training, the majority of solicitor advocates practice in the fields of commercial law or corporate litigation. Indeed, one of the reasons for introducing Solicitor Advocates was to act as a check on the high costs associated with representation in commercial cases - law firms are now able to offer in-house representation for their clients at substantially reduced cost.


Other common law jurisdictions, such as, Malaysia, Singapore, Canada (excluding the province of Quebec), and certain states in Australia, have a fused legal profession, whereby lawyers are licensed as both barristers and solicitors and can practice as both, even though most lawyers in these jurisdictions spend most of their time practicing as one or the other but seldom both. For example, in Canada (other than Quebec), a lawyer is called "Barrister and Solicitor", but informally by the title of "lawyer". This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Unlike the United States most Commonwealth countries subject their lawyers and judges to strict court dress requirements. Court dress comprises two forms of dress: dress prescribed for Royal courts; and dress prescribed for courts of law. ...


United States of America

See main article at Attorney at Law

In the United States, lawyers are called attorneys, in full Attorney at Law. For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ...


Strictly speaking, an attorney is similar to an agent, a person who has been formally empowered by someone else (a "principal") to act on behalf of the principal. Lawyers are "attorneys at law", authorized to plead cases on behalf of and in place of their clients. Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that sometimes bind the principal. ... The term client may have the following meanings. ...


The United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (1) estimates that there are over 500,000 practicing lawyers in the U.S. The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is the unit of the United States Department of Labor which is the principal fact-finding agency for the U.S. government in the field of labor economics and statistics. ...


It is frequently said that there are more lawyers per capita in the US than in any other country in the world. This statistic is misleading because it is difficult to compare numbers of law professionals between different legal systems. The roles of these professionals vary and some of the work that is done in the United States by a lawyer is performed by several different types of professionals in other countries. Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ...


Civil Law Jurisdictions

As European's law systems are based on continental civil law, the situation in many European countries is quite different from common law countries. Civil law is a legal system derived from Roman law and commonly used in Europe. ... World map showing location of Europe When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


In Continental Europe any person who possesses a degree in law is called "lawyer" (or a jurist). This article is about academic degrees. ...


Such lawyers can 'practice' law as employees hired by law firms or legal departments of other business entities. However, being a lawyer does not necessarily mean that one has the privileges usually attributed to "attorney" or "solicitor" in the United States or Canada. Due to such dualism, in Europe there are two classes of lawyers, the jurists and what is many places known as advocates. For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... It has been suggested that Barrister#Advocates in Scotland be merged into this article or section. ...


Germany

A lawyer (jurist) has to pass two state exams, and may chose to become an advocate (Rechtsanwalt).


Poland

Main article see Lawyers in Poland

In Poland any person who possesses a master's degree in law is called "lawyer" (prawnik). A new law of June 30, 2005 essentially made lawyer's profession more open that it was before. Previously it was almost impossible to became a lawyer without support from family already in the profession. In Poland any person who possesses a masters degree in law is called lawyer (prawnik). ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining, and the last day of June. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Romania

In Romania, law school graduates have to pass an initial admittance exam to the Romanian Bar Association. This exam gives the succesful candidate the status of a trainee lawyer and a member of the Bar Association for two years. After traineeship, the lawyer has to pass a second set of exams to become a full member of the Bar Association and form a Law Office on his or her own as well as other forms such as a limited liability partnerships or a lawyers' professional corporation. Romanian Bar Association require any graduate who wishes to enter the profession to secure the written support of an experienced lawyer for the traineeship period. Throughout this period, known in the Americas as the "articles of clerkship", the trainee lawyer is mentored by an experienced lawyer of good standing. Due to the high number of law school graduates, securing an articling position is increasingly difficult to obtain in Romania, as well as in other civil-law or common-law jurisdictions.


