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Encyclopedia > Lee De Forest
Lee De Forest

De Forest patented the Audion,
a three-electrode tube.
Born August 26, 1873(1873-08-26)
Died June 30, 1961 (aged 87)
Hollywood, California
Occupation inventor

Lee De Forest, (August 26, 1873June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 300 patents to his credit. De Forest invented the Audion, a vacuum tube that takes relatively weak electrical signals and amplifies them. De Forest is one of the fathers of the "electronic age", as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of electronics. Lee De Forest, published in the February 1904 issue of the The Electrical Age. ... The Audion is an electronic amplifier device invented by Lee De Forest in 1906, the forerunner of what is generally known as a triode today, in which the flow of current from the filament to the plate was controlled by a third element, the grid. ... Simplified diagram of a triode. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... The Audion is an electronic amplifier device invented by Lee De Forest in 1906, the forerunner of what is generally known as a triode today, in which the flow of current from the filament to the plate was controlled by a third element, the grid. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ...


He was involved in several patent lawsuits and he spent a fortune from his inventions on the legal bills. He had four marriages and several failed companies, he was defrauded by business partners, and he was once indicted for mail fraud, but was later acquitted.


He was a charter member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, one of the two predecessors of the IEEE (the other was the American Institute of Electrical Engineers). Following several attempts to form a technical organization of wireless practitioners in 1908-1912, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was finally established in 1912 in New York. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and...

Contents

Birth and education

Lee De Forest was born in 1873 in Council Bluffs, Iowa to Henry Swift DeForest and Anna Robbins. [1] [2] The Grenville M. Dodge House, built in 1869 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. ...


His father was a Congregational minister who hoped that his son would become a minister also. He accepted the position of President of Talladega College, a traditionally African American school, in Talladega, Alabama where Lee spent most of his youth. Most citizens of the white community resented his father's efforts to educate black students. Lee De Forest had several friends among the African American children of the town. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Talladega College is Alabamas oldest private, historically black, liberal arts college. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Talladega is a city located in Talladega County, Alabama. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


De Forest went to Mount Hermon School, and then he enrolled at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1893. As an inquisitive inventor, he tapped into the electrical system at Yale one evening and completely blacked out the campus, leading to his suspension. However, he was eventually allowed to complete his studies. He paid some of his tuition with income from mechanical and gaming inventions, and he received his Bachelor's degree in 1896. He remained at Yale for graduate studies, and earned his Ph.D. in 1899 with a doctoral dissertation on radio waves. Northfield Mount Hermon Northfield Mount Hermon (NMH) is a ninth-twelfth grade private college preparatory high school (secondary school) located in western Massachusetts, U.S.A. Its Northfield campus is located in Northfield, Massachusetts, and its Mount Hermon campus is located in nearby Gill, Massachusetts. ... The Sheffield Scientific School was founded as Yale Scientific School in 1854 and renamed in 1861 in honor of Joseph E. Sheffield. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Audion

De Forest's interest in wireless telegraphy led to his invention of the Audion tube in 1906, and he developed an improved wireless telegraph receiver. At that time, he was a member of the faculty at the Armour Institute of Technology, now part of the Illinois Institute of Technology. He filed a patent for a two-electrode device for detecting electromagnetic waves,a variant of the John Ambrose Fleming Diode invented two years earlier. His Audion tube, a three-electrode device (plate, cathode, control grid), was a vacuum tube which allowed for amplification for radio reception. The Audion is an electronic amplifier device invented by Lee De Forest in 1906, the forerunner of what is generally known as a triode today, in which the flow of current from the filament to the plate was controlled by a third element, the grid. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... Sir John Ambrose Fleming (November 29, 1849 - April 18, 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. ... Types of diodes. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... Generally, amplification is a basic process sometimes seen in nature, and often used in processes which involve a signal which must be made stronger. ...


In 1904, a De Forest transmitter and receiver were set up aboard the steamboat Haimun operated on behalf of The Times, the first of its kind. [3] Paddle steamers — Lucerne, Switzerland. ... The first-known instance of a press boat dedicated to war correspondence during naval battles, the S.S. Haimun was a Chinese steamer ship commanded by war correspondent Lionel James in 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War for The Times. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...


