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Encyclopedia > Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald

Lee Harvey Oswald during his time living in Minsk
Born October 18, 1939(1939-10-18)
New Orleans, Louisiana
Died November 24, 1963 (aged 24)
Dallas, Texas
Nationality American
Other names Alek J. Hidell used for ordering his Mannlicher-Carcano.
O.H. Lee used for his place of residence
Spouse Marina Oswald
This article is part of the
Jim Garrison Investigation
of the
JFK Assassination series.
People
Jim Garrison
John F. Kennedy
Lee Harvey Oswald
Clay Shaw
David Ferrie
Perry Russo
Guy Banister
George de Mohrenschildt
Groups
Fair Play for Cuba Committee
Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front
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Related articles
Trial of Clay Shaw

Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939November 24, 1963) was the presumed assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. A former United States Marine who defected to the Soviet Union and later returned, Oswald was arrested on suspicion of killing Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit and later connected to the assassination of President Kennedy. Oswald denied any responsibility for the murders. Two days later — before he could be brought to trial for the crimes, while being transferred under police custody from the police station to jail — Oswald was shot and killed by Jack Ruby on live television. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (385x622, 153 KB) Image can be found at http://www. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, according to the conclusions of two government investigations into the assassination. ... Earling Carothers Jim Garrison (November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) — who changed his first name to Jim in the early 1960s — was the Democratic District Attorney of Orleans Parish, Louisiana from 1962 to 1973. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Clay Shaw Clay Laverne Shaw (March 17, 1913 – August 14, 1974) was a successful businessman in the U.S. city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Mugshot of David Ferrie, August 8, 1961. ... Guy Banister William Guy Banister (March 7, 1901–June 6, 1964) was a private investigator alleged by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison to have been involved in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... George de Mohrenschildt (April 17, 1911-March 29, 1977) befriended Lee Harvey Oswald during the months preceding the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Lee Harvey Oswald distributing literature on behalf of the Fair Play For Cuba Committee, August 9, 1963. ... Jim Garrison is the only prosecutor to bring a trial for the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... J.D. Tippit J. D. Tippit (September 18, 1924 – November 22, 1963) was a police officer with the Dallas, Texas Police Department who, according to witnesses, was slain by Lee Harvey Oswald after Tippit stopped Oswald following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ... Jacob Rubenstein (March 25, 1911 – January 3, 1967), who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947, was an American business analyst and nightclub owner from Dallas, Texas. ...


In 1964 the Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated President John F. Kennedy single-handedly, a conclusion also reached by prior investigations of the FBI and the Dallas Police Department. In 1979, the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) agreed with the Warren Commission that Oswald assassinated Kennedy. However, the HSCA also concluded, largely based on controversial and disputed acoustic evidence, that there were two shooters and that Kennedy was assassinated "probably as a result of a conspiracy." The HSCA also stated: "The Warren Commission failed to investigate adequately the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the President."[1] Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


According to a 2003 ABC poll, "seven in 10 Americans think the assassination of John F. Kennedy was the result of a plot, not the act of a lone killer — and a bare majority thinks that plot included a second shooter in Dealey Plaza." [2] Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza (IPA pronunciation: ), in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA), is infamous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ...

Contents

Early life and Marine Corps service

Lee Harvey Oswald was born in New Orleans, Louisiana.[3] His father, Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Sr. (New Orleans, 4 March 1896 – New Orleans, 19 August 1939), who had previously been married before marrying Oswald's mother on 20 July 1933, died two months before Lee was born. His mother, Marguerite Frances Claverie (New Orleans, 19 July 1907Fort Worth, Texas, 17 January 1981), largely raised Lee on her own along with two older siblings: his brother Robert and his half-brother, John Pic (1932–2000), Marguerite's son from a previous marriage. Oswald did have a stepfather for several years, Edwin A. Ekdahl (1888–1965), from 1945 to 1948, when they divorced. NOLA redirects here. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Lee's youth was characterized by extreme mobility; before the age of 18 Oswald had lived in 22 different homes. Because of the short-lived stay in each location, he had attended 12 different schools, mostly around New Orleans and Dallas, but also in New York City. His mother sent him to an orphanage for 13 months in 1942–1943 when she was too poor to take care of him and his brothers.[4] New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Dallas redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Orphanage (disambiguation). ...


As a child Oswald was withdrawn and temperamental.[5] After moving in with his half-brother (who had joined the US Coast Guard and was stationed in New York City), Oswald and Pic were asked to leave after an incident in which Oswald allegedly threatened John Pic's wife with a knife, and struck his mother.[6] [7] Following charges of truancy, he was put under a three week court-ordered stay for psychiatric observation in a facility called Youth House. Dr. Renatus Hartogs described Oswald as having a "Vivid fantasy life, turning around the topics of omnipotence and power, through which he tries to compensate for his present shortcomings and frustrations," and diagnosed the fourteen-year-old Oswald as having a "personality pattern disturbance with schizoid features and passive-aggressive tendencies" and recommended continued psychiatric intervention.[8] USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... “Truant” redirects here. ... Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterised by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, and emotional coldness. ... Passive-aggressive personality disorder is a personality disorder whereby someone displays a pattern of negative attitudes and passive resistance in interpersonal or occupational situations. ...


Oswald's behavior at school appeared to improve in his last months in New York.[9][10] In January 1954, his mother Marguerite decided to return to New Orleans with Lee, which prevented Lee from receiving the care the psychiatrist had recommended.[11] There was still an open question pending before a New York judge whether or not he should be taken from the care of his mother to finish his schooling.[12]


Oswald left school after the 9th grade and never received a high school diploma. Throughout his life, he had trouble with spelling and writing coherently.[13] Yet Oswald read voraciously and, by age 15, claimed to be a Marxist from his reading on the topic. He wrote in his diary, "I was looking for a key to my environment, and then I discovered socialist literature. I had to dig for my books in the back dusty shelves of libraries." At 16, Oswald wrote to the Socialist Party of America, stating that he was a Marxist who had been studying socialist principles for "well over fifteen months," and asked for information about their youth league.[14] For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... YPSLs Logo The Young Peoples Socialist League (YPSL) is a democratic socialist youth group originally affiliated with the Socialist Party of America. ...


Despite his avowed Marxist sympathies, Oswald decided to join the US Marine Corps. He idolized his older brother, Robert and wore Robert's U.S. Marines ring. Joining the Marines may have also been a way to escape from his overbearing mother.[15] He enlisted in October 1956, a week after his 17th birthday.[16] The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


While in the Marines, Oswald was trained in the use of the M1 Garand rifle. Following that training, he was tested in December of 1956, and obtained a score of 212, which was 2 points above the minimum for qualifications as a sharpshooter. In May 1959, on another range, Oswald scored 191, which was 1 point over the minimum for ranking as a marksman.[17] The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... A marksman (also designated marksman) is a profession which is mostly to be found in military context. ... A US Marine marksman. ...


Oswald, however, was trained primarily as a radar operator, a job that required a security clearance. A May 1957 document states that he was "granted FINAL clearance to handle classified matter up to and including CONFIDENTIAL after careful check of local records had disclosed no derogatory data."[18] Oswald took the Aircraft Control and Warning Operator Course and finished seventh in a class of thirty. The course "...included instruction in aircraft surveillance and the use of radar."[19] He was assigned first to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in Irvine, California in July 1957,[20] then to Naval Air Facility Atsugi in Japan in September 1957. Although Atsugi was a base for the top-secret CIA U-2 spy planes that flew over the Soviet Union, there is no evidence Oswald was involved in that operation. Marine Corps Air Station El Toro was a United States Marine Corps Air Station located near Irvine, California at . ... Motto: Innovation. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Naval Air Facility Atsugi ) is a naval air base located in the cities of Yamato and Ayase in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency. ...


Oswald was court-martialled twice: initially because of accidentally shooting himself in the elbow with an unauthorized handgun, and then later for starting a fight with a Sergeant he thought responsible for the punishment he received from his first court-martial. He was demoted from private first class to private, and briefly served time in the brig. Later, he was punished for another incident; while on sentry duty one night in the Philippines, he inexplicably fired his rifle into the jungle. Courts-martial in the United States are criminal trials conducted by the military of the United States. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... US Military In the U.S. Army, Private First Class is the third lowest enlisted rank, just above Private and below Corporal or Specialist. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... Military Prison is where the level military operates some type of military prison system. ...


