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Encyclopedia > Lecithin
An example of a phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid in lecithin.
An example of a phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid in lecithin.

Lecithin is any of a group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, and in egg yolk, composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol). However, lecithin is sometimes used as a synonym for pure phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid that is the major component of its phosphatide fraction. It may be isolated either from egg yolk (in Greek lekithos—λέκιθος) or from soy beans, from which it is extracted chemically (using hexane) or mechanically. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1410x3012, 28 KB) Description: Chemical structure of phosphatidylcholine. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1410x3012, 28 KB) Description: Chemical structure of phosphatidylcholine. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Lecithin, also known as Phosphatidylcholine Lecithin is usually used as synonym for phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which is the major component of a phosphatide fraction which may be isolated from either egg yolk (in Greek lekithos - λεκιθος), or soy beans. ... Phosphatidylethanolamine is a lipid found in biological membranes. ... Chemical structure of sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylinositol Phosphatidylinositol (abbreviated PtdIns, or PI) is a minor phospholipid component of eukaryotic cell membranes. ... Lecithin, also known as Phosphatidylcholine Lecithin is usually used as synonym for phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which is the major component of a phosphatide fraction which may be isolated from either egg yolk (in Greek lekithos - λεκιθος), or soy beans. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ...


It has low solubility in water. In aqueous solution its phospholipids can form either liposomes, bilayer sheets, micelles, or lamellar structures, depending on hydration and temperature. This results in a type of surfactant that is usually classified as amphoteric. Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ...


Lecithin is sold as a food supplement and for medical uses.

Contents

In biology

Phosphatidylcholine occurs in all cellular organisms being one of the components of the phospholipid portion of the Cell Membrane Lecithin, also known as Phosphatidylcholine Lecithin is usually used as synonym for phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which is the major component of a phosphatide fraction which may be isolated from either egg yolk (in Greek lekithos - λεκιθος), or soy beans. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ...


As a food additive

Lecithin is regarded as a well-tolerated and non-toxic surfactant. It is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for human consumption with the status "Generally Recognized As Safe." Lecithin is an integral part of cell membranes, and can be totally metabolized, so it is virtually non-toxic to humans. Other emulsifiers can only be excreted via the kidneys. Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... FDA redirects here. ... Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS): Designation by the FDA that a chemical or substance (including certain pesticides) added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual FFDCA food additive tolerance requirements. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Lecithin is used commercially in substances requiring a natural emulsifier and/or lubricant, from pharmaceuticals to protective coverings. For example, lecithin is the emulsifier that keeps cocoa and cocoa butter in a candy bar from separating. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Cocoa butter Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, pure edible vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... A Twix bar, broken in half Candy bar is the most popular term in the U.S. for confectionery usually packaged in a bar or log form, often coated with chocolate, and sized as a snack for one person. ...


There are studies that show soy-derived lecithin has significant effects on lowering cholesterol and triglyceride, while increasing HDL ("good cholesterol") levels in the blood [1][2]. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... HDL is an initialism that may refer to any of the following: High density lipoprotein Hardware description language german: Hab Dich Lieb This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Commercial lecithin, as used by food manufacturers, is a mixture of phospholipids in oil. The lecithin is obtained by degumming the extracted oil of the seeds. The lecithin is a mixture of various phospholipids, and the composition depends on the origin of the lecithin. A major source of lecithin is soybean oil. Because of the EU-requirement to declare additions of allergens in foods, in addition to regulations regarding Genetically Modified Crops, a gradual shift to other sources of lecithin, e.g., sunflower oil, is taking place. Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... “Vegetable oil” redirects here. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... It has been suggested that Genetic engineering be merged into this article or section. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ...