De Forest did not however understand how his invention worked, and others had to explain it to him. The American inventor Edwin H. Armstrong was the first to explain the correct operation of this device, and also to improve it to the point where it could actually provide useful amplification. De Forest claimed that the operation was based on ions created within the gas in the tube, and warned others from removing this by creating a vacuum. His own prototypes never achieved amplification. Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ...


Marriages

Lee de Forest had four wives:

  • Lucille Sheardown in February 1906. They divorced the same year they were married.
  • Nora Blatch (1883–?) in February 1907. They had a daughter, Harriet, but by 1911 they divorced.
  • Mary Mayo (1892–?) in December 1912. In 1920 they were living with their daughter Deena (Eleanor) DeForest (1919-?).
  • Marie Mosquini (1899–1983) in October 1930. She was a silent film actress.

A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ...

Middle years

De Forest Audion from 1906.
De Forest Audion from 1906.

De Forest invented the Audion in 1906, an improved version of John Fleming's recently invented diode vacuum tube detector. In January 1907, he filed a patent for a three-electrode version of the Audion, which was granted US Patent 879,532 in February 1908. It was also called the De Forest valve, and since 1919 has been known as the triode. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixelsFull resolution (1835 × 1258 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Triode Lee De Forest Audion tube... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixelsFull resolution (1835 × 1258 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Triode Lee De Forest Audion tube... The Audion is an electronic amplifier device invented by Lee De Forest in 1906, the forerunner of what is generally known as a triode today, in which the flow of current from the filament to the plate was controlled by a third element, the grid. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sir John Ambrose Fleming (November 29, 1849 - April 18, 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. ... Types of diodes. ... A detector is a device that recovers information of interest contained in a modulated wave. ... Simplified diagram of a triode. ...


De Forest's innovation was the insertion of a third electrode, the grid, in between the cathode (filament) and the anode (plate) of the previously invented diode. The resulting triode or three-electrode vacuum tube could be used as an amplifier for electrical signals, and, equally important, as a fast (for its time) electronic switching element, later applicable in digital electronics (such as computers). The triode was vital in the development of long-distance (e.g. transcontinental) telephone communications, radio, and radars. The triode was an important innovation in electronics in the first half of the 20th century, between Nikola Tesla's and Guglielmo Marconi's progress in radio in the 1890s, and the 1948 invention of the transistor. An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmopshere with its magnetic field. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Plate has several meanings: A plate electrode in a vacuum tube. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... M*A*S*H, see Corporal Walter (Radar) OReilly. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Guglielmo Marconi [gue:lmo marko:ni] (25 April 1874 - 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... For other uses, see Transistor (disambiguation). ...


De Forest came to San Francisco in 1910, and worked for the Federal Telegraph Company, which began developing the first global radio communications system in 1912. [1]


The United States Attorney General sued De Forest for fraud (in 1913) on behalf of his shareholders, stating that his claim of regeneration was an "absurd" promise (he was later acquitted). Nearly bankrupt with legal bills, De Forest sold his triode vacuum-tube patent to AT&T and the Bell System in 1913 for the bargain price of $50,000. In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... AT&T (formerly an abbreviation for American Telephone and Telegraph) Corporation (NYSE: T) is an American telecommunications company. ...


De Forest filed another patent in 1916 that became the cause of a contentious lawsuit with the prolific inventor Edwin Howard Armstrong, whose patent for the regenerative circuit had been issued in 1914. The lawsuit lasted twelve years, winding its way through the appeals process and ending up before the Supreme Court in 1926. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of De Forest, although the view of many historians is that the judgment was incorrect. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... The regenerative circuit (or self-regenerative circuit) allows a signal to be amplified many times by the same vacuum tube or other active component such as a field effect transistor. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym...


Radio pioneer

In 1916, De Forest, from 2XG, broadcast the first radio advertisements (for his own products) and the first Presidential election report by radio in November of 1916 for Charles Evans Hughes and Woodrow Wilson. A few months later, DeForest moved his tube transmitter to High Bridge, New York. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... This article is about the political process. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The High Bridge over the Harlem River as seen in 1890. ...


