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Encyclopedia > Lebanon
الجمهورية اللبنانية
Al-Jumhūrīyyah al-Lubnānīyyah
Lebanese Republic
Flag of Lebanon Coat of arms of Lebanon
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemKulluna lil-watan lil 'ula lil-'alam
Capital
(and largest city)
Beirut
33°54′N, 35°32′E
Official languages Arabic; in some cases French
Other common languages French, English, Armenian
Demonym Lebanese
Government Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Michel Suleiman
 -  Prime Minister Fouad Siniora
 -  Speaker of Parliament Nabih Berri
Independence from France-administered League of Nations mandate 
 -  Declared November 26, 1941 
 -  Recognized November 22, 1943 
Area
 -  Total 10,452 km² (166th)
4,035 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  February 2008 estimate 4,196,453 (125th)
 -  Density 358/km² (26th)
948/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $41.96 billion (84rd)
 -  Per capita $9,100 (42th)
HDI (2007) 0.772 (medium) (88th)
Currency Lebanese pound (LL) (LBP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .lb
Calling code +961

Lebanon (IPA: /ˈlɛbənɒn/) (Arabic: لبنان Lubnān, French: Liban, officially the Republic of Lebanon[1] or Lebanese Republic[2] (الجمهورية اللبنانية), is a country in Western Asia, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east, and Israel to the south. It is in proximity to Cyprus through the Mediterranean Sea. Due to its sectarian diversity, Lebanon evolved in 1943 a unique political system, known as confessionalism, based on a community-based power-sharing mechanism.[3] It was created when the ruling French mandatory powers expanded the borders of the former Maronite Christian autonomous Ottoman Mount Lebanon district. Lebanon may be: Lebanon the country in the Middle East. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Lebanon was adopted on December 7, 1943. ... http://images. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Koullouna Lilouataan Lil Oula Lil Alam is the Lebanese national anthem, written by Rachid Nakhlé and composed by Wadih Sabra. ... Image File history File links LocationLebanon. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... About 91% of the population of Lebanon is urban and comprises many different ethnic groups and religions, including numerous Christian and Muslim sects. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... Michel Suleiman or Sleiman (Arabic: ‎, born November 21, 1948) is the current President of Lebanon. ... This page lists prime ministers of Lebanon. ... Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Siniora, Fouad Saniora, Fouad Seniora) (Arabic: ‎, Fuād As-SanyÅ«rah) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... This page lists speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon. ... Nabih Berri Nabih Berri (Arabic: ; born January 28, 1938) is the speaker of the Lebanese Parliament of Lebanon. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The Lebanese pound (Arabic lira, French livre, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency unit of Lebanon. ... LL may stand for: LL is the IATA code for Lineas Aeras Allegro airline LL is the production code for the Doctor Who serial The Evil of the Daleks. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .lb is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Lebanon. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... +961 can mean: +961, the ITU country code for Lebanon. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about religious groups. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Consociationalism is the method of conflict resolution built on the idea that a democracy fractured by opposing political parties can stabilize itself by appointing a small group of intellectuals to govern the people. ...


The flag of Lebanon features a cedar in green against a white backdrop, bounded by two horizontal red stripes along the top and bottom. This is a reference to the famous cedars of Lebanon, renowned throughout the region in antiquity. The red refers to the blood spilled in order to gain the independence, the white refers to the purity and peace. Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Lebanon was adopted on December 7, 1943. ... Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... The flag of Spain The flag of Lebanon In vexillology, a Spanish fess is a term occasionally used to describe the central horizontal stripe of a tricolour or triband flag that is twice the width of the stripes on either side of it. ...


Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990), the country enjoyed a period of relative calm and prosperity, driven by the tourism, agriculture, and banking sectors of the economy. [4] It is considered the banking capital of the Levant and was widely known as the "Switzerland of the East" due to its financial power and diversity. Lebanon also attracted large numbers of tourists[5] to the point that the capital Beirut became widely referred to as the "Paris of Western Asia"[6] Belligerents Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Amal Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Immediately following the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure.[7] By early 2006, a considerable degree of stability had been achieved throughout much of the country, Beirut's reconstruction was almost complete,[8] and an increasing number of foreign tourists were pouring into Lebanon's resorts.[5]


The 2006 war, however, caused widespread loss of life and damage to Lebanon's infrastructure from July 12, 2006 until a cessation of hostilities call, by the UN Security Council, went into effect on August 14, 2006,[9][6] and the country's economy is still in the process of recovering. Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ...

Contents

Etymology

Faraya, Mount Lebanon.
Faraya, Mount Lebanon.

The name Lebanon ("Lubnān" in standard Arabic; "Libnén" in the local dialect) comes from the Canaanite (and common West Semitic) root "LBN", meaning "white"[10], which could be regarded as a reference to the snow-capped Mount Lebanon.[11] Occurrences of the name have been found in three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh (2900 BC), the texts of the library of Ebla (2400 BC), and 71 times in the Old Testament.[11][12][13] The name is even recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where r stood for Canaanite l.[14] Image File history File links Faraya. ... Image File history File links Faraya. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ...


History

Main article: History of Lebanon
History of the Levant
Stone Age

Kebaran · Natufian culture ·
Halafian culture · Jericho
Map of Lebanon. ... This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Kebarans were the first anatomically modern humans to live in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ...

Ancient History

Sumerians · Ebla · Akkadian Empire ·
Canaan · Phoenicians
Amorites · Aramaeans · Edomites · Hittites
Nabataeans ·Palmyra · Philistines ·Israel and Judah
Assyrian Empire · Babylonian Empire
Persian Empire · Seleucid Empire ·
Hasmonean kingdom
Roman Empire · Byzantine Empire
Ancient redirects here. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

The Middle Ages

Umayyad · Abbasid · Fatimid
Mamluks
The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ...

Modern Times

Ottoman Empire·
British Mandate of Palestine
Syria · Lebanon · Jordan
Israel · Palestinian territories It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... This article is about the modern State of Israel, not History of Zionism. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

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Sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos, now in the National Museum of Beirut
Sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos, now in the National Museum of Beirut
Inscription in Greek on one of the tombs found in the Roman-Byzantine necropolis in Tyre
Inscription in Greek on one of the tombs found in the Roman-Byzantine necropolis in Tyre

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 760 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 760 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Hiram I or Ahiram (Hebrew: חִירָם, high-born; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian vocalization Ḥîrām) was king of Tyre and Byblos from 969 BC to 936 BC, succeeding his father, Abibaal. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Ahirams sarcophagus, with the oldest inscription in the Phoenician script. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tomb_in_Tyre_(small). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tomb_in_Tyre_(small). ...

Ancient history

The earliest known settlements in Lebanon date back to earlier than 5000 BC. Archaeologists have discovered in Byblos, which is considered to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world,[15] remnants of prehistoric huts with crushed limestone floors, primitive weapons, and burial jars which are evidence of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic fishing communities who lived on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea over 7,000 years ago.[7] Template:History of Lebanon The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning of Arab rule. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...


Lebanon was the homeland of the Phoenicians, a seafaring people that spread across the Mediterranean before the rise of Cyrus the Great.[16] After two centuries of Persian rule, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great attacked and burned Tyre, the most prominent Phoenician city. Throughout the subsequent centuries leading up to recent times, the country became part of numerous succeeding empires, among them Persian, Armenian, Assyrian, Macedonian, Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Crusader, and Ottoman. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Cyrus redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from (approximately 355 years) 190 BC to AD 165, and a client state of the Roman Empire from 165 to 428. ... blah ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


French mandate and independence

Lebanon was part of the Ottoman Empire for over 400 years, in a region known as Greater Syria,[17] until 1918 when the area became a part of the French Mandate of Syria following World War I. On September 1, 1920, France formed the State of Greater Lebanon as one of several ethnic enclaves within Syria.[18] Lebanon was a largely Christian (mainly Maronite) enclave but also included areas containing many Muslims and Druzes. On September 1, 1926, France formed the Lebanese Republic. The Republic was afterward a separate entity from Syria but still administered under the French Mandate of Syria. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, while France was occupied by Germany.[19] General Henri Dentz, the Vichy High Commissioner for Syria and Lebanon, played a major role in the independence of the nation. The Vichy authorities in 1941 allowed Germany to move aircraft and supplies through Syria to Iraq where they were used against British forces. The United Kingdom, fearing that Nazi Germany would gain full control of Lebanon and Syria by pressure on the weak Vichy government, sent its army into Syria and Lebanon. The French Mandate of Lebanon was a League of Nations Mandate created at the end of World War I. When the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles, four mandate territories were created, with the rest of the territory, aside from Turkey, being placed under monarchies. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Capital Damascus Language(s) Arabic, French Political structure League of Nations Mandate Historical era Interwar period  - Mandate granted April 25, 1920  - Battle of Maysalun July 23, 1920  - Federation established June, 1922  - Unification of Damascus and Aleppo December 1, 1924  - Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence March-September, 1936  - Independence April... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article needs cleanup. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Fernand Dentz (16 Dec 1881, Roanne, Loire, France - 13 Dec 1945, Fresnes, Val-de-Marne) was a General for Vichy France during WW II. He was charged with the defence of the (Vichy) Syrian protectorate, and commanded an army of approximately 45,000 men. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ...