The term "lawyer" in this context refers to the attorney at law, an individual exercising the liberal and free profession in the service of his or her clients. For the general terminology of all law school graduates, the correct word would be "jurist"


Quebec

In Quebec, which has a civil law system, there are two distinct legal professions: the 'avocat' and the 'notaire' (or civil law notary). Both professions require a law degree for entry. A 'notaire' is not to be confused with a notary public elsewhere in the U.S. and Canada. The two professions in Quebec have exclusive areas and overlapping areas of jurisdiction. The 'avocat' has exclusive jurisdiction to plead in court and to do all pre-trial matters. The 'notaire' has exclusive jurisdiction for the preparation and witnessing of notarial 'acts' such as mortgages, notarial-form marriage contracts, and notarial wills. Other than that, the two professions' jurisdictions generally overlap for non-litigious transactions: however, residential property purchase transactions and the preparation of marriage contracts are generally done by 'notaires', whereas transactions (whether litigious or not) in the fields of family law, corporate/commercial law and commercial real estate law are generally done by 'avocats'. Wills can be done by either a notary or an 'avocat'; however, the wills done by notaries are generally done as notarial 'acts' which, unlike wills prepared by 'avocats', do not need to be probated following the testator's death; this encourages clients to consult notaries in preference over 'avocats' for the preparation of wills. Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Civil law notaries are trained jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists — those with a legal education who become litigators such as barristers in England and Wales and Northern Ireland or avocats in France. ...


All the mega law firms in Montreal and Quebec City are firms of 'avocats' and, in English, they identify themselves as 'Lawyers' or 'Attorneys'. In English, 'notaires' typically identify themselves as Notaries, but pursuant to Quebec law, they could also use the confusing description 'Title Attorney'. Notaries sometimes identify themselves as "Notaire and Conseiller Juridique" (i.e., Notary and Legal Advisor), to highlight that they take work in fields of law practice that overlap with those of 'avocats'.


Investigation and Prosecution

Main article see Prosecutor

In countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system, the prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution. ...

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

In the England, Wales and Northern Ireland criminal investigation is carried out by the Police, HM Customs and Excise, the Inland Revenue, Trading Standards Officers and other state organisations (which may, or may not, employ a solicitor or barrister). Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² Ethnicity: 97. ... Royal motto: Quis separabit (Latin: Who will separate?) Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 4th 1,685,267 122/km² NUTS 1... Customs and Excise refers to customs duties and excise duties. ... In the UK, the Inland Revenue was a department of the British Government responsible for the collection of direct taxation, including income tax, national insurance contributions, capital gains tax, inheritance tax, corporation tax, petroleum revenue tax and stamp duty. ... The Trading Standards Institute is the UK government-appointed body responsible for protecting consumers rights and enforcing related laws. ...


Prosecution in England and Wales is handled by the Crown Prosecution Service and the cases are heard by lay magistrates (who are not lawyers, but who are assisted by a clerk with legal qualifications), or by a Judge (who is legally qualified). Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² Ethnicity: 97. ... The Crown Prosecution Service is the arm of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for public prosecutions of people charged with criminal offences in England and Wales. ... A magistrate is a civil or criminal (or both) judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ...


Scotland

In Scotland all investigations are nominally under the control and direction of the area Procurator Fiscal. All decisions to prosecute are taken by the Procurator Fiscal on behalf of the Lord Advocate (in whose name all public prosecutions are carried out in Scotland.) Procurators Fiscal are part of the Crown Office. Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Scottish Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service provides an independent public prosecution service in Scotland. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service provides an independent public prosecution service in Scotland. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scots Gaelic), was the chief legal adviser of the United Kingdom Government and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters until the passing of the Scotland Act 1998. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Scottish Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service provides an independent public prosecution service in Scotland. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service provides an independent public prosecution service in Scotland. ...


Court Attire

Black robes and white neck tabs are worn by lawyers in jurisdictions like such as England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Canada and are remainders of the highly learned status of lawyers who are expected by courts and non-judicial legal licensing bodies to differentiate themselves (at the symbolic level) from everyday businessmen and clients. Royal motto: Quis separabit (Latin: Who will separate?) Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 4th 1,685,267 122/km² NUTS 1...