Small compared to some other Marines, Oswald was nicknamed Ozzie Rabbit after the cartoon character. For his steadfast beliefs, he was also nicknamed Oswaldskovich. In December 1958, he transferred back to the Marine Corp Air Station El Toro.[21] The function of Oswald's unit at El Toro "...was to serveil for aircraft, but basically to train both enlisted men and officers for later assignment overseas." One of Oswald's officers, Lieutenant John Donovan, said that Oswald was a "very competent" crew chief.[22] Oswald subscribed to the Communist Party newspaper, The Worker and claimed to have taught himself rudimentary Russian. At the El Toro base, in February 1959, he took the Marine proficiency exam in written and spoken Russian and his test results were rated "poor."[23] An Oswald the Lucky Rabbit trade advertisement from 1927. ... An Oswald the Lucky Rabbit movie poster from 1927. ... Robotnik is the generic Polish word for a worker. ...


Life in the Soviet Union

Photo of Oswald taken in October 1959 shortly after his arrival in the Soviet Union.
Photo of Oswald taken in October 1959 shortly after his arrival in the Soviet Union.

In October 1959, Oswald emigrated to the Soviet Union. He was 19, and the trip was planned well in advance. Along with having taught himself rudimentary Russian, he had saved $1,500 of his Marine Corps salary,[24] got an early "hardship" discharge by (falsely) claiming he needed to care for his injured mother,[25] got a passport, and submitted several fictional applications to foreign universities in order to obtain a student visa. Image File history File links Oswald-1959. ... Image File history File links Oswald-1959. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A military discharge is given when a member of the armed forces is released from his or her obligation to serve. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit. ...


After spending three days with his mother in Fort Worth, Oswald departed by ship from New Orleans on September 20, 1959, for the Soviet Union. He arrived by train to Moscow on October 16. [26] Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


He almost immediately announced to his Intourist guide his intention to become a citizen of the Soviet Union.[27] But when he was informed on October 21 that his application for citizenship had been refused, Oswald made a bloody but minor cut to his left wrist in his hotel room bathtub. After bandaging his superficial injury, the cautious Soviets kept him under psychiatric observation at a hospital.[28][29] Intourist was the state travel agency of the Soviet Union. ... For the foundations of the World Trade Center, see The Bathtub. ...


When Oswald showed up unexpectedly at the United States embassy in Moscow on October 31, he said he wanted to renounce his U.S. citizenship.[30][31] He told Soviet officials "...that he had been a radar operator in the Marine Corps and that he ... would make known to them such information concerning the Marine Corps and his speciality as he possessed. He intimated that he might know something of special interest."[32] When the Navy Department learned of this, it changed Oswald's Marine Corps discharge from "hardship/honorable" to "undesirable."[33] Citizen redirects here. ... The term Section 8 refers to a discharge from the United States military for reason of being mentally unfit for service. ...


John McVickar, one of the American consular officials at the Moscow embassy who was in contact with Oswald, said he felt Oswald, "...was following a pattern of behavior in which he had been tutored by [a] person or persons unknown ... seemed to be using words which he had learned but did not fully understand ... in short, it seemed to me that there was a possibility that he had been in contact with others before or during his Marine Corps tour who had guided him and encouraged him in his actions."[34]

Marina Prusakova, Minsk 1959

Although Oswald had wanted to remain in Moscow and attend Moscow University, he was sent to Minsk, capital city of modern-day Belarus. He was given a job as a metal lathe operator at the Gorizont (Horizon) Electronics Factory in Minsk, a huge facility that produced radios and televisions along with military and space electronic components. He was given a rent-subsidized, fully furnished studio apartment in a prestigious building under Gorizont's administration and in addition to his factory pay received monetary subsidies from the Russian Red Cross Society. This represented an idyllic existence by Soviet-era working-class standards.[35] Oswald was under constant surveillance by the KGB during his thirty-month stay in Minsk.[36] Image File history File links Marina_prusakova_1959. ... Image File history File links Marina_prusakova_1959. ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is considered the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... language None. ... Conventional metalworking lathe See also: Lathe (tool) A metal lathe is a rigid machine tool designed to remove material from a workpiece, through the action of a cutting tool. ... Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. ... The terms Red Cross and Red Crescent are often used as short names for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, or its two leading international organs, the ICRC and the IFRCS. This page is about the symbol itself, see respective articles for information about the organizations and movements. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


Oswald gradually grew bored with the limited recreation available in Minsk.[37] He wrote in his diary in January 1961: "I am starting to reconsider my desire about staying. The work is drab, the money I get has nowhere to be spent. No nightclubs or bowling alleys, no places of recreation except the trade union dances. I have had enough." [38] Shortly afterwards, Oswald opened negotiations with the U.S. Embassy in Moscow over his proposed return to the United States.[39]


At a dance in early 1961 Oswald met Marina Prusakova, a troubled 19-year-old pharmacology student from a broken family in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) who was then living with her aunt and uncle in Minsk.[40][41] Lee and Marina married on April 30, 1961, less than six weeks after they met. Their first child, June, was born in February 1962. Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, according to the conclusions of two government investigations into the assassination. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


After nearly a year of paperwork and waiting, on June 1, 1962 the young family left the Soviet Union for the United States. Even before November 22, 1963, Oswald received a small measure of national notoriety in the U.S. press as an American who had defected to the U.S.S.R. and returned.[42] is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Dallas

Back in the United States, the Oswalds settled in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, where his mother and brother lived, and Lee attempted to write his memoir and commentary on Soviet life, a small manuscript called The Collective. He soon gave up the idea but his search for literary feedback put him in touch with the area's close-knit community of anti-Communist Russian émigrés. While merely tolerating the belligerent and arrogant Lee Oswald, they sympathized with Marina, partly because she was in a foreign country with no knowledge of English (which her husband refused to teach her, saying he didn't want to forget Russian) and because Oswald had begun to beat her.[43] [44] The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ... As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory), or a reminiscence, forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Émigré is a French term that literally refers to a person who has migrated out, but often carries a connotation of politico-social self-exile. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Although the Russian émigrés eventually abandoned Marina when she made no sign of leaving him,[45] Oswald had found an unlikely friend in the well-educated and worldly petroleum geologist George de Mohrenschildt,[46] A native Russian-speaker himself, de Mohrenschildt wrote that Oswald spoke Russian "very well, with only a little accent."[47] Marina meanwhile befriended a married couple, Ruth Paine,[48] who was trying to learn Russian, and her husband Michael. Petro redirects here. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... George de Mohrenschildt (April 17, 1911-March 29, 1977) befriended Lee Harvey Oswald during the months preceding the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Ruth Hyde Paine (born 1933?) was a friend of Marina Oswald, who was living with her at the time of the JFK assassination. ...


In Dallas in July 1962, Oswald got a job with the Leslie Welding Company, but disliked the work and quit after three months. He then found a position in October 1962 at the graphic arts firm of Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall as a photoprint trainee.[49] He may have used photographic and typesetting equipment in the unsecured area to create falsified identification documents,[50] including some in the name of an alias he created, Alek James Hidell. His co-workers and supervisors eventually grew frustrated with his inefficiency, lack of precision, inattention, and rudeness to others, to the point where fights had threatened to break out.[51] He had also been seen reading a Russian publication, Krokodil (Russian: 'Крокодил', 'crocodile'), in the cafeteria.[52] On April 1, 1963, after six months of work, Oswald's supervisor terminated Oswald's employment at Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall.[53] Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. ... Identity document forgery is the process by which identity documents issued by governing bodies are copied and/or modified by persons not authorized to create such documents or engage in such modifications, for the purpose of deceiving those who would view the documents about the identity or status of the... For other uses, see Alias. ... This 1930 poster reads: . Krokodil (i. ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ...


Attempted assassination of General Walker

General Walker
General Walker

The Warren Commission concluded that on April 10, 1963, ten days after being fired, Oswald attempted to assassinate retired Major General Edwin Walker, and that Oswald probably used the rifle shown in his backyard pose photos of March 31.[54] (The House Select Committee on Assassinations stated that the "evidence strongly suggested" that Oswald did the shooting.)[55] Image File history File links JFKwalker. ... Image File history File links JFKwalker. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... A General is a high rank in the United States military. ... Major General Edwin Anderson Walker (November 10, 1909 - October 31, 1993) was a member of the U.S. Army known for his right wing political views and for being a target of Lee Harvey Oswald. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


General Edwin Walker was an outspoken anti-communist, segregationist and member of the John Birch Society who had been commanding officer of the Army's 24th Infantry Division based in West Germany under NATO supreme command until he was relieved of his command in 1961 by JFK for distributing right-wing literature to his troops. Walker resigned from the service and returned to his native Texas. He became involved in the movement to resist the use of federal troops for securing racial integration at the University of Mississippi, resistance that led to a riot on October 1, 1962 in which two people were killed. He was arrested for insurrection, seditious conspiracy, and other charges, but federal grand jury declined to indict Walker. Major General Edwin Anderson Walker (November 10, 1909 - October 31, 1993) was a member of the U.S. Army known for his right wing political views and for being a target of Lee Harvey Oswald. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... The John Birch Society is a conservative American exceptionalist organization founded in 1958 to fight what it saw as growing threats to the Constitution of the United States, especially a suspected communist infiltration of the United States government, and to support free enterprise. ... The 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized)—also known as the Victory Division—was an infantry division of the United States Army with base of operations at Fort Riley, Kansas originally organized out of the old Hawaiian Division. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Army National Guard The Mississippi National Guard is comprised of both Army and Air National Guard components. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ...