The flag of Greater Lebanon (1920-1943)
The flag of Greater Lebanon (1920-1943)

After the fighting ended in Lebanon, General Charles de Gaulle visited the area. Under various political pressures from both inside and outside Lebanon, de Gaulle decided to recognize the independence of Lebanon. On November 26, 1941 General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government. Elections were held in 1943 and on November 8, 1943 the new Lebanese government unilaterally abolished the mandate. The French reacted by throwing the new government into prison. In the face of international pressure, the French released the government officials on November 22, 1943 and accepted the independence of Lebanon. Image File history File links Lebanese_French_flag. ... Image File history File links Lebanese_French_flag. ... The State of Greater Lebanon is the name of a territory that was created by France and is the precursor of modern Lebanon. ... This article is about the person. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The allies kept the region under control until the end of World War II. The last French troops withdrew in 1946. Lebanon's unwritten National Pact of 1943 required that its president be Christian and its prime minister be Muslim. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The National Pact is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon and has shaped the country to this day. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil (including a civil conflict in 1958) interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade. The Lebanon crisis of 1958 was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


1948 Arab-Israeli war

Main article: 1948 Arab-Israeli war

Five years after gaining independence, Lebanon joined the Arab League to invade Israel shortly after its declaration of independence.[20][21] during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It took over logistical support of the Arab Liberation Army after it found itself cut off from its bases in Syria while going on an attack on the newly-proclaimed Jewish State.[21] The Lebanese army gained nothing during the war, and the Israeli army managed to conquer territory west of the Naphtali Mountains.[20] After the defeat of the Arab Liberation Army in Operation Hiram,[22] Lebanon accepted an armistice with Israel on March 23, 1949 and the conquered territory was returned. During the war, about 100,000 Palestinian refugees fled to Lebanon. Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... Operation Hiram was a military operation conducted by the Israel Defence Force (IDF) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War It was led by Moshe Carmel and aimed at capturing the entire Galilee region for Israel. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians and continued after...


Civil war and beyond

Main article: Lebanese civil war
See also: 1982 Lebanon War
See also: List of attacks in Lebanon

In 1975, civil war broke out in Lebanon. The Lebanese Civil War lasted fifteen years, devastating the country's economy, and resulting in the massive loss of human life and property. It is estimated that 150,000 people were killed and another 200,000 maimed.[23] The war ended in 1990 with the signing of the Taif Agreement and parts of Lebanon were left in ruins.[24] Belligerents Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Amal Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... This page contains a selection from the large number of attacks and other violent events in Lebanon since 1975, the starting year of the long-lasting Lebanese civil war. ... Belligerents Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Amal Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the... The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament; fathered by Parliament Speaker President Hussein El-Husseini. ...


During the civil war, the Palestine Liberation Organization used Lebanon to launch attacks against Israel. Lebanon was twice invaded and occupied by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in 1978 and 1982,[25] the PLO expelled in the second invasion. Israel remained in control of Southern Lebanon until 2000, when there was a general decision, led by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, to withdraw due to continuous guerrilla attacks executed by Hezbollah militants and a belief that Hezbollah activity would diminish and dissolve without the Israeli presence.[26] The UN determined that the withdrawal of Israeli troops beyond the blue line was in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425, although a border region called the Shebaa Farms is still disputed. Hezbollah declared that it would not stop its operations against Israel until this area was liberated.[27] PLO redirects here. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel, drawn by the United Nations for the purposes of determining whether Israel had withdrawn from Lebanon. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ...


Recent history

On February 14, 2005, former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated in a car bomb explosion near the Saint George Bay in Beirut.[28] Leaders of the March 14 Alliance accused Syria of the attack[29] due to its extensive military and intelligence presence in Lebanon, and the public rift between Hariri and Damascus over the Syrian-backed constitutional amendment extending pro-Syrian President Lahoud's term in office. Others, namely the March 8 Alliance and Syrian officials, claimed that the assassination may have been executed by the Israeli Mossad in an attempt to destabilize the country.[30] is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rafik Bahaeddine Al-Hariri — (November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), (Arabic: ) a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, was Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... The Saint George Bay (known in Lebanon as Golfe de Saint-Georges) is located on the northern coast of the city of Beirut in Lebanon. ... The March 14 Alliance (Arabic: ), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of anti-Syrian political parties and independents in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon, Samir Geagea president of the Lebanese Forces, and Walid... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... General Émile Jamil Lahoud (Arabic: , Armenian: ; born January 12, 1936) is a former President of Lebanon. ... The March 8 Alliance is a coalition of various political parties in Lebanon. ... For the organization that coordinated pre-state Jewish immigration, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...


This incident triggered a series of demonstrations, known as Cedar Revolution, that demanded the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and the establishment of an international commission to investigate the assassination. The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1595 on April 7, 2005, which called for an investigation into the assassination of Rafik Hariri.[31] The findings of the investigation were officially published on October 20, 2005 in the Mehlis report.[32] Eventually, and under pressure from the West, Syria began withdrawing its 15,000-strong army troops from Lebanon.[33] By April 26, 2005, all uniformed Syrian soldiers had already crossed the border back to Syria.[34] The Hariri assassination marked the beginning of a series of assassination attempts that led to the loss of many prominent Lebanese figures. Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mehlis Report is the result of the United Nations investigation into the 14 February 2005 assassination of Lebanons former prime minister Rafik al-Hariri. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 12, 2006, Hezbollah captured two Israeli soldiers leading to a conflict, known in Lebanon as July War, that lasted until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect on 14 August 2006. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600–1,000 active fighters 3,000–10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... UN redirects here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In October 2007, Émile Lahoud finished his second term as President. The opposition conditioned its vote for a successor on a power-sharing deal, thus leaving the country without a president for over 6 months. General Émile Jamil Lahoud (Arabic: , Armenian: ; born January 12, 1936) is a former President of Lebanon. ...


On May 09, 2008, Hezbollah and Amal militants, in an armed attack triggered by a government decision on Hezbollah's communications network, temporarily took over Western Beirut.[8] The situation was described by the government as an attempted "coup". May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Amal may refer to: Åmål, a small town in Sweden Amal Movement, Amal, Arabic for hope, the popular name for a Lebanese political party and militia organisation Amal language of Papua New Guinea AMAL is a tradename for a British make of motorcycle carburettor Amal stands for Association des... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


On May 21, 2008, all major Lebanese parties signed an accord to elect Michel Suleiman as President, to form a national unity government with 11 out of 30 seats for the opposition, thus enabling it to veto decisions, and to adopt a new electoral law, based on the 1960 law with amendments for the 3 Beirut constituencies. The deal was brokered by an Arab League delegation, headed by the Emir and Foreign Minister of Qatar and the Secretary General of the Arab League, after 5 days of intense negotiations in Doha. Michel Suleiman was officially elected President on Sunday May 25, 2008 in the presence of the Foreign Ministers of Syria and Iran as well as France and Saudi-Arabia. is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Michel Suleiman or Sleiman (Arabic: ‎, born November 21, 1948) is the current President of Lebanon. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... For other uses, see Doha (disambiguation). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is His messenger (the Shahadah) Anthem Aash Al Maleek Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Riyadh Official languages Arabic Demonym Saudi, Saudi Arabian Government Absolute monarchy  -  King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz  -  Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Establishment  -  Kingdom declared...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Lebanon
Lebanon from space. Snow cover can be seen on the western and eastern mountain ranges
Lebanon from space. Snow cover can be seen on the western and eastern mountain ranges

Lebanon is located in Western Asia. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west along a 225-kilometre (140 mi) coastline, by Syria to the east and north, and by Israel to the south. The Lebanon-Syria border stretches for 375 kilometres (233 mi) and the Lebanon-Israel border for 79 kilometres (49 mi). The border with the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights in Syria is disputed by Lebanon in a small area called Shebaa Farms, but the border has been demarcated by the United Nations.[35] Detailed map of Lebanon, 2002 Lebanon stretches along the east side of the Mediterranean Sea, its length almost three times its width. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (584x744, 58 KB) Satellite image of Lebanon in March 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (584x744, 58 KB) Satellite image of Lebanon in March 2002. ... Mount Lebanon is the mountain range that extends across the whole country of Lebanon about 160 km (100 mi) parallel to the Mediterranean coast and rising to 3,090 m (10,131 ft). ... Anti-Lebanon is a mountain range of Lebanon and Syria. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ... The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel, drawn by the United Nations for the purposes of determining whether Israel had withdrawn from Lebanon. ... UN redirects here. ...

