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Encyclopedia > Lee 'Scratch' Perry
Lee "Scratch" Perry, The Upsetter in Dub
Lee "Scratch" Perry, The Upsetter in Dub

Lee "Scratch" Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry March 20, 1936) is one of the most influential people in the development of reggae and dub music in Jamaica. Lee Scratch Perry Dub CD album cover This is an album cover. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Reggae is an African Caribbean style of music developed on the island of Jamaica and is closely linked to the religion Rastafarianism, though not universally popular among its members. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ...

Perry began his career in the late 1950s working with Prince Buster and Clement Coxsone Dodd's sound system. He was soon producing records with Dodd and recording at Studio One, but the pair eventually stopped working together due to personality and financial conflicts. Working with Joe Gibbs at Wirl Records, Perry tried to begin his recording career, but again, personality and financial problems caused conflict, and Perry left to form his own label, Upsetter, in 1968 (see 1968 in music). His first single "People Funny Boy", which was an insult directed at Gibbs, sold very well. It is notable for its innovative use of a slow, sluggish, bass-driven beat that would soon become identifiable as a distinctively "reggae" (or, more accurately, roots reggae) sound. During the 1970s, Perry released numerous recordings and acquired a variety of nicknames including Scratch, Pipecock Jackxon, The Upsetter, and Super Ape. Most of his hits were big in both Jamaica and the UK, and he soon became known as much for his eccentric character and outlandish style in his appearance as for his music. Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... Cecil Bustamente Campbell (born May 28, 1938 in Kingston, Jamaica), better known as Prince Buster, is one of the most important figures in the history of ska music. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Studio One is one of Reggaes most renowned record labels, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Joseph Jackson Gibbs (born November 25, 1940 in Mocksville, North Carolina) is a NASCAR team owner and a football coach in the National Football League. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... See also: 1967 in music, other events of 1968, 1969 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music Events January 4 - Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police, after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with bassist Noel Redding. ... Roots Reggae is the name given to Rastafarian reggae music from Jamaica, which evolved from Ska and Rocksteady and made famous by the legendary singer/songwriter Bob Marley. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...

In the early 1970s, Perry participated in the creation of dub. He formed a studio, The Black Ark, to experiment in the style and produce tracks from notable musicians like Bob Marley & the Wailers and The Congos. With a studio of his own, Perry was free to experiment without concern for paying hourly for studio time, and he lavished a great deal of time on the records he produced. Virtually everything recorded in The Black Ark was on a 4-track recording deck. Perry remained in the forefront of dub innovation and experimentation until, surrounded by rumor and controversy, The Black Ark recording studio burned to the ground. Perry generally insists it was an accident due to faulty wiring, but he is fond of telling stories and regularly tells new versions of old stories. It is unlikely anyone but Perry will ever know if the burning of The Black Ark was purposeful or accidental. Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley (February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, songwriter and Rastafarian from the ghettos of Jamaica. ... The Congos were the reggae duo Ashanti Roy and Cedric Myton, both born in 1947. ...

Even after producing such seminal singles as "Small Axe", Perry sold the tapes to Trojan Records without telling Marley, Peter Tosh or Bunny Wailer. After Marley & the Wailers signed to Island Records, Perry began accusing Chris Blackwell (head of Island Records) of cultural imperialism and psychic vampirism, as well as calling Marley an accomplice and a sell-out to his race. In spite of his difficulty getting along with some, Perry continued working with a variety of musicians, including the Clash, the legendary British punk group who were perhaps the earliest white artists to combine rock'n'roll with reggae rhythms. Perry took a public stance against all drug use except cannabis, an integral part of the Rastafarian religion, but rumors still circulated regarding the use of LSD, cocaine and even gasoline and tape head-cleaning fluid. These stories are likely urban legend, though Perry's behavior is known to be erratic when he is drinking alcohol. Trojan Records is a label specialising in reggae and ska. ... Peter Tosh (October 9, 1944 - September 11, 1987) was a pioneer reggae musician. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston, was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... The Wailers were an American rock band, often considered the first garage rock group. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded in Jamaica in 1959 by Chris Blackwell. ... Chris Blackwell (born June 22, 1937) is the founder of Island Records. ... The Clash was a British punk rock group that existed from 1976 to 1985. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Rock and roll (also spelled rock n roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Cannabis is a plant also known as Cannabis sativa, hemp, or marijuana. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafari God and King Rastafarianism, or the Rastafarian movement, or simply Rasta as adherents prefer to call it, is a religious movement which reveres the former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, who as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and as the Lion of Judah, is seen... LSD blotter paper What it is - A rough guide D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Urban Legend is also the name of a 1998 movie. ...