Oswald considered Walker a "fascist" and the leader of a "fascist organization."[56] In March 1963, Oswald purchased a 6.5 mm caliber Carcano rifle (also improperly called Mannlicher-Carcano) by mail order, using the alias "A. Hidell."[57] He also purchased a revolver by the same method.[58] Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... For a discussion of this weapon as it pertains to the John F. Kennedy assassination, see John F. Kennedy assassination rifle. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Bolt-action rifles | World War II Italian infantry weapons | JFK assassination | World War I guns ... Mail order is a term which describes the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ...


The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald attempted to shoot General Walker with his rifle, while Walker was sitting at a desk in his dining room. Oswald fired at him from less than one hundred feet (30 m) away. Walker survived only because the bullet struck the wooden frame of the window, which deflected its path, but was injured in the forearm by bullet fragments. Oswald returned home and told Marina what he had just done.


General Walker's brush with death was reported nationwide. The Dallas police had no suspects in the shooting.[59]


Oswald's involvement in the attempt on Walker's life was suspected within hours of his arrest on November 22, 1963, following the Kennedy assassination.[60] But a note Oswald left for Marina on the night of the attempt, telling her what to do if he did not return, was not found until early December 1963, after which Marina told authorities about Oswald and Walker.[61][62][63] The bullet was too badly damaged to run conclusive ballistics studies on it,[64] though neutron activation tests later showed that it was "extremely likely" that the Walker bullet was from the same cartridge manufacturer and for the same rifle make as the two bullets which later struck Kennedy.[65] Neutron activation is the process by which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials. ...


New Orleans

Oswald returned to New Orleans on April 25, 1963 and got a job as a machinery greaser with the Reily Coffee Company in May. Oswald's wife, Marina joined him in New Orleans, after being driven there by family friend Ruth Paine. In July, Oswald was fired from Reily for malingering. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Reily Foods Company is the primary division of the independently held Wm. ... Ruth Hyde Paine (born 1933?) was a friend of Marina Oswald, who was living with her at the time of the JFK assassination. ...


Around this time, according to Lee Oswald's wife Marina, Lee began to consider returning to the Soviet Union, or going to Cuba.[66] In her testimony before the Warren Commission, Marina said that her husband requested that she write the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C. about the possibility of both of them returning to the Soviet Union. However, Marina's letter to the Soviet Embassy makes no mention of her husband's desire to return to the Soviet Union, but instead states: "My husband remains here, since he is an American by nationality."[67]


On May 26, 1963, Oswald wrote a letter to the New York City headquarters of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, a pro-Castro organization, and proposed "...renting a small office at my own expense for the purpose of forming a FPCC branch here in New Orleans."[68] Three days later, the FPCC responded to Oswald's letter advising against opening a New Orleans office "at least not ... at the very beginning."[69] In a follow-up letter, Oswald replied, "Against your advice, I have decided to take an office from the very beginning."[70] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Lee Harvey Oswald distributing literature on behalf of the Fair Play For Cuba Committee, August 9, 1963. ...


As the sole member of the New Orleans chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, Oswald told Marina to sign the name "A.J. Hidell" as chapter president on his membership card.[71] Lee Harvey Oswald distributing literature on behalf of the Fair Play For Cuba Committee, August 9, 1963. ...


On August 5th and 6th, according to anti-Castro militant Carlos Bringuier, Oswald visited him at a store he owned in New Orleans. Bringuier was the New Orleans delegate for the anti-Castro Cuban Student Directorate. Bringuier told the Warren Commission that he believed Oswald's visits were an attempt by Oswald to infiltrate his anti-Castro group.[72] Three days later, on August 9, Oswald turned up in downtown New Orleans handing out pro-Castro flyers. Bringuier confronted Oswald, claiming he was tipped off about Oswald's leafleting by a friend. During an ensuing scuffle, Oswald, along with Bringuier and two of his friends, was arrested and charged with disturbing the peace.[73] Carlos Jose Bringuier was born in Cuba on 22nd June, 1934. ...


The arrest got news media attention and Oswald was interviewed afterwards. He was also filmed passing out flyers in front of the International Trade Mart with two 'volunteers' he had hired. Oswald's political work in New Orleans came to an end after a WDSU radio debate between Bringuier and Oswald arranged by journalist Bill Stuckey. Instead of discussing Cuba as he had done during a previous radio program, Oswald was publicly confronted with the lies and omissions he had made concerning his life and background and became audibly upset.[74] The International Trade Mart was chartered in 1945, first opened its doors in 1948, and in 1985, merged with International House to form the World Trade Center, a private, non-profit organization with a membership of 2,000 corporations and individuals dedicated to promoting international trade and the port of... WDSU NBC 6 is the NBC affiliate for the New Orleans, Louisiana television market. ...


Oswalds activities in New Orleans in the summer of 1963 was investigated by Jim Garrison during his prosecution of Clay Shaw in 1969. Jim Garrison is the only prosecutor to bring a trial for the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...

Further information: David Ferrie
Further information: Trial of Clay Shaw

Mugshot of David Ferrie, August 8, 1961. ... Jim Garrison is the only prosecutor to bring a trial for the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...

Mexico

While Ruth Paine drove Marina back to Dallas in late September 1963, Oswald lingered in New Orleans for two more days waiting to collect a $33 unemployment check. It has never been conclusively established precisely when Oswald left New Orleans, or what mode of transportation he took out of New Orleans. He is next known to have boarded a bus in Houston, Texas, but instead of heading north to Dallas, he took a bus southwest towards Laredo and the U.S.-Mexico border. Once in Mexico he hoped to continue on to Cuba, a plan he openly shared with other passengers on the bus.[75] Arriving in Mexico City, he completed a transit visa application at the Cuban Embassy,[76] claiming he wanted to visit the country on his way back to the Soviet Union. The Cubans insisted the Soviet Union would have to approve his journey to the USSR before he could get a Cuban visa, but he was unable to get speedy co-operation from the Soviet embassy. Houston redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Laredo in Texas Coordinates: , Country State County Webb Settled 1755 Government  - Type Mayor / City Manager  - Mayor Raul G. Salinas  - City Manager Carlos R. Villarreal Area  - City 84. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


After shuttling back and forth between consulates for five days, getting into a heated argument with the Cuban consul, making impassioned pleas to KGB agents, and coming under at least some CIA interest,[77] the Cuban consul told Oswald that "as far as [he] was concerned [he] would not give him a visa" and that "a person like him [Oswald] in place of aiding the Cuban Revolution, was doing it harm."[78] However, less than three weeks later, on October 18 the Cuban embassy in Mexico City finally approved the visa, and 11 days before the assassination Oswald wrote a letter to the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C., which said, "Had I been able to reach the Soviet Embassy in Havana as planned, the embassy there would have had time to complete our business."[79][80] This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ...


Return to Dallas

Oswald left Mexico City on October 3, and returned by bus to Dallas, where he looked for employment. Through Ruth Paine he found a job filling book orders at the Texas School Book Depository, where he started work on October 16. During the week, he lived in a rooming house in Dallas, and spent the weekends with his wife at the Paine home in Irving, Texas, about 15 miles (24 km) from central Dallas. On October 20, the Oswalds' second daughter was born. During this period, the FBI was aware of Oswald's whereabouts in Texas, and agents from the Dallas office twice visited the Paine home in early November when Oswald was not present, hoping to get more information about Marina Oswald, whom the FBI suspected of being a Soviet agent.[81] Texas School Book Depository The Texas School Book Depository is the former name of a seven-floor building located on Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas. ... Mustangs at Las Colinas Streetscape along Las Colinas Blvd in North Irving Aerial shot of Irving/Las Colinass Urban Center. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


On November 16, a local newspaper reported that President Kennedy's motorcade would be going through central Dallas on November 22, "probably on Main Street" one block from the Texas School Book Depository, which it would have to pass to get onto the freeway to the President's luncheon site. This was confirmed by exact descriptions of the motorcade route published on November 19.[82] On Thursday, November 21, Oswald asked a co-worker for a ride to Irving, saying he had to pick up some curtain rods. The next morning, after leaving $170 and his wedding ring,[83] he returned with the co-worker to Dallas, carrying a long paper bag with him.[84] Motorcade for the British Queen Elizabeth II in Koblenz 1964 A motorcade is a procession of cars carrying VIPs, especially political figures. ...