Qornet el Sawda (Cornet es-Sawda or Qurnat as Sawda' ) the highest summit in the middle east, 3088 meters.

Most of Lebanon's area is mountainous terrain,[36] except for the narrow coastline and the Beqaa Valley, which plays an integral role in Lebanon's agriculture. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Béqaa is a region in Lebanon with a population of 750,000 inhabitants. ...


Lebanon has a moderate Mediterranean climate. In coastal areas, winters are generally cool and rainy whilst summers are hot and humid. In more elevated areas, temperatures usually drop below freezing during the winter with frequent, sometimes heavy, snow; summers, on the other hand, are warm and dry.[37] Although most of Lebanon receives a relatively large amount of rainfall annually (compared to its arid surroundings), certain areas in north-eastern Lebanon receive little rainfall because the high peaks of the western mountain front block much of the rain clouds that originate over the Mediterranean Sea.[38]  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ...


In ancient times, Lebanon housed large forests of the Cedars of Lebanon, which now serve as the country's national emblem.[39] However, centuries of trading cedar trees, used by ancient mariners for boats, and the absence of any efforts to replant them have depleted Lebanon's once-flourishing cedar forests.[39] Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... Mariner can refer to The PBM Mariner flying boat The Mariner Space Program An archaic term for sailor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Governorates and districts

Main articles: Governorates of Lebanon, Districts of Lebanon, and Municipalities of Lebanon

Lebanon is divided into six governorates (mohaafazaat, Arabic: محافظات —singular mohafazah, Arabic: محافظة) which are further subdivided into twenty-five districts (aqdya—singular: qadaa).[40] The districts themselves are also divided into several municipalities, each enclosing a group of cities or villages. The governorates and their respective districts are listed below: Lebanon is divided into 6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah). ... The 6 Governorates of Lebanon are divided into 25 Districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa) -- or 26, counting the Governorate of Beirut which is not subdivided into districts. ... The districts of Lebanon are divided into municipalities. ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... Qadaa, (plural aqdya) is an arab term for a subnational entity. ...

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 740 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Miniyeh-
Danniyeh
Tripoli
Jezzine
Hermel
Western
Beqaa
Rashaya
Nabatieh
Bint
Jbeil
Beirut Governorate

The Beirut Governorate is not divided into districts and is limited to the city of Beirut. North Governorate North Governorate (Arabic: الشمال; transliterated: ash-Shamal) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. ... Akkar (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon, characterized by the presence of a relatively large coastal plain, with high mountains to the east. ... The Miniyeh-Danniyeh District is a district in the North Governorate of Lebanon. ... Zgharta District (Qadaa Zgharta) is a district (qadaa) of the North Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon. ... Koura (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon. ... The Tripoli District is a district in the North Governorate of Lebanon. ... Districts of Lebanon. ... Batroun District (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon, south of Tripoli. ... Mount Lebanon (Arabic: جبل لبنان; transliterated: Jabal Libnan) is one of the Governorates of Lebanon. ... Jbeil (Qadaa Jbail) (Arabic قضاء جبيل) is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate (Arabic محافظة جبل لبنان), Lebanon, to the northeast of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... Keserwan (Qadaa Keserwèn) (Arabic قضاء كسروان) is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate (Arabic محافظة جبل لبنان), Lebanon, to the northeast of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... Matn (Arabic: قضاء المتن, translit: Qada el Matn), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... The Governorate of Beirut The Governorate of Beirut is the only Lebanese governorate that consists of one district and one city, Beirut, which is also its capital, and the capital of Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Baabda (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... Aley (Arabic: ) is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south-east of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ... The Governorate of South Lebanon South Governorate (Arabic: ‎; transliterated: al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. ... The Jezzine District is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Beqaa Beqaa is a governorate in Lebanon with a population of 750,000 inhabitants. ... The Hermel District is a district in the Beqaa Governorate of Lebanon. ... Baalbek is the main city in the Beqaa Valley, and the center of the Northeastern Shiite dominated areas of Lebanon. ... Zahle District an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. ... Western Beqaa District an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. ... Rashaya District an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. ... Nabatieh Governorate Nabatieh Governorate (Arabic: ‎, Muhaa-fza al-Nabatiya) is one of the six governorates of Lebanon. ... The Hasbaya District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Nabatieh District is a district in the Nabatieh Governorate of Lebanon. ... Marjeyoun stands majestically at a hill facing Mount Haramoun (Jabal El Sheikh) to the East, Beaufort 1000 years old Crusader Castle (Shief Arnoun) above the Litani River and overlooking Mount Amel (Jabal Amel) to the West, The Rihan, Niha and the Lebanon Mountain Range to the North and the... The Bint Jbeil District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Governorate of Beirut The Governorate of Beirut is the only Lebanese governorate that consists of one district and one city, Beirut, which is also its capital, and the capital of Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...

Nabatiyeh Governorate (Jabal Amel) - 4 districts
Beqaa Governorate - 5 districts
  • Baalbek
  • Hermel
  • Rashaya
  • Western Beqaa (al-Beqaa al-Gharbi)
  • Zahle
North Governorate (al-Shamal) - 7 districts
Mount Lebanon Governorate (Jabal Lubnan) - 6 districts South Governorate (al-Janoub) - 3 districts

Nabatiye Governorate Nabatiye Governorate (Arabic: ‎ an-Nabatiyah) is one of the six governorates of Lebanon. ... The Bint Jbeil District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Hasbaya District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon. ... Marjeyoun stands majestically at a hill facing Mount Haramoun (Jabal El Sheikh) to the East, Beaufort 1000 years old Crusader Castle (Shief Arnoun) above the Litani River and overlooking Mount Amel (Jabal Amel) to the West, The Rihan, Niha and the Lebanon Mountain Range to the North and the... The Nabatieh District is a district in the Nabatieh Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Beqaa Beqaa is a governorate in Lebanon with a population of 750,000 inhabitants. ... Baalbek is the main city in the Beqaa Valley, and the center of the Northeastern Shiite dominated areas of Lebanon. ... The Hermel District is a district in the Beqaa Governorate of Lebanon. ... Rashaya District an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. ... Western Beqaa District an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. ... Zahle District an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. ... North Governorate North Governorate (Arabic: الشمال; transliterated: ash-Shamal) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. ... Akkar (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon, characterized by the presence of a relatively large coastal plain, with high mountains to the east. ... Batroun District (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon, south of Tripoli. ... Districts of Lebanon. ... Koura (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon. ... The Miniyeh-Danniyeh District is a district in the North Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Tripoli District is a district in the North Governorate of Lebanon. ... Zgharta District (Qadaa Zgharta) is a district (qadaa) of the North Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon. ... Mount Lebanon (Arabic: جبل لبنان; transliterated: Jabal Libnan) is one of the Governorates of Lebanon. ... Aley (Arabic: ) is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south-east of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... Baabda (Arabic: ‎) is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ... Keserwan (Qadaa Keserwèn) (Arabic قضاء كسروان) is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate (Arabic محافظة جبل لبنان), Lebanon, to the northeast of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... Matn (Arabic: قضاء المتن, translit: Qada el Matn), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanons capital Beirut. ... The Governorate of South Lebanon South Governorate (Arabic: ‎; transliterated: al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. ... The Jezzine District is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...

Demographics and religion

The Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque in Martyrs' Square, Beirut.
The Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque in Martyrs' Square, Beirut.