In England and a small number of other jurisdictions in the Commonwealth, besides the black robes and white neck tabs, barristers still wear the traditional barrister wigs for trials. However, in most jurisdictions in the Commonwealth, barristers are now prohibited from wearing barrister wigs. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... // Definition and linguistics The original phrase common wealth or the common weal is a calque translation of the Latin term res publica (public matters), from which the word republic comes, which was itself used as a synonym for the greek politeia as well as for the republican (i. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ...


Solicitors in common law jurisdictions appearing court generally wear just black robes. In the United Kingdom and countries having a similar legal system the legal profession is divided into two kinds of lawyers: the solicitors who contact and advise clients, and barristers who argue cases in court. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Initial Education

Practicing law is often similar to operating a private business, but the practice of law is traditionally considered to be a learned honorable profession requiring, in most common law countries, a degree in law. A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


In addition, in the United States and Canada (other than Quebec), at least three years of undergraduate university education, in a subject other than law ("pre-law studies") is required as a prerequisite to entry into the law degree program. In some educational systems, an undergraduate is a post-secondary student pursuing a Bachelors degree. ... A professor giving a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


United States

See main article at Education of Lawyers in the United States

Before taking the bar exam, nearly all American lawyers must first attend law school for at least three years. The Education of Lawyers in the United States is generally through post-baccalaureate law school programs (generally culminating with the awarding of a Juris Doctor degree), followed by a bar examination permitting a person to practice as an Attorney at Law. ...


The degree earned by lawyers in the United States is generally a Juris Doctor (J.D.). Louisiana State University in the U.S. now offers a joint J.D. (Juris Doctor) / B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) over 7 semesters (instead of its previous 6-semester program for the J.D. alone) in recognition of the increased Louisiana civil law component of the new program. J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called Doctor of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years of post-graduate law study. ... Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, or simply Louisiana State University (LSU) is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ... J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called Doctor of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years of post-graduate law study. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or B.C.L. is the name of the degree given in civil law jurisdictions to graduates of a faculty of law in a university. ...


Canada

Canada has similar requirements and systems to that of the United States. The one exception is Quebec, owing its legal system being based on Civil Law. Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ...


The University of Toronto in Canada has recently changed the name of its Bachelor of Laws degree to that of Juris Doctor (J.D.). The University of Toronto is the only Canadian university to do so. Founded in 1827, the University of Toronto (U of T), in Toronto, Ontario, is the largest university in Canada, and by many definitions its most prestigious. ...


Quebec

In Quebec, lawyers hold a LL.B. (Legum Baccalaureus), LL.L. (licence en droit), or B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law), depending on the university where they received their civil law education. Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or B.C.L. is the name of the degree given in civil law jurisdictions to graduates of a faculty of law in a university. ...


In contrast to common law degree programs in Canada, civil law degree programs require entering students to hold only two years of junior college (called CEGEP in Quebec) after Quebec's 11th grade. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... CÉGEP (Collège denseignement général et professionnel - College of General and Vocational Education, pronounced say-jep [fr/en] or see-jip [en]) is a type of educational institution in Quebec. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ...


United Kingdom

The equivalent degree for lawyers in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries such as Canada (excluding the province of Quebec) and Australia) is the LL.B. or Bachelor of Laws or the Oxford University or Cambridge University B.A. in Jurisprudence. A feature of the Oxford and Cambridge B.A. degrees is that B.A. recipients can upgrade their undergraduate B.A. to an undergraduate M.A. by the process of 'inception'. Inception can be applied for, generally 4 years after graduation, by payment of a nominal fee (without the need for further academic work or qualifications). // Definition and linguistics The original phrase common wealth or the common weal is a calque translation of the Latin term res publica (public matters), from which the word republic comes, which was itself used as a synonym for the greek politeia as well as for the republican (i. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... REDIRECT [1] ... Jurisprudence is the scientific study of law, including: Legal history, including legal historiography and hermeneutics; Legal philosophy; Legal science, e. ... This article concerns the Degrees of Oxford University. ...