Oswald was last seen by a co-worker alone on the sixth floor of the Depository about 35 minutes before the assassination.[85]


Assassination of JFK

Bullets struck John F. Kennedy and other people at 12:30 pm on November 22, 1963, resulting in the death of Kennedy. The 1964 Warren Commission report on the John F. Kennedy assassination concluded that those bullets came from a gun that Oswald fired from a window on the sixth floor of the book depository warehouse as the President's motorcade passed through Dallas' Dealey Plaza. Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza (IPA pronunciation: ), in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA), is infamous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ...

Further information: lone gunman theory

Texas Governor John Connally was also seriously wounded along with assassination witness James Tague who received a minor facial injury. On the evening of November 22, in an impromptu news conference, Oswald denied shooting president Kennedy or officer J. D. Tippit. The Lone gunman theory (a. ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... James Jim Thomas Tague (born 1937) was a witness to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, on November 22, 1963. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... J.D. Tippit J. D. Tippit (September 18, 1924 – November 22, 1963) was a police officer with the Dallas, Texas Police Department who, according to witnesses, was slain by Lee Harvey Oswald after Tippit stopped Oswald following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ...


Oswald's flight and the murder of Officer J. D. Tippit

Dallas PD color mugshot November 23, 1963
Dallas PD color mugshot November 23, 1963

According to the Warren Commission report, immediately after he shot President Kennedy, Oswald hid the rifle behind some boxes and descended via the Depository's rear stairwell. On the second floor he encountered Dallas police officer Marion Baker who had driven his motorcycle to the door of the Depository and sprinted up the stairs in search of the shooter. With Baker was Oswald's supervisor Roy Truly, who identified Oswald as an employee, which caused Baker, who had his pistol in hand, to let Oswald pass. This encounter occurred in the second floor lunch room up to 90 seconds after the shooting. Both Baker and Truly testified later that Oswald was not out of breath. Subsequently, Oswald crossed the floor to the front staircase, descended and left the building through the front entrance on Elm Street, just before the police sealed the building off. He would be the only employee to leave early that day; his supervisor later noticed only Oswald missing,[86] and reported his name and address to the Dallas police in the building.[87] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


At about 12:40 p.m. (CST), Oswald boarded a city bus when heavy traffic had slowed the bus to a halt. On the bus was Oswald's former landlady, who recognized him.[88] About two blocks later, he requested a bus transfer from the driver and exited the bus.[89] He took a taxicab to a few blocks beyond his rooming house. and walked back to his rooming house. At about 1:00 p.m., went into his room briefly, and came out zipping up a jacket. His housekeeper, Earlene Roberts testified that "he was walking pretty fast — he was all but running."[90] Oswald left the house and was last seen by Roberts standing by a bus stop across the street.[91] For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


He was next seen walking about four fifths of a mile away. Patrolman J. D. Tippit encountered Oswald on a residential street, and pulled up to talk to him through his patrol car window.[92] Tippit then got out of his car and Oswald fired at the police officer with his .38 caliber revolver. Four of the shots hit Tippit, killing him, in view of two eyewitnesses.[93] Seven other witnesses heard the shots and saw the gunman flee the scene with the revolver in his hand. Three other witnesses identified Oswald as fleeing the scene.[94][95] Four cartridge cases were found at the scene by eyewitnesses. It was the unanimous testimony of expert witnesses before the Warren Commission that these used cartridge cases were fired from the revolver in Oswald's possession to the exclusion of all other weapons.[96] J.D. Tippit J. D. Tippit (September 18, 1924 – November 22, 1963) was a police officer with the Dallas, Texas Police Department who, according to witnesses, was slain by Lee Harvey Oswald after Tippit stopped Oswald following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ...

Oswald's Seat In The Texas Theater
Oswald's Seat In The Texas Theater

A few minutes later, Oswald ducked into the entrance alcove of a shoe store to avoid passing police cars, then slipped into the nearby Texas Theater without paying.[97] The shoe store's manager noticed Oswald and followed him into the theater where he alerted the ticket clerk, who phoned the police. Image File history File linksMetadata TexasTheater_oswaldsSeat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata TexasTheater_oswaldsSeat. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The police quickly arrived en masse and entered the theater as the lights were turned on. Officer M.N. McDonald approached Oswald sitting near the rear and ordered him to stand up. As Oswald said "Well, it is all over now" and appeared to raise his hands in surrender, he struck the officer. A scuffle ensued where McDonald reported that Oswald pulled the trigger on his revolver, but the hammer came down on the web of skin between the thumb and forefinger of the officer's hand, which prevented the revolver from firing.[98] Oswald was eventually subdued. As he was led past an angry group of people who had gathered outside the theater, Oswald shouted that he was a victim of police brutality.


Oswald was held on suspicion first as a suspect in the shooting of Officer Tippit and was questioned by Detective Jim Leavelle. Shortly afterward Oswald was also booked on suspicion of murdering both President Kennedy and Officer Tippit. By the end of the night he had been arraigned for both murders.[99] Self: 2000s 1990s 1980s 1970s The Work of Director Jonathan Glazer (2005) (V) .... Himself The JFK Assassination: The Jim Garrison Tapes (1992) (also archive footage) (as James Leavelle) .... Himself (Dallas detective, in charge of Tippit case) The Men Who Killed Kennedy (1988) (mini) TV Series . ... Arraignment is a common law term for the formal reading of a criminal complaint, in the presence of the defendant, to inform him of the charges against him. ...


While in custody, Oswald had an impromptu, face-to-face brush with reporters and photographers in the hallway of the police station. A reporter asked him, "Did you shoot the President?" and Oswald answered, "I have not been accused of that." The reporters answered that he had been. "In fact, I didn't even know about it until a reporter in the hall asked me that question," Oswald added. Later Oswald said to reporters, "I didn't shoot anyone," and "They're taking me in because I lived in the Soviet Union. I'm just a patsy!"


Videotape of a brief press appearance Oswald made later that night shows Jack Ruby lingering amongst the reporters.[100] Jacob Rubenstein (March 25, 1911 – January 3, 1967), who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947, was an American business analyst and nightclub owner from Dallas, Texas. ...


Police interrogation

Oswald was interrogated several times during his two days of detention at Dallas Police Headquarters. He denied killing President Kennedy or Officer Tippit, denied owning a rifle, said two photographs of him holding a rifle and a pistol were fakes, denied knowing anything about the forged Selective Service card with the name "Alek J. Hidell" in his wallet, denied telling his co-worker he wanted a ride to Irving to get curtain rods for his apartment, and denied he had been seen carrying a long heavy package to work the morning of the assassination.[101] The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ...


During his first interrogation on November 22, Oswald was asked to account for himself at the time the President was shot. Oswald said that he ate lunch in the first-floor lunchroom of the Texas School Book Depository and then went up to the second floor for a Coke, during which he encountered the police officer.[102] During his last interrogation on November 24, Oswald was asked again where he was at the time of the shooting. Oswald said he was working on one of the upper floors of the Depository when it occurred, and that he then went downstairs, where he encountered the police officer.[103] The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ...


Oswald's murder

The grave of Lee Harvey Oswald

At 11:21 am CST Sunday, November 24, while he was handcuffed to Detective Leavelle and as he was about to be taken to the Dallas County Jail, Oswald was shot and fatally wounded before live television cameras in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub operator who had been distraught over the Kennedy assassination. is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacob Rubenstein (March 25, 1911 – January 3, 1967), who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947, was an American business analyst and nightclub owner from Dallas, Texas. ...


Unconscious, Oswald was put into an ambulance and rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, the same hospital where JFK had died two days earlier. Doctors operated on Oswald, but Ruby's single bullet had severed major abdominal blood vessels, and the doctors were unable to repair the massive trauma. At 48 hours and 7 minutes after the President's death, Oswald was pronounced dead at 1:07 pm. After a full autopsy, Oswald's body[104] was returned to his family.[105] Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard in Dallas, Texas. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ...


His wife Marina was sequestered by federal agents the day after the assassination and later released.