No official census has been taken since 1932, reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon over confessional (i.e. religious) balance. The CIA World Fact Book gives the following distribution: Muslim - 59.7% (Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian - 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%.[41] About 91% of the population of Lebanon is urban and comprises many different ethnic groups and religions, including numerous Christian and Muslim sects. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque is a mosque located in Martyrs Square in downtown Beirut, Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,800 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,800 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Our Lady of Lebanon, also known as Notre Dame du Liban, is the patron saint of the Mediterranean country of Lebanon. ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


There are 17 religious sects recognized.[42] Some followers of the Druze religion do not consider themselves to be Muslim; however, the state legally recognizes Druze followers as Muslim. Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The number of those inhabiting Lebanon proper was estimated at 3,925,502 in July 2007.[42] There are approximately 18 million people of Lebanese descent spread all over the world, with Brazil having the largest Lebanese community abroad (8 million).[43] Argentina, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, France, Spain, Germany, Great Britain, Mexico, Venezuela, USA, West Africa, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic also have large Lebanese communities. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


In 2007, Lebanon hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 325,800. 270,800 refugees and asylum seekers were from the Former Palestine, 50,200 from Iraq, and 4,500 from Sudan. Lebanon forcibly returned more than 300 refugees and asylum seekers in 2007.[44] A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Lebanon

Economy of Lebanon Lebanons economy and markets are best described at the dawn of the new millennium by a private and liberal economic activity and an openness to abroad with perfect capital and labor mobility. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lebanons economy and markets are best described at the dawn of the new millennium by a private and liberal economic activity and an openness to abroad with perfect capital and labor mobility. ...

Tourism
Agriculture
Beirut Stock Exchange
Companies listed on BSE
Companies
Bank of Lebanon
Shipping
Topics of Lebanon
Culture - Geography
History - Politics
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The urban population in Lebanon is noted for its commercial enterprise.[45] Over the course of time, emigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world.[46] Lebanon has a high proportion of skilled labour comparable to most European nations and the highest among Arabic speaking countries.[47] Tourism and Important places Lebanon’s main income before the war in 1975 depended on tourism. ... Logo The Beirut Stock Exchange is the principal stock exchange of Lebanon. ... http://www. ... Headquarters Governor Riad Salameh Central Bank of Lebanon Currency Lebanese Pound ISO 4217 Code LBP Base borrowing rate 4. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Lebanon. ... Lebanon has a Republic government parliamentary democracy within the overall framework of confessionalism, in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. ...


Although Lebanon is ideally suited for agricultural activities in terms of water availability and soil fertility, as it possesses the highest proportion of cultivable land in the Arabic speaking world,[48] it does not have a large agricultural sector. Attracting a mere 12% of the total workforce,[49] agriculture is the least popular economic sector in Lebanon. It contributes approximately 11.7% of the country's GDP, also placing it in the lowest rank compared to other economic sectors. Major produce include apples, peaches, oranges, and lemons.[50] Soil fertility is the characteristic of soil that supports abundant plant life. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...


Lebanon's lack of raw materials for industry and its complete dependency on Arab countries for oil have made it difficult for the Lebanese to engage in significant industrial activity. As such, industry in Lebanon is mainly limited to small businesses concerned with reassembling and packaging imported parts. In 2004, industry ranked second in workforce, with 26% of the Lebanese working population,[49] and second in GDP contribution, with 21% of Lebanon's GDP.[50] Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The secondary sector of industry includes those economic sectors that create a finished, usable product: manufacturing and construction. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...

A combination of beautiful climate, many historic landmarks and World Heritage Sites continues to attract large numbers of tourists to Lebanon annually, in spite of its political instability. In addition, Lebanon's strict financial secrecy and capitalist economy—unique in its area—have given it significant economic status among Arab countries. The thriving tourism and banking activities have naturally made the services sector the most important pillar of the Lebanese economy. The majority of the Lebanese workforce (nearly 65%)[49] have preferred employment in the services sector, as a result of the abundant job opportunities and large paychecks. The GDP contribution, accordingly, is very large and amounts to roughly 67.3% of the annual Lebanese GDP.[50] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2292x1216, 858 KB) A picture of the Kadisha Valley, viewed from Dimane, Bsharri, Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2292x1216, 858 KB) A picture of the Kadisha Valley, viewed from Dimane, Bsharri, Lebanon. ... The Kadisha valley (also known as Qadisha Valley or Quadi Qadisha) is located in Northern Lebanon. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Bank secrecy (or bank privacy) is a legal principle under which banks are allowed to protect personal information about their customers, through the use of numbered bank accounts or otherwise. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Tourist redirects here. ...


The economy's dependence on services has always been an issue of great criticism and concern, as it leaves the country subject to the instability of this sector and the vagaries of international trade. International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


The 1975-1990 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a West Asian entrepôt and banking hub.[42] The subsequent period of relative peace enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers, with family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid as the main sources of foreign exchange.[51] A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... An entrepôt is a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Until the 2006 Lebanon War, Lebanon's economy witnessed excellent growth, with bank assets reaching over 75 billion dollars.[52] By the end of the first half of 2006, the influx of tourists to Lebanon had already registered a 49.3% increase over 2005 figures.[52] Market capitalization was also at an all time high, estimated at $10.9 billion at the end of the second quarter of 2006, just weeks before the fighting started.[52] Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ...


Beirut's airport, Rafiq Hariri International Airport, re-opened in September 2006 and the efforts to revive the Lebanese economy have since been proceeding at a slow pace. Major contributors to the reconstruction of Lebanon include Saudi Arabia (with $US 1.5 billion pledged),[53] the European Union (with about $1 billion)[54] and a few other Gulf countries with contributions of up to $800 million.[55]


Foreign Relations

Lebanon concluded negotiations on an association agreement with the European Union in late 2001, and both sides initialed the accord in January 2002. Lebanon also has bilateral trade agreements with several Arab states and is working toward accession to the World Trade Organization. Aside from Syria, Lebanon enjoys good relations with virtually all of the other Arab countries (despite historic tensions with Libya, the Palestinians, and Iraq), and hosted an Arab League Summit in March 2002 for the first time in more than 35 years. Lebanon also is a member of the Organization of Islamic Conference and maintains a close relationship with Iran, largely centered on Shi'a Muslim links. Lebanon is a member of the Francophone countries and hosted the Francophone Summit in October 2002.[56] The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. ... -1... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Lebanon

All Lebanese schools are required by the government to follow a prescribed curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education. ...

Schools

All Lebanese schools are required to follow a prescribed curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education. Private schools, approximately 1,400 in all,[57] may also add more courses to their curriculum with approval from the Ministry of Education. The main subjects taught are mathematics, sciences, history, civics, geography, Arabic, and either French or English or both. The subjects gradually increase in difficulty and in number. Students in Grade 11, for example, usually study up to eighteen different subjects.


The government introduces a mild form of selectivity into the curriculum by giving 11th graders choice between two "concentrations": sciences, humanities, and 12th graders choose between four concentrations: life sciences, general sciences, sociology and economics, and humanities and literature. The choices in concentration do not include major changes in the number of subjects taken (if at all). However, subjects that fall out of the concentration are given less weight in grading and are less rigorous, while subjects that fall within the concentration are more challenging and contribute significantly to the final grade.


Students go through three academic phases:

  • Elementary: Six years.
  • Intermediate: Three years; students earn Intermediate Certification (Lebanese Brevet) at completion.
  • Secondary: three years, students who pass official exams earn a Baccalaureate Certificate (Baccalauréat Libanais) in the concentration they chose in 12th grade. Students studying at French-system schools may also graduate with a French Baccalaureate that is considered equivalent to the Lebanese Baccalaureate.

These three phases are provided free to all students and the first eight years are, by law, compulsory.[58] Nevertheless, this requirement currently falls short of being fully enforced. Primary or elementary education consist of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Higher education

Following secondary school, Lebanese students may choose to study at a university, a college, or a vocational training institute. The number of years to complete each program varies. While the Lebanese educational system offer a very high quality and international class of education, the local employment market lacks of enough opportunities, thus encouraging many of the young educated to travel abroad.