The LL.B. is ordinarily undertaken by undergraduates after secondary school; and it is rare for students to undertake this course after having already earned a bachelor's degree in a non-law subject. Those who already possess a bachelor's degree in a non-law subject will, instead of pursuing an LL.B., usually study for a postgraduate Diploma in Law (previously the Common Professional Exam). However, in Scotland an LL.B. is required of all students, irrespective of previous higher education. In some educational systems, an undergraduate is a post-secondary student pursuing a Bachelors degree. ... Students attending a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to direct ones zeal at; hence a student is one who directs zeal at a subject. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Scottish Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees, such as university colleges, and liberal arts colleges. ...


Graduate Degrees

Graduate law degrees may also be obtained. A Master of Laws, or LL.M., is awarded after completion of a specialized program of study - often in specialized subjects such as taxation or trial advocacy. The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. ...


United States

The highest law degree obtainable in the United States is the S.J.D., or Scientum Juris Doctor, literally "doctor of juridical science". This should not be confused with the "doctor of laws" degree, or LL.D., which is usually, but not always, awarded for honorary purposes. Usually, only law professors bother to earn an S.J.D., since it entails an additional three years on top of one for an LL.M and three for a J.D.


Canada

In Canada (including Quebec), the graduate law degree is generally the LL.M., and some universities offer the higher S.J.D. as well. Some universities are beginning to offer research thesis based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in law following the LL.M. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...


The LL.M, S.J.D. and Ph.D. are not mandatory prerequisites for lawyers who wish to become law professors. Although such advanced degrees do help with regard to seeking employment at the most prestigious law schools, many law professors in the U.S. and Canada (especially those with practical experience in the practice of law before appointment as a law professor) hold only the J.D. or LL.B. degree. However, competition for positions is, in effect, now making the LL.M. and higher degrees a practical necessity.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom lawyers wishing to specialize further take the Master of Laws (LL.M.), Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) or Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Law. For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. ... Legum Doctor (English: Doctor of Laws; abbreviated to LL.D.) In the UK, Australia and New Zealand, the LL.D. is a doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications, containing significant and original contributions to the science or study of law. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...


Oxford University offers of a Bachelor of Civil Laws (B.C.L.) in place of the Master of Laws degree. The B.C.L. is not required for admission to the practice of law. The B.C.L. generally takes one year to complete. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. ...


Canadians studying law on Rhodes scholarships at Oxford, after having a Canadian university degree in a non-law subject, tend to take both the B.A. (Jurisprudence) and the B.C.L. Rhodes House in Oxford The Rhodes Scholarships were created by Englishman Cecil John Rhodes. ...


Licensing and Discipline

Bar Associations

All jurisdictions have a bar association (or equivalent), being an organization of which members of the bar in that jurisdiction may (or must) be members. A bar association is a professional body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ...


Traditionally, the bar association issues a magazine or journal, forms committees to deal with issues relating to the bar such as fee disputes, rules, and the like, and promotes the greater good of the profession.


Many jurisdictions, particularly in the West, have so-called an integrated bar, meaning that the state's bar association is the body which licenses, regulates, and disciplines lawyers, and membership therein is mandatory.


In other jurisdictions, membership in the state bar association is voluntary, and the bar association has no official power, except those which may be conferred upon it by the state's highest court.


In some jurisdictions, there also exist county or local bar associations, which normally deal with the same issues, except on a more localized basis. There are also bar associations organized by and for members of a particular ethnic group (often based on gender, race, religion, or national heritage) or whose members share common legal interests or practices (such as bankruptcy lawyers or in-house counsel). Originally, in continental Europe, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count. ... In a variety of different contexts, gender refers to the masculinity or femininity of words, persons, organisms, or characteristics. ... A race is a population of humans distinguished from other populations. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ...