Just like Pittsburgh’s KDKA four years later in 1920, DeForest used the Hughes/Wilson presidential election returns for his broadcast. The New York American installed a private wire and bulletins were sent out every hour. About 2000 listeners heard The Star-Spangled Banner and other anthems, songs, and hymns. DeForest went on to sponsor radio broadcasts of music, featuring opera star Enrico Caruso and many other events, but he received little financial backing. City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... KDKA is the callsign of two broadcast stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: KDKA AM 1020, the first commercial station in the U.S. KDKA-TV, channel 2 (DTV 25) KDKA-FM 92. ... The New York Journal American was a newspaper published from 1895 – 1966. ... Enrico Caruso (February 25, 1873 – August 2, 1921) was an Italian opera singer and one of the most famous tenors in history. ...


Phonofilm sound-on-film process

In 1919, De Forest filed the first patent on his sound-on-film process, which improved on the work of Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt, and called it the De Forest Phonofilm process. It recorded sound directly onto film as parallel lines. These lines photographically recorded electrical waveforms from a microphone, which were translated back into sound waves when the movie was projected. This system, which synchronized sound directly onto film, was used to record stage performances (such as in vaudeville), speeches, and musical acts. De Forest established his De Forest Phonofilm Corporation, but he could interest no one in Hollywood in his invention at that time. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ... Eric Magnus Campbell Tigerstedt (August 4, 1887 – April 20, 1925) was one of the most significant inventors in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century, and has been called the Thomas Edison of Finland. He was the first person to implement a working sound-on-film technology, and in... In 1919, Lee De Forest, inventor of the audion tube, filed his first patent on a sound-on-film process, DeForest Phonofilm, which recorded sound directly onto film as parallel lines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Microphones” redirects here. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... ...


De Forest premiered 18 short films made in Phonofilm on 15 April 1923 at the Rivoli Theater in New York City. He was forced to show his films in independent theaters such as the Rivoli, since the movie studios controlled all major theater chains. De Forest chose to film primarily vaudeville acts, not features, limiting the appeal of his process. Max Fleischer and Dave Fleischer used the Phonofilm process for their Sound Car-Tune series of cartoons -- featuring the "Follow the Bouncing Ball" gimmick -- starting in May 1924. De Forest also worked with Theodore Case, using Case's patents to perfect the Phonofilm system. However, the two men had a falling out, and Case took his patents to studio head William Fox, owner of Fox Film Corporation, who then perfected the Fox Movietone process. Shortly before the Phonofilm Company filed for bankruptcy in September 1926, Hollywood introduced a different method for the "talkies", the sound-on-disc process used by Warner Brothers as Vitaphone. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... David Fleischer (July 14, 1894 - June 25, 1979) was a German-American animator of Jewish ancestry, film director, and film producer, best known as a co-owner of Fleischer Studios with his older brother Max Fleischer as well as uncle to director Richard Fleischer. ... Theodore Case (1888 Auburn, New York – 1944) began working on his sound-on-film process in 1916. ... William Fox (born Wilhelm Fuchs in January 1, 1879–May 8, 1952) founded the Fox Film Corporation in 1915 and the Fox West Coast Theatres chain. ... The Fox Film Corporation was an American company which produced motion pictures, formed in 1915 when founder William Fox merged two companies he had established in 1913: Greater New York Film Rental, a distribution firm, which was part of the Independents; and Fox (or Box, depending on the source) Office... Movietone was created ever since silent movies came out, and was the primary source of news and current events for moviegoers until the first black and white television set came out in the late 1940s. ... Warner Bros. ... The Warner Brothers Vitaphone logo. ...


Eventually Hollywood came back to the sound-on-film methods De Forest had originally proposed, such as Fox Movietone and RCA Photophone. A theater chain owner, M. B. Schlesinger, acquired the UK rights to Phonofilm and released short films of British music hall performers from September 1926 to May 1929. Almost 200 short films were made in the Phonofilm process, and many are preserved in the collections of the Library of Congress and the British Film Institute. [4] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and...


Later years

De Forest sold one of his radio manufacturing firms to RCA in 1931. In 1934, the courts sided with De Forest against Edwin Armstrong (although the technical community did not agree with the courts). De Forest won the court battle, but he lost the battle for public opinion. His peers would not take him seriously as an inventor or trust him as a colleague. [citation needed] For De Forest's initially rejected, but later adopted, movie soundtrack method, he was given an Academy Award (Oscar) in 1959/1960 for "his pioneering inventions which brought sound to the motion picture", and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ...