The main phospholipids in lecithin from soya and sunflower are phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid. They are often abbreviated to PC, PI, PE, and PA, respectively. To modify the performance of lecithin, i.e., to make it suitable for the product to which it is added, it may be hydrolysed enzymatically. In hydrolysed lecithins, a portion of the phospholipids have one fatty acid removed by phospholipase. Such phospholipids are called lyso-phospholipids. The most commonly-used phospholipase is phospholipase A2, which removes the fatty acid at the sn-2 position. Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Phosphatidate (red: phosphate group, blue & green: fatty acid). ... A phospholipase is an enzyme that converts phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. ... Not to be confused with fats. ...


In margarines, especially those containing high levels of fat (>75%), lecithin is added as an 'anti-spattering' agent for shallow frying. Lecithin is admitted by the EU as a food additive, designated by E number E322. Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ...


Lecithins may also be modified by a process called fractionation. During this process, lecithin is mixed with an alcohol, usually ethanol. Some phospholipids have a good solubility in ethanol (e.g., phosphatidylcholine), whereas most other phospholipids do not dissolve well in ethanol. The ethanol is separated from the lecithin sludge, after which the ethanol is removed by evaporation, to obtain a phosphatidylcholine-enriched lecithin fraction. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture of compounds by their boiling point, by heating to high enough temperatures. ...


Compatibility with special diets

Thus far, the only proven benefit and suggested use is for those taking niacin to treat high cholesterol. Niacin treatment can deplete choline, necessitating an increased amount of lecithin or choline in the diet. Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ...


Egg-derived lecithin may be a concern for those following some specialized diets. Egg lecithin is not a concern for those on low-cholesterol diets, but, if not purified before being used as a food ingredient, it could significantly raise the overall cholesterol content of the food. Consumer Product companies should clearly indicate the source of lecithin to help consumers. Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


For observant Jews under Kashrut, it is considered pareve, neutral, e.g., may be mixed with both meat and dairy.[citation needed] However, soy derived lecithin is considered by some to be kitniyot and prohibited on Passover.[citation needed] For most Muslims, lecithin or any other derivatives from plants, egg yolks or animals are allowed.[citation needed] There is no general agreement among vegetarians concerning egg-derived lecithin, but since it is animal-derived, Jains, strict vegetarians, vegans choose not to consume it. The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ... Kitniyot, qitniyyoth (Hebrew: ‎) (literally little things) are a category of foods defined by Jewish law and tradition which Ashkenazi Jews (Jews from Eastern Europe, Germany, etc. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ...


See also

Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Some common lipids. ... This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine. ...

References

  1. ^ Iwata, T., Kimura, Y., Tsutsumi, K., Furukawa, Y. & Kimura, S. (1993).The effect of various phospholipids on plasma lipoproteins and liver lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 39, 63-71.
  2. ^ Jimenez, M. A., Scarino, M. L., Vignolini, F. & Mengheri, E. (1990). Evidence that polyunsaturated lecithin induces a reduction in plasma cholesterol level and favorable changes in lipoprotein composition in hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of Nutrition 120, 659-667.

External links

Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Soy Lecithin Granules with Vitamin B-5 and BHA - health-marketplace.com (297 words)
Lecithin, or one of its natural constituents, is often found in weight loss preparations for its fat burning properties.
In addition to its value for memory and mental function, studies suggest that lecithin alters the membranes of cells in a manner that inhibits the entry of viruses.
Lecithin works by increasing the cell membrane ratio of phosphatidylcholine/ phosphatidylethanolamine to cholesterol, increasing the fluidity of the cell membrane, making it harder for viruses to penetrate.
Soy Alert! Soy Lecithin: Sludge to Profit (2051 words)
Lecithin is an emulsifying substance that is found in the cells of all living organisms.
The French scientist Maurice Gobley discovered lecithin in 1805 and named it "lekithos" after the Greek word for "egg yolk." Until it was recovered from the waste products of soybean processing in the 1930s, eggs were the primary source of commercial lecithin.
Lecithin has been touted for years as a wonder food capable of combating atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, liver cirrhosis, gall stones, psoriasis, eczema, scleroderma, anxiety, tremors and brain aging.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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