Lebanon has 41 nationally-accredited universities, several of which are internationally recognized.[59][60] The American University of Beirut (AUB) and the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) were the first Anglophone and the first Francophone universities to open in Lebanon, respectively.[61][62] The forty-one universities, both public and private, largely operate in French, or English as these are the most widely used foreign languages in Lebanon.[63] The American University of Beirut (AUB; Arabic: ‎) is a private, independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. ... Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) is a private higher institute of education founded by the Jesuits in 1875 in Beirut, Lebanon, known for its school of medicine and its hospital, Hôtel-Dieu de France. ...


At the English universities, students who have graduated from an American-style high school program enter at the freshman level to earn their baccalaureate equivalence from the Lebanese Ministry of Higher Education. This qualifies them to continue studying at the higher levels. Such students are required to have already taken the SAT I and the SAT II upon applying to college, in lieu of the official exams. On the other hand, students who have graduated from a school that follows the Lebanese educational system are directly admitted to the sophomore year. These students are still required to take the SAT I, but not the SAT II. The University academic degrees for the first stage are the Bachelor or the Licence, for the second stage are the Master or the DEA and the third stage is the doctorate. Freshman redirects here. ... The SAT (pronounced S-A-T) Reasoning Test, formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test, is a type of standardized test frequently used by colleges and universities in the United States to aid in the selection of incoming students. ... The SAT Subject Tests are 20 one-hour multiple-choice tests given in individual subjects. ... A degree is any of a wide range of awards made by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Licentiate (from Latin licentia doctorandi = permission/right to teach) is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... In France, a DEA (diplôme détudes approfondies, or diploma of advanced studies) is a former postgraduate degree. ...


The United Nations assigned Lebanon an Education Index of 0.84 in 2005.[64] UN redirects here. ...


Language

Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution states that "Arabic is the official national language. A law determines the cases in which the French language may be used".[65] The majority of Lebanese people speak Arabic and either French or English fluently. Moreover, Lebanese people of Armenian descent also speak Armenian fluently. Arabic redirects here. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The colloquial language used in Lebanon, which is known as Lebanese, is one part of a grouping of dialects called Levantine Arabic. It differs from the literary Modern Standard Arabic, owing its historical blend to Phoenician, Aramaic,Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, and Persian. In recent years, it has become increasingly common for Lebanese people, especially the better educated, to converse in a combination of Lebanese, English and French, whereby the same sentence would include words or expressions from the different languages. In the 1960s Lebanese linguists, such as Mr. Saeed Aql, proposed 37 letters for the Lebanese dialect based on the Latin alphabets. The Arab league rejected the idea, putting pressure on the Lebanese government to refuse such a project. Noteworthy, the Lebanese dialcet is considered a language/dialect continuum. Teams of linguists from UCLA, Moscow State University, and from Cairo University, agreed that 45% of the Lebanese vocabulary is of Aramaic or Syriac origins. The Lebanese dialect has literary works date back to the 18th century AD. A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Levantine Arabic (sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic dialects spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean coastal strip known as the Levant, i. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the form of Arabic currently used in Arabic books, newspapers and nearly all written media. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Regional influences and occupations throughout the centuries could possibly explain why Lebanese people speak so many languages, even incorporating them into their own. In addition, due to the importance of the Lebanese diaspora and business interests of Lebanese worldwide, it has always been important to master languages other than Arabic. Moreover, the Palestinian dialect of Akko in Israel is considered a dialect of Lebanese. The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ...


In the Christian communities, until the Lebanese Civil War, it was seen as a mark of status to not speak Arabic.[citation needed] The reason for this could possibly be that Christians generally were educated in many of the French educational institutions and so a general Francophone class emerged in their communities. However, as the Muslim population increased in previously Christian areas, Arabic is nowadays almost universally spoken among Lebanese.[citation needed]


Culture

Main article: Culture of Lebanon

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Overview

Phoenicia and its colonies.
Phoenicia and its colonies.
The Triumphal Arch in Tyre.
The Triumphal Arch in Tyre.

The area including modern Lebanon has been home to various civilizations and cultures for thousands of years. Originally home to the Phoenicians, and then subsequently conquered and occupied by the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Arabs, the Ottoman Turks and most recently the French, Lebanese culture has over the millennia evolved by borrowing from all of these groups. Lebanon's diverse population, composed of different ethnic and religious groups, has further contributed to the country's lively festivals, highly successful musical styles and literature as well as their rich cuisine, and numerous violent clashes amongst different religious and ethnic groups. When compared to the rest of the Western Asia, Lebanese society as a whole is well educated, and as of 2003 87.4% of the population was literate.[66] Lebanese society is very modern and similar to certain cultures of Mediterranean Europe. It is often considered to serve as Europe's gateway to Western Asia as well as the Asian gateway to the Western World.[67] Image File history File links PhoenicianTrade. ... Image File history File links PhoenicianTrade. ... Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : Phoiníkē, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2402 KB) Summary The fantastic remains of the ancient Triumphal Arch in Tyre, Lebanon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2402 KB) Summary The fantastic remains of the ancient Triumphal Arch in Tyre, Lebanon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Creative arts

Main article: Music of Lebanon

Lebanese music is known around the world for its soothing rhythms and oriental beats. Traditional and folk music are extremely popular as are western rhythms. Beirut, the largest city in Lebanon has long been known, especially in a period immediately following World War 2, for its European-style art and intellectualism. ...


One of the most well-known Lebanese singers is Fairuz; her songs are broadcast every morning on most radio stations and many TV channels, both in Lebanon and the Arab world in general. Other prominent artists include Julia Boutros, composer and oud player Marcel Khalife, Majida El Roumi, Sabah, Wadih El Safi, and the important nun and singer Sister Marie Keyrouz, founder of The Ensemble of the Peace. Fairuz (Arabic: , also spelled Fairouz or Fayrouz) is a distinguished Lebanese singer and legend. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... Marcel Khalife Marcel Khalife (b. ... Majida El Roumi (born in Kfarshima in 13 December 1951, is a Lebanese singer. ... Sabah in one of her earlier films Sabah and her former fiancé model Amr Mihio Mr. ... Wadih El Safi was born in the town of Niha in the Chouf in 1921, and started his artistic journey at the early age of seventeen when he took part in a singing contest held by the Lebanese Radio and was first among fifty other competitors. ... Cover of Credo- Pour LAmour universel Sister Marie Keyrouz (also spelled Kairouz) is a chanter of Oriental Church music, a member of the Congrégation des Soeurs Basiliennes Chouérites and founder-president of the National Institute of Sacred Music in Paris. ...


Some Lebanese artists, such as Najwa Karam and Assi Hellani, remain loyal to a traditional type of music known as 'jabali' ("from the mountains"), while other artists incorporate Western style into their songs. Lebanese performers are perhaps the most popular in the Arab world alongside Egyptian artists, and the star scene includes prominent figures like Najwa Karam, Nancy Ajram, Elissa (singer), Ragheb Alame, Myriam Fares, Wael Kfoury, Nawal al Zoghbi, Carole Samaha, Julia Boutros, Marwan Khouri, Waleed Tawfeek, Amal Hijazi and Majida El Roumi. In addition, the lead guitarist from All Time Low, Jack Barakat, was born in Lebanon as well as the London based singer/songwriter Mika. Nevertheless, Lebanon is playing a leader rule in media and digital arts in the MENA region, in addition to the growth of online campaign such as Going Niche www.goingniche.com. Najwa Karam (Arabic: نجوى كرم; born February 26, 1966) is a Lebanese singer, often referred to as Shams el-Ghinnieh el-Libneniyeh شمس الأغنية اللبنانية (The Sun of Lebanese song). ... Mohammed El Helani (born November 28, 1970), known to the large audience as Assi El Helani, is a Lebanese singer who is has been a major figure in the music scene of the Middle East since the 1990s. ... Najwa Karam (Arabic: نجوى كرم; born February 26, 1966) is a Lebanese singer, often referred to as Shams el-Ghinnieh el-Libneniyeh شمس الأغنية اللبنانية (The Sun of Lebanese song). ... Nancy Nabil Ajram or Nancy Agram (Arabic: ‎) (born May 16, 1983 is a multi-award winning Lebanese pop singer and entertainer. ... This article is about the Lebanese singer. ... Myriam Faris (Arabic: ‎) (born May 3, 1983) is a musician and entertainer from South Lebanon. ... Nawal Al Zoghbi (Arabic نوال الزغبي), full name Nawal George Al Zoghbi, is a successful Lebanese singer, performing in Arabic she has a solid fan base throughout the Arabic-speaking world and extending into Turkey and Europe. ... Carole Samaha (Arabic: كارول سماحة) is a popular Lebanese singer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Majida El Roumi (born in Kfarshima in 13 December 1951, is a Lebanese singer. ... For other uses, see All Time Low (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... // Mika can refer to: Mika (singer) (born 1983), Lebanon-born singer-songwriter based in London FC MIKA, Armenian football team Mika Stadium The namesake singer of the Sadistic Mika Band Mika Aaltonen (born 1965), Finnish football player Mika Antić (1932-1986), Serbian poet Michaël Mika Goossens, Belgian football player... The term MENA, for Middle East and North Africa, is an acronym often used in academic and business writing. ...