Investigations

  • The Warren Commission created by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination concluded that Oswald assassinated Kennedy and that he acted alone (also known as the Lone gunman theory). The proceedings of the commission were closed, but not secret, and about 3% of its files have yet to be released to the public, which has continued to provoke speculation among conspiracy theorists.[106]
  • In 1968 The Ramsey Clark Panel met in Washington, DC to examine various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence pertaining to the death of President Kennedy. It concluded that President Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its right side.[107]
  • In 1979, an investigation by the House Select Committee on Assassinations, concluded that Oswald assassinated President Kennedy "probably...as the result of a conspiracy." The HSCA prepared an initial report concluding that Oswald acted alone until a Dictabelt recording purportedly of the assassination surfaced and the Committee revised their conclusion. This acoustic evidence has itself been called into question and some believe it is not a recording of the assassination at all.[108] Staff director and chief counsel for the House Select Committee on Assassinations, G. Robert Blakey, told ABC News that there were 20 people, at least, who heard a shot from the Grassy Knoll, and that the conclusion that a conspiracy existed in the assassination was established by both the witness testimony and acoustic evidence. In 2004, he expressed less confidence in the acoustic evidence.[109] Officer McLain, whose motorcycle the Dictabelt evidence comes from, has repeatedly stated that he was not yet in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination.[110] The HSCA was unable to identify the other gunman or the extent of the conspiracy. It also had insufficient evidence to identify any group responsible.

In 1982, a group of twelve scientists appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), led by Professor Norman Ramsey of Harvard, concluded that the acoustical evidence and the team behind its submission to the HSCA was "seriously flawed." Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... LBJ redirects here. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Lone gunman theory (a. ... William Ramsey Clark (born December 18, 1927) is a lawyer and activist. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... Professor G. Robert Blakey, the nation’s foremost authority on the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO), has served on the Notre Dame Law School faculty for more than 20 years, from 1964 to 1969 and since 1980. ... Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza, (pronounced deal-ee) in Dallas, Texas, United States, is famous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound, mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids. ...


While the NAS said that the HSCA acoustical evidence was flawed, a 2001 peer-reviewed article in Science and Justice, the journal of Britain's Forensic Science Society, said that the NAS investigation was itself flawed. The article's author, Dr. Donald B. Thomas, a government scientist and JFK assassination researcher, concluded, with a 96.3 percent certainty, that there were at least two gunmen firing at President Kennedy and that one of the shots came from the Grassy Knoll in front of Kennedy.[111] Commenting on the British study, House Select Committee on Assassinations staff director and chief counsel G. Robert Blakey said: "This is an honest, careful scientific examination of everything we did, with all the appropriate statistical checks."[112] Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza, (pronounced deal-ee) in Dallas, Texas, United States, is famous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Professor G. Robert Blakey, the nation’s foremost authority on the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO), has served on the Notre Dame Law School faculty for more than 20 years, from 1964 to 1969 and since 1980. ...


Possible motives

The Warren Commission could not ascribe any one motive or group of motives to Oswald's actions:

It is apparent, however, that Oswald was moved by an overriding hostility to his environment. He does not appear to have been able to establish meaningful relationships with other people. He was perpetually discontented with the world around him. Long before the assassination he expressed his hatred for American society and acted in protest against it. Oswald's search for what he conceived to be the perfect society was doomed from the start. He sought for himself a place in history — a role as the "great man" who would be recognized as having been in advance of his times. His commitment to Marxism and communism appears to have been another important factor in his motivation. He also had demonstrated a capacity to act decisively and without regard to the consequences when such action would further his aims of the moment. Out of these and the many other factors which may have molded the character of Lee Harvey Oswald there emerged a man capable of assassinating President Kennedy.[113]

1981 exhumation

In October 1981 Oswald's body was exhumed at the behest of British writer Michael Eddowes, with Marina Oswald Porter's support. He sought to prove a thesis developed in a 1975 book, Khrushchev Killed Kennedy (re-published in 1976, in Britain as November 22: How They Killed Kennedy and in America a year later as The Oswald File). By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, according to the conclusions of two government investigations into the assassination. ...


Eddowes' theory was that during Oswald's stay in the Soviet Union he was replaced with a Soviet double named Alek, who was a member of a KGB assassination squad. Eddowes' claim is that it was this look-alike who killed Kennedy, and not Oswald. Eddowes's support for his thesis was a claim that the corpse buried in 1963 in the Shannon Rose Hill Memorial Park cemetery in Fort Worth, Texas did not have a scar that resulted from surgery conducted on Oswald years before. For other uses, see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Tarrant, Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City 298. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


When Oswald's body was exhumed it was found that the coffin had ruptured and was filled with water; leaving the body in an advanced state of decomposition with partial skeletonization. The examination positively identified Oswald's corpse through dental records, and also detected a mastoid scar from a childhood operation.[114] Contrary to reports, the skull of Oswald had been autopsied and this was confirmed at the exhumation.[115] In forensics, skeletonization refers to the complete decomposition of the non-bony tissues of a corpse, leading to a bare skeleton. ... Dental Records is a small, independent ska / punk record label, based in Ipswich, UK. The Ballistics Singled Out Insision DRCD0501 The Ballistics - Allow Me To Demonstrate DRCD0601 Singled Out - Hardcore Seanography DRCD0602 The Ballistics - The Spirit Of Kelso Cochrane List of record labels Categories: | | | ... Mastoid can mean: Of, relating to or in the region of the mastoid process. ...


Kennedy assassination theories

Critics have not accepted the official government conclusions and have proposed a number of alternative theories which assert that Oswald conspired with others or Oswald was not involved at all and was framed. However, many of these theories contradict each other, and no single compelling alternative suspect or conspirator has emerged. President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ...


One government investigation, the HSCA, ruled out many of these theories but concluded that, while Oswald was the assassin, that Kennedy was "probably" killed as the result of a conspiracy. However, the HSCA report did not identify any probable co-conspirators and its conclusion has been criticised for its reliance upon acoustic evidence that has been called into question. John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...

Further information: Kennedy assassination theories

President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ...

Fictional trials

Several films have fictionalized a trial of Oswald, including The Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald in 1964, another movie of the same name in 1977, and On Trial: Lee Harvey Oswald in 1986.


In 1986, London Weekend Television hosted a 21 hour television special in which an unscripted trial was held with an actual judge and lawyers. U.S. prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi described the event in his book Reclaiming History. LWT redirects here. ... Vincent Bugliosi (born August 18, 1934 in Hibbing, Minnesota) is an American attorney and author, best known for prosecuting Charles Manson and other defendants accused of the Tate-LaBianca murders. ...


Author Gerald Posner (whose book Case Closed surmises that the Warren Commission reached the correct conclusions) also participated in a shorter (5 hour) televised mock trial of Oswald which made use of actors rather than witnesses. Gerald Posner and his wife Trisha. ...


Mannlicher-Carcano rifle

Lee Harvey Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives
Lee Harvey Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives

In March 1963, Oswald used his alias "A. Hidell" (which he would later use for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, and for which he was carrying an I.D. card when arrested after the Kennedy murder) to purchase the rifle later linked to the November 22, 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. The surplus Italian military rifle was purchased from Klein's Sporting Goods in Chicago, with a coupon taken from an ad in the February issue of American Rifleman. FBI and Treasury Department experts later matched the handwriting on the coupon and the envelope to Oswald. The rifle was purchased under "A. Hidell" but sent to a Dallas post office box rented by Oswald under his own name. The rifle and Oswald’s marksmanship Lee Harvey Oswalds Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives Left side view In March 1963, Oswald used his Fair Play for Cuba Committee alias Alek J. Hidell to purchase the rifle which was later identified by Lieutenant Day of the Dallas... Lee Harvey Oswalds Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the collection of the US National Archives. ... Lee Harvey Oswalds Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the collection of the US National Archives. ... Lee Harvey Oswald distributing literature on behalf of the Fair Play For Cuba Committee, August 9, 1963. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... American Rifleman is the official publication of the National Rifle Association(NRA). ...