Canada

Canada in common with the United Kingdom is a country where the licensing and disciplining of lawyers is not done by the courts but by non-judicial licensing and regulatory bodies, called Law Societies (or Barristers' Society in the province of Nova Scotia), which are composed of lawyers and law professors instead of judges. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) Land 53,338 km² Water 1,946 km² (3. ...


A person must be admitted as a member of the Law Society of his/her province or territory in order to practice law. Each Law Society, as created and incorporated by provincial or territorial legislation, is headed by a President (or Treasurer in the province of Ontario) and a group of individuals called Benchers. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) Land 917,741 km² Water 158,654 km² (14. ...


The President is elected by the Benchers from among their own while most (but not all) Benchers are elected from among the membership by lawyers, law professors and other members of the Law Society through local district elections. The few Benchers who are not elected are appointed by the provincial or territorial government's attorney-general and are drawn from members of the general public so they could provide a "non-lawyer" perspective and represent symbolically the general public interest. It is the Benchers who conduct disciplinary hearings and mete out punishment. Despite the fact that such a system of "self-regulation" has its critics, there is nothing suggesting that it has failed to hold unethical or incompetent lawyers accountable and to maintain public confidence in the legal profession.


The Law Societies also administer the bar examinations written by law school graduates, keep track of which law school graduate is articling (i.e. apprenticing) with which experienced lawyer (called a principal), and provide educational seminars and materials (under the label "Continuing Education") to practicing lawyers. The Law Society of England and Wales is the professional association that regulates and represents the solicitors profession in England and Wales. ... A bar examination is an series of tests conducted at regular intervals to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given jurisdiction. ... Law School is the term used in the United States to indicate an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees, mainly teaching using the Socratic method. ... Look up Graduate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word graduate can mean any of several things. ...


In addition to the Law Societies there is the Canadian Bar Association which is a voluntary association and lobbying organization that seeks to further the interests of legal justice, civil liberty and the legal profession itself. Membership in the Association is not mandatory for lawyers, and the Association offers educational seminars and materials to practicing lawyers. The Law Society of England and Wales is the professional association that regulates and represents the solicitors profession in England and Wales. ... The Canadian Bar Association is the Canadian voluntary bar association organization formed in 1896 representing the interests of 38,000 lawyers, judges, notaries, law teachers, and law students from across Canada involved in the legal system. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ...


See also

In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by ones opponent. ... The following lists are of prominent jurists, including judges, listed in alphabetical order by jurisdiction. ... This is a list of notable law firms worldwide. ... This is a list of people primarily famous as lawyers, ordered within each category alphabetically by last name. ... A power of attorney or letter of attorney in common law systems or mandate in civil law systems is an authorization to act on someone elses behalf in a legal or business matter. ... In the United States, a public defender is a lawyer whose duty is to provide legal counsel and representation to indigent criminal defendants who are unable to pay for legal assistance. ... In countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system, the prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution. ... An ambulance chaser is a derogatory term for an unethical lawyer, especially those who represent plaintiffs in personal injury actions. ...

External link

  • Lawyers - employment and earnings estimates for employed lawyers, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
  • Lawyers - from the BLS "Occupational Outlook Handbook"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Legal Profession in China (2141 words)
A legal foundation for the development of legal profession in China was specifically laid down in the "Provisional Law on Lawyering in People's Republic of China," which was passed during the Fifteenth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Fifth National People's Congress on August 26, 1980.
The name "legal counseling services" was again used for law offices around the country and lawyers were regarded as "state legal workers." The size of the legal profession began to grow as a large number of people, who were formerly involved in lawyering or worked in political or legal branches of the government, became lawyers.
The legal profession in China, however, is still at its fledgling stage and distantly behind in comparison to its counterparts in developed countries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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