Sports

Main article: Sports in Lebanon

Because of Lebanon's unique geography, both summer and winter sports thrive in the country. In fact, in autumn and spring it is sometimes possible to engage in both during the same, skiing in the morning and swimming in the Mediterranean during the afternoon. At the competitive level, basketball, football, and hip ball are among Lebanon's most popular sports. In recent years, Lebanon has hosted the Asian Cup and the Pan-Arab Games; the country will host the Winter Asian Games in 2009. To meet the needs of these international competitions, Lebanon maintains state-of-the-art athletic facilities, that encourage local sporting activities and which in turn in both winter and summer games of the Olympics and Special Olympics. Because of Lebanons unique geography, both summer and winter sports thrive in the country. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Asian Cup is run by the Asian Football Confederation. ... The Pan Arab Games are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world. ... Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The crowd at the 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games Opening Ceremonies in Croke Park, Dublin, Ireland. ...


Lebanon boasts six ski resorts, with slopes suitable for skiers and snowboarders of all ages and levels of experience. Off-slope, there are many opportunities for cross-country skiing, snowshoeing, and snowmobiling. In the summer, skilifts can be used to access some of Lebanon's best hiking trails, with panoramic views stretching as far as Cyprus to the west and Syria to the east on clear days. Canoeing, cycling, rafting, climbing, swimming, sailing and spelunking are among the other common leisure sports in Lebanon. Adventure and extreme sports are also possible throughout the country. The Beirut Marathon is held every fall, drawing top runners from Lebanon and abroad. Shorter races are also held for youth and less serious competitors. Race day is promoted as a fun, family event, and it has become a tradition for many to participate in costumes or outlandish clothing. Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Snowboarder dropping a cornice. ... Tartu Marathon 2006 cross-country ski race in Estonia. ... Snowshoers in Bryce Canyon Snowshoes are a form of footwear devised for travelling over snow. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park (NPS Photo) A snowmobile is a land vehicle propelled by one or two rubber tracks, with skis for steering. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... Rafting in Brazil. ... For other uses, see Climbing (disambiguation). ... Swimmer redirects here. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ... The Beirut Marathon is a marathon sporting event that has been held every year in Beirut, Lebanon since 2003. ...


Arts and literature

Lebanon's contribution to the Arab Rennaissance during the middle of the 19th century is immense. This flowering allowed for the modernisation of the Arabic language moving it away from its Koranic classical dictums, and allowing for the creation and adaptation of previously unknown terms/ words as Al-Watan (the nation), Al-Watania (Nationalism).


The first theatre production in the Arab world was performed at the Al-Kahzen household in 1862, a Lebanese aristocratic family who were also representatives of France.


By the turn of the 20th century, Beirut was vying with Cairo as the major centre for modern Arab thought, with untold number of newspapers, magazines, and literary societies.

Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek.
Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek.

In literature, Gibran Khalil Gibran, who was born in Bsharri, Lebanon but grew to adulthood in Boston, Massachusetts, is known to be one of the world's famous writers, particularly known for his book The Prophet, which has been translated into more than twenty different languages.[68] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 667 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 667 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ‎) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 1,170 m (3,850 ft), situated east of the Litani River. ... Khalil Gibran Gibran Khalil Gibran (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese poet, artist and Maronite Christian. ... The Prophet is a book of 26 poetic essays written in English in 1923 by the Lebanese-born American artist, philosopher and writer Khalil Gibran. ...


Several contemporary Lebanese writers have achieved international success; including Elias Khoury, Amin Maalouf and Hanan al-Shaykh. Elias Khoury (born in Beirut in 1948) is a Lebanese writer and critic. ... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ), born 25 February 1949 in Beirut, is a Lebanese author. ... Hanan al-Shaykh Hanan al-Shaykh (1945- ) is a Lebanese author of contemporary Arab womens literature. ...


In art, Moustafa Farroukh and Alfred Bassbouss are very famous. Mustafa Farroukh (1901-1957) was one of Lebanon's most prominent painters of the 20th century. Formally trained in Rome and Paris, he exhibited in venues from Paris to New York to Beirut over his career. His work was applauded for its representation of real life in Lebanon in pictures of the country, its people and its customs. Farroukh became highly regarded as a Lebanese nationalist painter at a time when Lebanon was asserting its political independence. His art captured the spirit and character of the Lebanese people and he became recognized as the outstanding Lebanese painter of his generation. His total paintings were more than 2000 sold to collectors inside and outside of Lebanon. He also wrote five books and taught art at the American University of Beirut.


Festivals

Several international music festivals are held in Lebanon, featuring world-renowned artists and drawing crowds from Lebanon and abroad. Among the most famous are Baalbeck International Festival, Beiteddine Festival, Byblos International Festival, and the Al-Bustan Festival. Beirut (Beirut Nights) in particular has a very vibrant arts scene, with numerous performances, exhibits, fashion shows, and concerts held throughout the year in its galleries, museums, theatres, and public spaces. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Beiteddine Palace - Inner Courtyard Beiteddine Palace - Inner Courtyard Beiteddine Palace is a 19th century palace in Beiteddine, Lebanon. ... Beiteddine Festivals - Building a stage for a concert in the Outer Courtyard of Beiteddine Palace The Beiteddine Festival is an annual summer festival that takes place in Beiteddine Palace in Beiteddine, Lebanon. ... The Baalbeck International Festival or Le Festival International de Baalbeck is the oldest and most known cultural event in the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean. ... Beiteddine Festivals - Building a stage for a concert in the Outer Courtyard of Beiteddine Palace The Beiteddine Festival is an annual summer festival that takes place in Beiteddine Palace in Beiteddine, Lebanon. ... The Byblos International Festival is a music festival that takes place in the historic quarter of Byblos, Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Beirut Central District where most festivals are held in Beirut. ...

Politics

Lebanon

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Lebanon
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lebanon has a Republic government parliamentary democracy within the overall framework of confessionalism, in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. ...



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Main article: Politics of Lebanon

Lebanon is a parliamentary, democratic republic, which implements a special system known as confessionalism.[69] This system, allegedly meant to ensure that sectarian conflict is kept at bay, attempts to fairly represent the demographic distribution of religious sects in the governing body.[70][71] As such, high-ranking offices in are reserved for members of specific religious groups. The President, for example, has to be a Maronite Catholic Christian, the Speaker of the Parliament a Shi’a Muslim, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Deputy Prime Minister an Orthodox Christian.[72][73] This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... Michel Suleiman or Sleiman (Arabic: ‎, born November 21, 1948) is the current President of Lebanon. ... This page lists prime ministers of Lebanon. ... Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Siniora, Fouad Saniora, Fouad Seniora) (Arabic: ‎, Fuād As-SanyÅ«rah) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... This is the list of the Lebanese government that was formed by Fouad Siniora on 19 July 2005. ... Lebanese parliament building at Place dÉtoile in Beirut The Parliament of Lebanon is the Lebanese national legislature. ... This page lists speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon. ... Political parties in Lebanon lists political parties in Lebanon. ... Elections in Lebanon gives information on election and election results in Lebanon. ... Lebanon is divided into 6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah). ... The 6 Governorates of Lebanon are divided into 25 Districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa) -- or 26, counting the Governorate of Beirut which is not subdivided into districts. ... The districts of Lebanon are divided into municipalities. ... The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Lebanon has a Republic government parliamentary democracy within the overall framework of confessionalism, in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, or Shiism (Arabic:شيعة, Persian:شیعه translit: ) is a denomination of the Islamic faith. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...