Backyard photos

Oswald in the backyard

The "backyard photos," which were taken by Marina Oswald, probably around Sunday, March 31, 1963, show Oswald dressed all in black and holding two Marxist newspapers — The Militant and The Worker — in one hand, a rifle in the other, and carrying a pistol in its holster. The backyard photos were shot using a camera belonging to Oswald, an Imperial Reflex Duo-Lens 620. [116] When shown the pictures at Dallas Police headquarters after his arrest, Oswald insisted they were fakes.[117] However, Marina Oswald testified in 1964,[118] 1977,[119] and 1978,[120] and reaffirmed in 2000[121] that she took the photographs at Oswald's request. These photos were labelled CE 133-A and CE 133-B. CE 133-A shows the rifle in Oswald's left hand and newsletters in front of his chest in the other, while rifle is held with the right hand in CE 133-B. Oswald's mother testified that on the day after the assassination she and Marina destroyed another photograph with Oswald holding the rifle with both hands over his head, with "To my daughter June" written on it.[122] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (611x845, 256 KB) Image can be found at http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (611x845, 256 KB) Image can be found at http://www. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, according to the conclusions of two government investigations into the assassination. ... The Militant is an international socialist newsweekly connected to the Socialist Workers Party (SWP). ... The Daily Worker was a newspaper published by the Communist Party USA, a Comintern affiliated organization in New York, beginning in 1924. ...


The HSCA obtained another first generation print (from CE 133-A) on April 1, 1977 from the widow of George de Mohrenschildt. The words "Hunter of fascists — ha ha ha!" written in block Russian were on the back. Also in English were added in script: "To my friend George, Lee Oswald, 5/IV/63 [5 April 1963]"[123] Handwriting experts consulted by the HSCA concluded the English inscription and signature were written by Lee Oswald. After two original photos, one negative and one first-generation copy had been found, the Senate Intelligence Committee located (in 1976) a third photograph of Oswald with a backyard pose that was different (CE 133-C, with newspapers held in his right hand away from his body). A test photo by the Dallas Police in the identical pose was released with the Warren Commission evidence in 1964,[124] but it is not known why the photo itself was not publicly acknowledged until a print was found in 1975 amongst the belongings of deceased Dallas police officer Roscoe White.[125] The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... George de Mohrenschildt (April 17, 1911-March 29, 1977) befriended Lee Harvey Oswald during the months preceding the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ...


These photos have been subjected to rigorous analysis.[126] A panel of twenty-two photographic experts consulted by the HSCA examined the photographs and answered twenty-one points of contention raised by critics.[127] The panel concluded the photographs were genuine.[128] Marina Oswald has always maintained she took the photos herself, and the 1963 de Mohrenschildt print with Oswald's own signature clearly indicate they existed before the assassination. However, despite such evidence, some critics continue to contest the authenticity of the photographs, including Jack D. White in his testimony before the HSCA. [129]


See also

United States Marine Corps Portal

Image File history File links USMC_logo. ...