De Forest was the guest celebrity on the May 22, 1957 episode of the television show This Is Your Life, where he was introduced as the "Father Of Radio and the Grandfather of Television". is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This Is Your Life was a television documentary series hosted by its producer, Ralph Edwards. ...


Death

He died in Hollywood in 1961 and was interred in San Fernando Mission Cemetery in Los Angeles, California. [5] Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The San Fernando Mission Cemetery is a Roman Catholic cemetery operated by the Los Angeles Archdiocese since 1800, and is located at 11160 Stranwood Avenue in the Mission Hills community of northern Los Angeles, California, near the Mission San Fernando Rey de España. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


Legacy

De Forest received the IRE Medal of Honor in 1922, as "recognition for his invention of the three-electrode amplifier and his other contributions to radio". In 1946, he received the Edison Medal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 'For the profound technical and social consequences of the grid-controlled vacuum tube which he had introduced'. An important annual medal awarded to engineers by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers is named the Lee De Forest Medal. ire has several uses: as a morpheme, the suffix -ire, as in fire, sire, wire, retire, entire; Ire, a mountain in France as an acronym, Investigative Reporters and Editors, Institute of Radio Engineers, Iron Realms Entertainment, or Innovating regions in Europe ire is another name for anger or wrath. ... The IEEE Medal of Honor is the highest recognition of the IEEE, and has been awarded once each year since 1917, when its first recipient was Major Edwin H. Armstrong. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ...


Politics

De Forest was a conservative Republican and fervent anti-communist and anti-fascist. In 1932 he had voted for Franklin Roosevelt, in the midst of the Great Depression, but later came to resent him and his statist policies called him American's "first Fascist president." In 1949, he "sent letters to all members of Congress urging them to vote against socialized medicine, federally subsidized housing, and an excess profits tax." In 1952, he wrote newly elected Vice President Richard Nixon, urging him to "prosecute with renewed vigor your valiant fight to put out Communism from every branch of our government." In December 1953, he cancelled his subscription to The Nation, accusing it of being "lousy with Treason, crawling with Communism."[6] Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ...


Quotes

De Forest was given to expansive predictions, many of which were not borne out, but he also made many correct predictions, including microwave communication and cooking.

  • "I foresee great refinements in the field of short-pulse microwave signaling, whereby several simultaneous programs may occupy the same channel, in sequence, with incredibly swift electronic communication. Short waves will be generally used in the kitchen for roasting and baking, almost instantaneously" – 1952 [7]
  • "While theoretically and technically television may be feasible, commercially and financially it is an impossibility." – 1926[8]
  • "To place a man in a multi-stage rocket and project him into the controlling gravitational field of the moon where the passengers can make scientific observations, perhaps land alive, and then return to earth—all that constitutes a wild dream worthy of Jules Verne. I am bold enough to say that such a man-made voyage will never occur regardless of all future advances." – 1926[9]
  • "I do not foresee 'spaceships' to the moon or Mars. Mortals must live and die on Earth or within its atmosphere!" – 1952[7]
  • "The transistor will more and more supplement, but never supplant, the Audion. Its frequency limitations, a few hundred kilocycles [kilohertz], and its strict power limitations will never permit its general replacement of the Audion amplifier." – 1952[7]

Jules Gabriel Verne (February 8, 1828–March 24, 1905) was a French author who pioneered the science-fiction genre. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ...

Trivia

Lee De Forest's great nephew, actor Calvert DeForest, became well known in another broadcasting venue some 75 years following his uncle's Audion invention. Calvert DeForest portrayed the comic "Larry 'Bud' Melman" character on David Letterman's late night television programs for two decades. Calvert DeForest (born July 23, 1921 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American actor and comedian. ... David Michael Letterman (born April 12, 1947, in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) is an award-winning American comedian, late night talk show host, television producer, philanthropist, and IRL IndyCar Series car owner. ...