The Lebanese parliament building at the Place de l'Étoile
The Lebanese parliament building at the Place de l'Étoile

This trend continues in the distribution of the 128 parliamentary seats, which are divided equally between Muslims and Christians. Prior to 1990, the ratio stood at 6:5 in favor of Christians; however, the Taif Accord, which put an end to the 1975-1990 civil war, adjusted the ratio to grant equal representation to followers of the two religions.[72] According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every four years, although for much of Lebanon’s recent history, civil war precluded the exercise of this right. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Lebanese parliament building at the Place dÉtoile sl: Bejrut, Libanon - zgradba libanonskega parlamenta na Place dÉtoile I took the photo myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Lebanese parliament building at the Place dÉtoile sl: Bejrut, Libanon - zgradba libanonskega parlamenta na Place dÉtoile I took the photo myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... ... The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by members of Lebanons parliament, presided by Speaker of the House President Hussein El-Husseini. ...


The parliament elects the president for a non-renewable six-year term. At the urging of the Syrian government, this constitutional rule has been bypassed by ad hoc amendment twice in recent history. Elias Hrawi’s term, which was due to end in 1995, was extended for three years.[74] This procedure, denounced by pro-democracy campaigners, was repeated in 2004 to allow Émile Lahoud to remain in office until 2007.[75] Amend redirects here. ... Elias Hrawi Elias Hrawi (Arabic: الياس الهراوي) ,(September 4, 1926–July 7, 2006) was a former President of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998. ... General Émile Jamil Lahoud (Arabic: , Armenian: ; born January 12, 1936) is a former President of Lebanon. ...


The President appoints the Prime Minister on the nomination of the parliament (which is, in most cases, binding).[76] Following consultations with the parliament and the President, the Prime Minister forms the Cabinet, which must also adhere to the sectarian distribution set out by confessionalism. This article is about the governmental body. ...

The Grand Serail, the government headquarters in downtown Beirut

Lebanon's judicial system is based on the Napoleonic Code. Juries are not used in trials. The Lebanese court system consists of three levels: courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation. There also is a system of religious courts having jurisdiction over personal status matters within their own communities, with rules on matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Lebanese law does not provide for Civil marriage (although it recognizes such marriages contracted abroad); efforts by former President Elias Hrawi to legalize civil marriage in the late 1990s floundered on objections mostly from Muslim clerics. Additionally, Lebanon has a system of military courts that also has jurisdiction over civilians for crimes of espionage, treason, and other crimes that are considered to be security-related.[77] These military courts have been criticized by human rights organizations such as Amnesty International for "seriously fall[ing] short of international standards for fair trial" and having "very wide jurisdiction over civilians".[78] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... the Grand Serail in the early 1900s Old times Beirut The Grand Serail (Arabic: السراي الكبير; also known as the Government Palace) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many people who (usually) are in a sexual relationship. ... This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... Elias Hrawi Elias Hrawi (Arabic: الياس الهراوي) ,(September 4, 1926–July 7, 2006) was a former President of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... According to the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices [1], Lebanons overall human rights record is poor, and it commits serious abuses. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 88 out of 177
Yale University/Columbia University Environmental Sustainability Index, 2005 (pdf) 129 out of 146
Reporters Without Borders World-wide Press Freedom Index 2006 98 out of 168
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2005 99 out of 159
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom, 2007 72 out of 161
World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index, 2008 85 out of 178
The Economist Global Peace Index 114 out of 121
Fund for Peace/ForeignPolicy.com Failed States Index, 2007 28 out of 177[79]

The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Yale redirects here. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... The Fund for Peace is an independent Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit research and educational organization. ...

See also

  • List of Lebanese businessmen
Non-Governmental Organizations
  • The Center for Democracy in Lebanon
Lebanon portal
Articles about recent events
Miscellaneous
Tourism
  • Beirut Nights