References

  1. ^ Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations HSCA Final Report, pp. 3-4.
  2. ^ Gary Langer, John F. Kennedy’s Assassination Leaves a Legacy of Suspicion (.pdf), ABC News, November 16, 2003
  3. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 799, CE 1963, Schedule showing known addresses of Lee Harvey Oswald from the time of his birth.
  4. ^ Ancestry of Lee Harvey Oswald
  5. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7, page 378.
  6. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Edward Pic.
  7. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 687, CE 1382, Interview with Mrs. John Edward Pic.
  8. ^ Report of Renatus Hartogs, May 1, 1953 at Acorn.net.
  9. ^ Carro Exhibit No. 1 Continued at Kennedy Assassination Home Page.
  10. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Carro.
  11. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 123, CE 2223, Big Brothers of New York, Inc., Case file of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  12. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
  13. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapt. 7, p. 383.
  14. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, CE 2240, FBI transcript of letter from Lee Oswald to the Socialist Party of America, Oct. 3, 1956.
  15. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7: Lee Harvey Oswald: Background and Possible Motives, Return to New Orleans and Joining the Marine Corps.
  16. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Marine Corps enlistment contract of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  17. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Marine Training.
  18. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p. 665, Administrative Remarks.
  19. ^ Marines Warren Commission Report, Appendix 13, page 682-683.
  20. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Marine Corps service record of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  21. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald - Lone Assassin or Patsy?
  22. ^ Testimony of John E. Donovan, Warren Commission Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 290, 298.
  23. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), pp. 94, 99. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  24. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 705, CE 1385, Notes of interview of Lee Harvey Oswald conducted by Aline Mosby in Moscow in November 1959. Oswald: "When I was working in the middle of the night on guard duty, I would think how long it would be and how much money I would have to save. It would be like being out of prison. I saved about $1500." During Oswald's 2 years and 10 months of service in the Marine Corps he received $3,452.20, after all taxes, allotments and other deductions. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 26, p. 709, CE 3099, Certified military pay records for Lee Harvey Oswald for the period October 24, 1956, to September 11, 1959.
  25. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p. 85, Request for Dependency Discharge.
  26. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, The Journey From USA to USSR at Russian Books
  27. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 94, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of Oct. 16, 1959.
  28. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 2 at Russian Books
  29. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 3 at Russian Books
  30. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 1 at Russian Books
  31. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 108, CE 912, Declaration of Lee Harvey Oswald, dated November 3, 1959, requesting that his U.S. citizenship be revoked.
  32. ^ Foreign Service Despatch from the American Embassy in Moscow to the Department of State, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 98, CE 908
  33. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, CE 780, Documents from Lee Harvey Oswald's Marine Corps file.
  34. ^ State Department Memorandum from John A. McVickar to Thomas Ehrlich, dated November 27, 1963, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 155, CE 941
  35. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 3 at Russian Books
  36. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 2 at Russian Books
  37. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7
  38. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 102, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of January 4–31, 1961.
  39. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 131, CE 931, Undated letter from Lee Harvey Oswald to the American Embassy in Moscow.
  40. ^ While later reports described her uncle as a colonel in the KGB, he was actually a lumber industry expert in the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) with a bureaucratic rank equivalent to colonel. Priscilla Johnson McMillan, Marina and Lee, Harper & Row, 1977, pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0060129538.
  41. ^ Hearings of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, vol. 2, p. 207, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter, September 13, 1978.
  42. ^ "Young Ex-Marine Asks To Be Russian Citizen", Oakland Tribune, October 31, 1959, p. 1. "Texan in Russia: He Wants to Stay", Dallas Morning News, November 1, 1959, sec. 1, p. 9. "Brother Tries to Telephone, Halt Defector", Oakland Tribune November 2, 1959, p. 8. "U.S. Boy Prefers Russia", Syracuse Herald-Journal, December 11, 1959, p. 46. "Third Yank Said Quitting Soviet Union, San Mateo Times, June 8, 1962, p. 8. "Marine Returning", The Lima News, June 9, 1962, p. 1.
  43. ^ Warren Commission Report Chapter 7 — Relationship with Wife
  44. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 123, Affidavit of Alexander Kleinlerer: "Anna Meller, Mrs. Hall, George Bouhe, and the deMohrenschildts, and all that group had pity for Marina and her child. None of us cared for Oswald because of his political philosophy, his criticism of the United States, his apparent lack of interest in anyone but himself, and because of his treatment of Marina.
  45. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 298, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 307, Testimony of Mrs. Katherine Ford. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 252, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 238, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 266, Testiony of George de Mohrenschildt.
  46. ^ George de Mohrenschildt, Staff Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations, 1979.
  47. ^ George DeMorenschildt, "I'm a Patsy".
  48. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 435, Testmony of Ruth Hyde Paine.
  49. ^ The company has been cited as doing classified work for the US government but this was limited to typesetting for maps and produced in a section to which Oswald had no access.
  50. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 288, Photograph of the face sides of a Selective Service System Notice of Classification. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, p. 201, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein.
  51. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein: 'I would say he didn't get along with people and that several people had words with him at times about the way he barged around the plant, and one of the fellows back in the photosetter department almost got in a fight with him one day, and I believe it was Mr. Graef that stepped in and broke it up before it got started…'
  52. ^ Ironically, this magazine was largely a satire of the performance of the Soviet system, not of the West; by this time Oswald had long become dissatisfied with the U.S.S.R., as noted.
  53. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John G. Graef.
  54. ^ Warren Commission Report p. 184-195
  55. ^ Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations, HSCA Final Report, p. 61.
  56. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 16, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  57. ^ The Assassin, Warren Commission Report, p. 118-119.
  58. ^ Questioned Documents, Warren Commission Report, Appendix 10, p. 567-571.
  59. ^ HSCA Final Report: I. Findings - A. Lee Harvey Oswald Fired Three Shots
  60. ^ "Officials Recall Sniper Shooting at Walker Home", Dallas Morning News, November 23, 1963, sec. 1, p. 15.
  61. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 392–393, CE 1785, Secret Service report dated December 5, 1963, on questioning of Marina Oswald about note Oswald wrote before he attempted to kill General Walker.
  62. ^ Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 393–394.
  63. ^ "Oswald Notes Reported Left Before Walker Was Shot At", Dallas Morning News, December 31, 1963, sec. 1, p. 6.
  64. ^ "FBI Unable to Link Walker Slug, Rifle", Dallas Moring News, December 20, 1963, sec. 1, p. 7.
  65. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations, Testimony of Dr. Vincent P. Guinn:
    Mr. WOLF. In your professional opinion, Dr. Guinn, is the fragment removed from General Walker's house a fragment from a WCC [Western Cartridge Company] Mannlicher-Carcano bullet?
    Dr. GUINN. I would say that it is extremely likely that it is, because there are very few, very few other ammunitions that would be in this range. I don't know of any that are specifically this close as these numbers indicate, but somewhere near them there are a few others, but essentially this is in the range that is rather characteristic of WCC Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead.
  66. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 68, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 666, CE 781, Passport application of Lee Harvey Oswald, dated June 24, 1963. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 30, CE 13, Letter from Lee Harvey Oswald to the Russian Embassy, July 1, 1963. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 47, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  67. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 10, CE 7, Translation of letter from Marina Oswald to the Russian Embassy, dated Feb. 17, 1963.
  68. ^ Lee (Vincent T.), Exhibit No. 2, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 512.
  69. ^ Lee (Vincent T.), Exhibit No. 3, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 515.
  70. ^ Lee (Vincent T.), Exhibit No. 4, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 518.
  71. ^ Political Activies, Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7, pp. 407-408.
  72. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, pp. 34–37, Testimony of Carlos Bringuier.
  73. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 211. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  74. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 21, p. 633, Stuckey Exhibit 3, Literal transcript of an audio-tape recording of a debate among Lee Harvey Oswald, Carlos Bringuier, and Ed Butler on August 21, 1963, Radio station WDSU, New Orleans.
  75. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 11, pp. 214-215, Affidavit of John Bryan McFarland and Meryl McFarland.
  76. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 418, CE 2564, Cuban visa application of Lee Harvey Oswald, September 27, 1963.
  77. ^ (undated) Oswald's Foreign Activities (Coleman and Slawson to Rankin) (page 94) at The Assassination Archives and Research Center
  78. ^ Warren Commission Report, p. 413
  79. ^ Oswald: Myth, Mystery, and Meaning, FRONTLINE, November 20, 2003
  80. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 8, p. 358, Letter from Lee Oswald to Embassy of the U.S.S.R., Washington, D.C., Nov. 9, 1963. CIA Report on Oswald's Stay in Mexico, Dec. 13, 1963. (page 19) at The Assassination Archives and Research Center.
  81. ^ Warren Commission Report, p. 739.
  82. ^ Dallas Morning News, Nov. 19, 1963. Dallas Times Herald, Nov. 19, 1963, p. A-13.
  83. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. I, p. 72-73, Testimony of Marina Oswald.
  84. ^ Magen Knuth, The Long Brown Bag.
  85. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Charles Givens. An FBI report from Nov. 26, 1963 said that Depository employee Carolyn Arnold, as she left the building to watch the motorcade, thought she caught a fleeting glimpse of Oswald standing in the first floor hallway of the building, a few minutes before 12:15 pm. In 1978, she told author Anthony Summers that the FBI report misquoted her, and that she "clearly" saw Oswald sitting in the second floor lunchroom at 12:15 pm or slightly after. In either case, no other Depository employee reported seeing Oswald on the first or second floors between 12 noon and 12:30 pm (e.g., Mrs. Pauline Sanders, who left the second floor lunchroom at "approximately 12:20 pm," did not see Oswald anytime that day). The two Depository employees with whom Oswald said he ate lunch on the first floor both denied it.
  86. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Roy Sansom Truly.
  87. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of J.W. Fritz.
  88. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. VI, p. 400, Testimony of Mary E. Bledsoe.
  89. ^ Bus transfer (.gif) at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  90. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Earlene Roberts.
  91. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Movements After Leaving Depository Building. Oswald's bus transfer, found in his shirt pocket after his arrest, was good at only one stop in the Oak Cliff neighborhood, at Marsalis and Jefferson, three blocks from the Tippit shooting.
  92. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 113, Barnes Exhibit A, Right side of Tippit squad car, showing open wing vent window.
  93. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, The Killing of Patrolman J.D. Tippit.
  94. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chaper 4: The Assassin, Description of Shooting.
  95. ^ By the evening of November 22, five of them (Helen Markham, Barbara Jeanette Davis, Virginia Davis, Ted Callaway, Sam Guinyard) had identified Lee Harvey Oswald in police lineups as the man they saw. A sixth (William Scoggins) did so the next day. Three others (Harold Russell, Pat Patterson, Warren Reynolds) subsequently identified Oswald from a photograph. Two witnesses (Domingo Benavides, William Arthur Smith) testified that Oswald resembled the man they had seen. One witness (L.J. Lewis) felt he was too distant from the gunman to make a positive identification. Warren Commission Hearings, CE 1968, Location of Eyewitnesses to the Movements of Lee Harvey Oswald in the Vicinity of the Tippit Killing.
  96. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, pp. 466–473, Testimony of Cortlandt Cunningham. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, p. 511, Testimony of Jospeh D. Nicol.
  97. ^ The films being shown were War Is Hell, narrated by Audie Murphy, and Cry of Battle.
  98. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of M. N. McDonald.
  99. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 5: Detention and Death of Oswald, Chronology. Tippit murder affidavit: text, cover. Kennedy murder affidavit: text, cover.
  100. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 5: Detention and Death of Oswald, Activity of the Newsmen.
  101. ^ Warren Commission Report, pp. 180-182.
  102. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 4, Testimony of James P. Hosty, Jr., p. 467-468; Testimony of J.W. Fritz, p. 213-214; Commission Exhibit 2003, Dallas Police Department file on investigation of the assassination of the President, "Interrogation of Lee Harvey Oswald", vol. 4, p. 265.
  103. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, vol. 7, p. 302.
  104. ^ Oswald's body after death
  105. ^ Oswald's grave is in Rose Hill Memorial Burial Park in Fort Worth. Directions to Lee Harvey Oswald's Grave at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  106. ^ "Two misconceptions about the Warren Commission hearing need to be clarified...hearings were closed to the public unless the witness appearing before the Commission requested an open hearing. No witness except one...requested an open hearing...Second, although the hearings (except one) were conducted in private, they were not secret. In a secret hearing, the witness is instructed not to disclose his testimony to any third party, and the hearing testimony is not published for public consumption. The witnesses who appeared before the Commission were free to repeat what they said to anyone they pleased, and all of their testimony was subsequently published in the first fifteen volumes put out by the Warren Commission." (Bugliosi, p. 332)
  107. ^ 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President John E Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas (.txt) at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  108. ^ Holland, Max. The JFK Lawyers' Conspiracy Published in The Nation on unknown date, reposted by George Mason University's History News Network 2006-02-06.
  109. ^ http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKblakey.htm.
  110. ^ Greg Jaynes, The Scene of the Crime, Afterward.
  111. ^ Donald B. Thomas, "Echo Correlation Analysis and the Acoustic Evidence in the Kennedy Assassination Revisited", Science and Justice, Volume 41(1), 2001
  112. ^ George Lardner Jr., "Study Backs Theory of 'Grassy Knoll'", Washington Post, 26 March 2001
  113. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7: Unanswered Questions.
  114. ^ W. Tracy Parnell, The Exhumation of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  115. ^ W. Tracy Parnell, My Interview With Dr. Vincent J.M. Di Maio.
  116. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Photograph of Oswald With Rifle
  117. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Denial of Rifle Ownership.
  118. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 15, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  119. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations, Deposition of Marina Oswald Porter:
    Q. I want to mark these two photographs. On the back of the first one, which I would ask be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1, it says in the bottom right-hand corner copy from the National Archives, records group No. 272, under that it says CE-133B. I will ask that be marked JFK exhibit No. 1. (The above referred to photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1 for identification.)
    Q. New, this second picture that I will ask to be marked says copy from the National Archives, record group No. 272, CE-133. I would ask that this be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2. (The above referred to photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2 for identification.)
    By Mr. KLEIN:
    Q. I will show you those two photographs which are marked JFK exhibit No. 1 and exhibit No. 2, do you recognize those two photographs?
    A. I sure do. I have seen them many times.
    Q. What are they?
    A. That is the pictures that I took.
  120. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations Hearings, vol. 2, p. 239, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter:
    Mr. McDONALD. Mrs. Porter, I have got two exhibits to show you, if the clerk would procure them from the representatives of the National Archives. We have two photographs to show you. They are Warren Commission Exhibits C-133-A and B, which have been given JFK Nos. F-378 and F-379. If the clerk would please hand them to you, and also if we could now have for display purposes JFK Exhibit F-179, which is a blowup of the two photographs placed in front of you. Mrs. Porter, do you recognize the photographs placed in front of you?
    Mrs. PORTER. Yes, I do.
    Mr. McDONALD. And how do you recognize them?
    Mrs. PORTER. That is the photograph that I made of Lee on his persistent request of taking a picture of him dressed like that with rifle.
  121. ^ Marina Oswald Porter, interview with author Vincent Bugliosi and lawyer Jack Duffy, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 30, 2000, reported in Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, p. 794.
  122. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 146, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
  123. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, p. 151, Figure IV-21.
  124. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 497, CE 712, Photographs taken by the Dallas Police Department on November 29, 1963, showing backyard of home on Neely Street in Dallas, where Oswald once lived.
  125. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations, Appendix to Hearings, p. 141, The Oswald Backyard Photographs.
  126. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, "The Oswald Backyard Photographs".
  127. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations Report Chapter VI
  128. ^ id.
  129. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, Testimony of Jack D. White.

ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in Russia. ... Polkovnik (Russian: ), universally treated as Colonel, began as a commander of a distinct group of troops, Old Slavonic polk (полк), arranged for a particular battle. ... Oakland redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: , City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll (D) Area  - City 66. ... San Mateo is a city in San Mateo County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country State County Allen Founded 1831 Government  - Mayor David Berger (D) Area  - Total 12. ... A typical classified document. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... War is Hell (1961) is an award-winning movie about the Korean War. ... Also see: Audie Murphy legacy. ... Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Norton, 2007, 1632 p. ISBN 0393045250.
  • Michael Eddowes, Khrushchev Killed Kennedy, self-published, (1975), paperback (republished as Nov. 22, How They Killed Kennedy, Neville Spearman (1976), hardback, ISBN 0-85978-019-8 and as The Oswald File, Potter (1977), hardcover, ISBN 0-517-53055-4)
  • Robert J. Groden, The Search of Lee Harvey Oswald: A Comprehensive Photographic Record, New York: Penguin Studio Books, 1995. ISBN 0-670-85867-6
  • La Fontaine, Ray and Mary, "Oswald Talked: The New Evidence in the JFK Assassination", Gretna: Pelican Publishing Co., 1996. ISBN 1-56554-029-8
  • Patricia Lambert, False Witness: The Real Story of Jim Garrison's Investigation and Oliver Stone's Film JFK, New York: M. Evans & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-87131-920-9
  • David S. Lifton, Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the. Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Carroll & Graf Publishers, NYC, 1988, softcover, ISBN 0-88184-438-1
  • Norman Mailer, Oswald's Tale: An American Mystery, New York: Ballantine Books, (1995) ISBN 0-345-40437-8
  • Jim Marrs, Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1990, ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  • Priscilla Johnson McMillan, Marina and Lee, New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Philip H. Melanson, Spy Saga: Lee Harvey Oswald And U. S. Intelligence, Praeger Publishing, 1990, ISBN 0-275-93571-X
  • Dale K. Myers, With Malice: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Murder of Officer J.D. Tippit, Oak Cliff Press, Inc., Milford, MI, 1998, ISBN 0-9662709-7-5
  • John Newman, Oswald and the CIA, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1995, ISBN 0-7867-0131-5
  • Oleg M. Nechiporenko, Passport to Assassination: The Never-Before Told Story of Lee Harvey Oswald by the KGB Colonel Who Knew Him, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1993, ISBN 1-559-72210-X
  • Gerald Posner, Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, Random House, 1993, hardcover, ISBN 0-679-41825-3
  • Anthony Summers, Conspiracy, London: Fontana Books, 1980.
  • Anthony Summers, Not in Your Lifetime, New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998, ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  • Matthew Smith, JFK: Say Goodbye to America, Mainstream Publishing, 2004.

Vincent Bugliosi (born August 18, 1934 in Hibbing, Minnesota) is an American attorney and author, best known for prosecuting Charles Manson and other defendants accused of the Tate-LaBianca murders. ... Michael Eddowes was a British lawyer, author and investigator. ... Robert J. Groden (born 1945) is an American author and photographer, and a self-proclaimed and widely acknowledged expert on the assassination of former U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... David S. Lifton (born 1939) is a researcher and author on the topic of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Jim Marrs (December 5, 1943) is a news reporter, college teacher, and author of books and articles on conspiracy theories. ... Philip H. Melanson is a Chancellor Professor of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth. ... Dale K. Myers is a 30 year veteran of radio and television. ... John Paul Newman, born John Naumenko, (December 8, 1946 - September 5, 1994) was a member of the New South Wales state parliament and Member for the seat of Cabramatta. ... Gerald Posner and his wife Trisha. ... Anthony Summers was born in 1942. ... Anthony Summers was born in 1942. ... Matthew Smith may refer to: Matthew Smith, 18th century politician, Vice-President (analagous to Lieutenant Governor) of Pennsylvania Matthew Smith (artist) (1879–1959), British painter Matthew Smith (colonial secretary) (1836–1887), former acting Colonial Secretary of Western Australia Matthew Smith (games programmer) (born 1966), British computer game programmer Matthew Smith...

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  • The Coalition on Political Assassintions, A research and lobby group on political assassinations.
  • Frontline: Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?
  • Historical TV Footage from Dallas TV Station KDFW Exclusive television coverage -- most from the KRLD -TV/KDFW Collection at the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza
  • Lee Harvey Oswald's journey from Minsk to the US, travelling through Holland by Perry Vermeulen
  • Kennedy Assassination Home Page by John McAdams
  • The Unofficial JFK Assassination FAQ #19 by John Locke
  • Lasting Questions about the Murder of President Kennedy by Rex Bradford
  • Lee Harvey Oswald: Lone Assassin or Patsy
  • Lee Harvey Oswald Chronology
  • Crime Library: Lee Harvey Oswald
  • JFK Lancer Forum
  • Lee Harvey Oswald In Russia
  • Various photos of Oswald taken post mortem
  • Lee Harvey Oswald at Find A Grave Retrieved on 2008-04-02
  • Lee Harvey Oswald's Camera - Imperial Reflex Duo-Lens - 620.
  • CTKA: Citizens for Truth about the Kennedy Assassination
  • The Last Words of Lee Harvey Oswald
  • Mind Control: The Rosetta Stone of the JFK Assassination; Oswald as "Manchurian Candidate"
  • Lee Harvey Oswald - Spartacus Educational website by John Simkin
  • "LHO-63". Movie about Lee Harvey Oswald Written/Directed by Aleksandr V. Batenko. Produced by Vlad Gorenshteyn.
  • The Patsy
  • Oswald in New Orleans
Persondata
NAME Oswald, Lee Harvey
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Alleged assassin of President John F. Kennedy
DATE OF BIRTH October 18, 1939(1939-10-18)
PLACE OF BIRTH Slidell, Louisiana
DATE OF DEATH November 24, 1963
PLACE OF DEATH Dallas, Texas

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Simkin is a history teacher and the webmaster of Spartacus Education and one of the most knowlegable experts on the John F. Kennedy assassination. ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... John F. Kennedy This article considers the detailed timeline of events before, during, and after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John F. Kennedy Around the world, there was a stunned reaction to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the President of the United States, on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... This article is about the famous home movie. ... The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ... The assassination of President John F. Kennedy has been referenced or recreated in popular culture several times. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Slidell is a city in St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lee Harvey Oswald: Troubled Youth (1957 words)
Lee's truancy ran afoul of the social welfare bureaucracy, and he was subjected to a thorough psychological examination by mental health professionals.
Lee has to be diagnosed as "personality pattern disturbance with schizoid features and passive--aggressive tendencies." Lee has to be seen as an emotionally, quite disturbed youngster who suffers under the impact of really existing emotional isolation and deprivation, lack of affection, absence of family life and rejection by a self involved and conflicted mother.
Oswald did not understand that Lee's withdrawal was a form of "violent but silent protest against his neglect by her and represents his reaction to a complete absence of any real family life." Carro reported that when questioned about his mother Lee said, "well I've got to live with her.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Lee Harvey Oswald (714 words)
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to two United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas.
Lee Oswald supposedly met with the very sinister "Maurice Bishop" (believed by many buffs to be the CIA's David Atlee Phillips) in Dallas in late August or early September 1963.
Oswald was at work at the Texas School Book Depository and was seen with a package which contained, he says, "curtain rods." At lunch time most of the employees rushed outside to catch a glimpse of President Kennedy's motorcade.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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