References and notes

  1. ^ Lee De Forest in the 1900 US Census in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  2. ^ Lee De Forest in the 1920 US Census in the Bronx, New York
  3. ^ The De Forest Wireless Telegraphy Tower: Bulletin No. 1, Summer 1904.
  4. ^ Today, many sources such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica list De Forest as one of the inventors of sound film.
  5. ^ "Lee De Forest, 87, Radio Pioneer, Dies; Lee De Forest, Inventor, Is Dead at 87", New York Times, July 2, 1961, Sunday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Hollywood, California, July 1, 1961. Dr. Lee De Forest, the inventor known as the father of radio, died last night at his home. He was 87 years old.” 
  6. ^ James A. Hijya, Lee De Forest and the Fatherhood of Radio (1992), Lehigh University Press, pages 119-120
  7. ^ a b c "Dawn of the Electronic Age", Popular Mechanics, January 1952. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  8. ^ Wikiquote: Incorrect predictions (television)
  9. ^ Wikiquote: Incorrect predictions (space travel)

1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... Nickname: Location of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Coordinates: , County Milwaukee Government  - Mayor Tom Barrett (D) Area  - City  97 sq mi (251. ... 1920 US Census The Fourteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The adolescent Internet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

External links

Patents

Patent images in TIFF format This article is about TIFF, the computer image format. ...

  • U.S. Patent 1,214,283  "Wireless Signaling Device" (directional antenna), filed December 1902, issued January 1904
  • U.S. Patent 0,824,637  "Oscillation Responsive Device" (vacuum tube detector diode), filed January 1906, issued June 1906
  • U.S. Patent 0,827,523  "Wireless Telegraph System" (separate transmitting and receiving antennas), filed December 1905, issued July 1906
  • U.S. Patent 0,827,524  "Wireless Telegraph System", filed January 1906 issued July 1906
  • U.S. Patent 0,836,070  "Oscillation Responsive Device" (vacuum tube detector - no grid), filed May 1906, issued November 1906
  • U.S. Patent 0,841,386  "Wireless Telegraphy" (tunable vacuum tube detector - no grid), filed August 1906, issued January 1907
  • U.S. Patent 0,876,165  "Wireless Telegraph Transmitting System" (antenna coupler), filed May 1904, issued January 1908
  • U.S. Patent 0,879,532  "Space Telegraphy" (increased sensitivity detector - clearly shows grid), filed January 1907, issued February 18, 1908
  • U.S. Patent 0,926,933  "Wireless Telegraphy"
  • U.S. Patent 0,926,934  "Wireless Telegraph Tuning Device"
  • U.S. Patent 0,926,935  "Wireless Telegraph Transmitter", filed February 1906, issued July 1909
  • U.S. Patent 0,926,936  "Space Telegraphy"
  • U.S. Patent 0,926,937  "Space Telephony"
  • U.S. Patent 0,979,275  "Oscillation Responsive Device" (parallel plates in Bunsen flame) filed February 1905, issued December 1910
  • U.S. Patent 1,101,533  "Wireless Telegraphy" (directional antenna/direction finder), filed June 1906, issued June 1914
  • U.S. Patent 1,214,283  "Wireless Telegraphy"

is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Bunsen burner is a common piece of laboratory equipment used for heating, sterilization, and combustion. ...

Other sites

Awards
Preceded by
Reginald Fessenden
IRE Medal of Honor
1922
Succeeded by
John Stone Stone
Preceded by
Philip Sporn
AIEE Edison Medal
1946
Succeeded by
Joseph Slepian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lee De Forest - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1419 words)
De Forest is one of the fathers of the "electronic age", as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of electronics.
De Forest's innovation was the insertion of a third electrode, the grid, in between the cathode (filament) and the anode (plate) of the previously invented diode.
De Forest filed a patent in 1916 that became the cause of a contentious lawsuit with the prolific inventor Edwin Armstrong, whose patent for the regenerative circuit had been issued in 1914.
Lee De Forest - definition of Lee De Forest in Encyclopedia (942 words)
De Forest was interested in wireless telegraphy which led to his invention of the Audion tube, in 1906, and he developed an improved wireless telegraph receiver.
De Forest invented the audion in 1906 improving the "diode" vacuum tubes being used at the time.
De Forest's innovation was the insertion of a third electrode, the grid or gate, in between the cathode (filament or connected to the filament) and the anode (plate) of the already invented diode.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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