Since leaving Jamaica soon after the destruction of Black Ark, Perry has lived in Switzerland. He continues recording with great success, though his production work has slowed down significantly, without a studio of his own. Lee has collaborated and toured with Mad Professor since the mid 1980s. Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. ... This biographical article needs to be wikified. ...

In 2003, Perry won a Grammy for Best Reggae Album with the album Jamaican ET. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... The 45th Grammy Awards were held in 2003. ...



Early Albums

  • The Upsetter (1969)
  • The Return of Django (1969)
  • Eastwood Rides Again (1970)
  • Africa's Blood (1971)
  • Blackboard Jungle Dub (1973)
  • Cloak and Dagger (1973)

Black Ark Era Albums

  • Double Seven (1974)
  • Kung Fu Meets the Dragon aka Heart of the Dragon(1975)
  • Revolution Dub (1975)
  • Return of Wax (1975)
  • Super Ape (1976)
  • Return of the Super Ape (1978)
  • Roast Fish Collie Weed and Corn Bread (1978)

Others Albums

  • The Return of Pipecock Jackxon (1980)
  • Battle Of Armagideon (Millionaire Liquidator) (1986)
  • Time Boom X - De Devil Dead (with Dub Syndicate) (1987)
  • On the Wire (1988)
  • Chicken Scratch (1989)
  • From The Secret Laboratory (1990)
  • Satan's Dub (with Bullwackie) (1990)
  • Lord God Muzik (1991)
  • Sounds From The Hotline (1991)
  • The Upsetter and The Beat (1992)
  • Super Ape Inna Jungle (1995)
  • Dub Take The Voodoo Out Of Reggae (1996)
  • Who Put The Voodoo Pon Reggae (1996)
  • Mystic Warrior (1997)
  • Mystic Warrior Dub (with Mad Professor) (1997)
  • Dub Fire (with Mad Professor) (1998)
  • Son of Thunder (2000)
  • Jamaican ET (2002)
  • Earthman Skanking (2003)
  • Encore (2003)


  • Chicken Scratch (produced by Coxsone Dodd) (1963-1966)
  • Open The Gate (1989)
  • Upsetter Collection (1994)
  • Upsetters A Go Go (1995)
  • Experryments at the Grass Roots of Dub (aka Black Ark Experryments) (1995)
  • Introducing Lee Perry (1996)
  • Words Of My Mouth Vol.1 (The Producer Series) (1996)
  • Arkology (1997)
  • The Upsetter Shop Vol.1: Upsetter In Dub (1997) (see above image)
  • Dry Acid (1998)
  • Lee Perry Arkive (1998)
  • Lost Treasures of The Ark (1999)
  • Upsetter Shop Vol.2 1969-1973 (1999)
  • Words Of My Mouth Vol.2 (The Producer Series) (1999)
  • Words Of My Mouth Vol.3 (Live As One/The Producer Series) (2000)
  • Scratch Walking (2001)
  • Black Ark In Dub (2002)

See also: dub (music), list of reggae musicians Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ... A Augustus Pablo The Abyssinians Alpha & Omega Anthony Sangie Davis Monty Alexander Almamegretta Roland Alphonso Althea & Donna Horace Andy Anthony B Apache Indian Ascher Asher D Ashanti Waugh Arzu Aswad B Backyard Dog Barrington Levy Beres Hammond The Beat Beatsquad Beenie Man Big Mountain Big Youth Blackstones Black Uhuru Alpha...


  • David Katz, People Funny Boy. The Genius of Lee "Scratch" Perry, 2000, Payback Press, UK, ISBN 0862418542
  • David Katz & Jeremy Collingwood, Give Me Power: A Complete Discography, Trax On Wax
  • Gary Simons, Super Scratch: The Almost Complete Lee Perry Discography, 1999, Secret History Books


  • Lee Scratch Perry: The Unlimited Destruction, 2002, USA
  • Lee Scratch Perry: In Concert - The Ultimate Alien, 2003, USA
  • Lee Scratch Perry With Mad Professor, 2004, USA

External links



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