A Pépé Abed Al-Waleed bin Talal C Carlos Ghosn E Charles Elachi F Ahmed Fahour H Sam Hammam Rafik Hariri Alfredo Harp Helú J Jacques Nasser Jacques Saadé M John J. Mack Mario Kassar Najib Mikati Mouna Ayoub N Kamel Nacif Borge Nicolas Hayek P Paul Orfalea S... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Belligerents Lebanese Armed Forces Fatah al-Islam Jund al-Sham Commanders Michel Sulaiman Francois al-Hajj Shaker al-Abssi Abu Youssef Sharqieh # Abu Hureira â€  Strength 72,100 troops 450 Fatah militants, 50 Jund militants, unknown number of al-Qaeda bombers Casualties and losses Northern casualties: 168 killed, 400-500 wounded... The 2006–2007 Lebanese political protests were a series of protests and sit-ins that began on 1 December 2006, led by groups in Lebanon that opposed the Western-backed government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora. ... This article was imported from the CIA World Factbook and needs to be rewritten and/or reformatted in accordance with Wikipedia styles. ... This article was imported from the CIA World Factbook and needs to be rewritten and/or reformatted in accordance with Wikipedia styles. ... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties unknown unknown The South Lebanon conflict was the guerrilla campaign which Hezbollah was waging against occupying Israeli forces in South Lebanon between 1982 and 2000. ... Lebanon The following details about Transport in Lebanon are retrieved from the CIA World Fact Book. ... This is a list of banks throughout the world. ... This is a list of notable Lebanese people. ... The following is a list of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from Lebanon. ... Universities in Lebanon: Académie Libanaise des Beaux-Arts (ALBA) [1] American University of Beirut (AUB) [2] Antonine University (UPA) American University College of Technology (AUT) American University College of Science and Technology (AUST) [3] Business and Computer University College (BCU) Beirut Arab University (BAU) [4] Beirut University Online Ecole... Beirut Central District where most festivals are held in Beirut. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ According to the website of the Embassy of Lebanon in the U.S. and the website of the Lebanese presidency
  2. ^ According to U.S. government sources such as the CIA and State Department country guides
  3. ^ Countries Quest. Jonathan Trumbull was born here "Lebanon, Government". Retrieved December 14, 2006.
  4. ^ U.S. Department of State. "Background Note: Lebanon (History) August 2005" Retrieved December 2, 2006.
  5. ^ a b Anna Johnson (2006). "Lebanon: Tourism Depends on Stability". Retrieved October 31, 2006.
  6. ^ TC Online (2002). "Paris of Western Asia". Retrieved October 31, 2006.
  7. ^ Canadian International Development Agency. "Lebanon: Country Profile". Retrieved December 2, 2006.
  8. ^ Center for the Study of the Built Environment. "Deconstructing Beirut's Reconstruction: 1990-2000". Retrieved October 31, 2006.
  9. ^ A Un Security Council Resolutio 1701 called for immediate cessation of hostilities
  10. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Semitic Roots Index". Retrieved on 2008-06-03.
  11. ^ a b Antoine Harb (2004). "Lebanon: A Name through 4000 Years". Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  12. ^ Christian World News. "Lebanon Historically Linked to the Bible". Retrieved February 21, 2007.
  13. ^ Roger Yazbeck. "Lebanon was mentioned 71 times in the Holy Bible...". Retrieved February 21, 2007.
  14. ^ Ross, Kelley L. "The Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian". The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series. [1].
  15. ^ "Byblos". Retrieved July 31, 2007.
  16. ^ About.com (1987)."Lebanon in Ancient Times". Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  17. ^ U.S. Library of Congress. "History: Present-Day Syria". Retrieved May 2, 2007.
  18. ^ Chorbishop Seely Beggiani (2005). "Aspects of Maronite History (Part Eleven) The twentieth century in Western Asia". Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  19. ^ Lebanese Global Information Center. "History of Lebanon". Retrieved December 9, 2006.
  20. ^ a b Lebanon
  21. ^ a b Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1841763721, p. 27
  22. ^ Avi Shlaim. "Israel and the Arab Coalition in 1948". Retrieved December 9, 2006.
  23. ^ Time (1991). "After the War, the Mop-Up". Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  24. ^ Council on Foreign Relations (2006). "The Future of Lebanon". Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  25. ^ People's Daily (2000). "Lebanese Troops Patrol Near Fatma Gate Along Border With Israel". Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  26. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2000)."Withdrawal from Lebanon: Press Briefing by Foreign Minister David Levy". Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  27. ^ The key to Shebaa, Al-Jazeera online, Retrieved April 1, 2007.
  28. ^ Hariri.info (2005). "Rafik Hariri". Retrieved December 10, 2006.
  29. ^ CBC News Indepth (2006). "Recent background on Syria's presence in Lebanon". Retrieved December 10, 2006.
  30. ^ See this MEMRI bulletin, includes several statements and sources.
  31. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 1595 (2005)".
  32. ^ United Nations Security Council (2005). "Letter dated 20 October 2005 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council". Retrieved November 2, 2006.
  33. ^ BBC News (2005). "Syria begins Lebanon withdrawal". Retrieved December 11, 2006.
  34. ^ CNN (2005). "Last Syrian troops leave Lebanon". Retrieved December 11, 2006.
  35. ^ Telegraph (2000) "Israel's Withdrawal from Lebanon Given UN's Endorsement". Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  36. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Lebanon". Retrieved December 10, 2006.
  37. ^ (Bonechi et al.) (2004) Golden Book Lebanon, p. 3, Florence, Italy: Casa Editrice Bonechi. ISBN 88-476-1489-9
  38. ^ Country Studies US. "Lebanon - Climate". Retrieved November 5, 2006.
  39. ^ a b Blue Planet Biomes. "Lebanon Cedar - Cedrus libani". Retrieved December 10, 2006.
  40. ^ USAID Lebanon. "USAID Lebanon—Definitions of Terms used". Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  41. ^ [2] CIA World Factbook - Lebanon.
  42. ^ a b c CIA, the World Factbook (2006). "Lebanon". Retrieved November 7, 2006.
  43. ^ Marina Sarruf (2006). "Brazil Has More Lebanese than Lebanon". Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  44. ^ "World Refugee Survey 2008", U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (2008-06-19). 
  45. ^ U.S. Department of State (1994) Header: People, 4th paragraph. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  46. ^ Background Note: Lebanon "www.washingtoninstitute.org" Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  47. ^ United Nations Population Fund."Lebanon - Overview". Retrieved November 9, 2006.
  48. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, U.S.A. 1986-1988. [3]. Retrieved December 2, 2006.
  49. ^ a b c Jean Hayek et al, 1999. The Structure, Properties, and Main Foundations of the Lebanese Economy. In The Scientific Series in Geography, Grade 11, 110-114. Beirut: Dar Habib.
  50. ^ a b c US Department of State (2005). "Lebanon". Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  51. ^ CIA World Factbook 2001. Retrieved 2006-12-04.
  52. ^ a b c Bank Audi (2006). "Lebanon Economic Report: 2nd Quarter, 2006". Retrieved November 27, 2005.
  53. ^ Cyprus News (2006). "Saudi Arabia Key Contributor To Lebanon's Reconstruction". Retrieved November 26, 2006.
  54. ^ Lebanon Under Siege (2006). "Donors pledge more than $940 million for Lebanon". Retrieved November 26, 2006.
  55. ^ Ain-Al-Yaqeen (2006). "The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Reviews with the Jordanian King the Situation in Lebanon...". Retrieved November 27, 2006.
  56. ^ Lebanon (11/07)
  57. ^ Samidoun (2006). "Aid groups scramble to fix buildings, fill backpacks before school bell rings". Retrieved December 9, 2006.
  58. ^ US Department of State (2005). "Lebanon". Retrieved December 15, 2006.
  59. ^ Infopro Management. "Lebanon Opportunities - Business Information". Retrieved January 30, 2007.
  60. ^ (Arabic)Lebanese Directory of Higher Education. "Decrees". Retrieved January 30, 2007.
  61. ^ eIFL.net Regional Workshop (2005). "Country Report: Lebanon". Retrieved December 14, 2006.
  62. ^ Université Saint-Joseph. "125 years of history - A timeline". Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  63. ^ Yalla!. "Yalla! Students". Retrieved December 15, 2006.
  64. ^ "Human development indicators" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  65. ^ "Article 11 of the Lebanese Constitution" http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/le00000_.html#A011_ Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  66. ^ Lebanon CIA World Fact Book. [4]. December 18, 2006.
  67. ^ Lebanon Culture. [5]. December 18, 2006.
  68. ^ The Hindu (January 5, 2003). "Called by life";. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
  69. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2002). "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2002: Lebanon". Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  70. ^ Lijphart, Arend. Consociational Democracy, in "World Politics", Vol. 21, No. 2 (January 1969), pp. 207-225.
  71. ^ Lijphart, Arend. Multiethnic democracy, in S. Lipset (ed.), "The Encyclopedia of Democracy". London, Routledge, 1995, Volume III, pp. 853-865.
  72. ^ a b United States Institute of Peace (March 2006). "Lebanon's Confessionalism: Problems and Prospects". Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  73. ^ Marie-Joëlle Zahar. "CHAPTER 9 POWER SHARING IN LEBANON: FOREIGN PROTECTORS, DOMESTIC PEACE, AND DEMOCRATIC FAILURE1". (DOC) Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  74. ^ Western Asia Intelligence Bulletin (2004). "The US and France Tip the Scale in Lebanon's Power Struggle". Retrieved January 6, 2007.
  75. ^ New Age International (November 6, 2006). "Lebanon leaders head for talks amid street protest threats". Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  76. ^ Lebanon2000.com. "Factbook - Lebanon". Retrieved January 3, 2006.
  77. ^ US Department of State (2006). "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2005: Lebanon". Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  78. ^ Amnesty International (2005). "A Human Rights Agenda for the Parliamentary Elections, Lebanon". Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  79. ^ larger number indicates sustainability

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December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo of the Earth. ...

Book References

  • Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Nation Books, 2002.
  • Firzli, Nicola Y. Al-Baath wa-Lubnân [Arabic only] ("The Baath and Lebanon"). Beirut: Dar-al-Tali'a Books, 1973
  • Hitti Philip K. History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine, Vol. 2 (2002) (ISBN 1-931956-61-8)
  • Holst, Sanford. Phoenicians: Lebanon's Epic Heritage. Los Angeles: Cambridge and Boston Press, 2005.
  • Norton, Augustus R. Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1987.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Salibi, Kamal. A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Philip Khuri Hitti was a western scholar of Islam. ...

External links

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Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Web portals
  • SOUWAR.com Lebanon Biggest Pictures Gallery Online
  • Lebanese White Pages
  • Naharnet
  • Ya Libnan Live news from Beirut
Government
  • The Lebanese Governmental Portal for Information & Forms
  • Official site of the President of the Lebanese Republic
  • Official site of The Lebanese Parliament (Arabic)(French)
  • Central Administration for Statistics
  • Ministry of Tourism
  • Internal Security Forces
  • The Lebanese Armed Forces
  • General-security.gov.lb
  • Lebanon Customs site
  • Central Bank of Lebanon
  • Beirut Stock Exchange
Non-Governmental Organizations
  • The Center for Democracy in Lebanon
News
  • Al-Manar TV
  • AnNahar newspaper (Arabic)
  • L'Orient-Le Jour (Lebanese daily newspaper in French) (French)
  • LBC
  • Future TV
  • Liban Press (Lebanese news headlines) (Arabic) (English) (French)
  • Liban3000.com
  • Ya Libnan (English)
  • NOW Lebanon (Arabic)(English)
  • United Nations - Mehlis Report official report of the investigation into Rafiq al-Hariri's assassination
Culture and education
  • UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Lebanon
  • Al-Bustan Festival, Beit Meri
  • Baalbek Festival
  • Beiteddine Festival
  • Tyre Festival
  • Byblos Festival
  • Lebanese Cultural Journal
  • The National Museum of Beirut
Festivals
  • Baalbeck
  • Beiteddine
  • Byblos
  • Tyre
General information
  • Lebanon at The World Factbook
  • LibanVote (comprehensive electoral database)
  • US State Department - Lebanon includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
Travel and Tourism
  • Lebanon travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Ministry of Tourism - Official website of the Lebanese Ministry of Tourism
  • Guide of Lebanon - General Guide of Lebanon
  • Travel Agency in Lebanon
  • Lebanon, the Cedars' Land - Clickable Maps of Lebanon in 7 Languages with famous historic and touristic cities.

Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Daily Star - Lebanon - The Middle East's Leading English Language Newspaper (798 words)
Rebuilding the shattered Nahr al-Bared Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon will be one of the largest projects ever undertaken by the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), said UNRWA head Karen AbuZayd on Tuesday.
Did the Lebanon Examiner help, hurt, or make no difference at all?
The basic function of a daily newspaper is to provide useful information to its readers, a goal so theoretically simple that any child can understand it.
Lebanon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6096 words)
Lebanon is bordered by Syria to the north and east, and Israel to the south, with a narrow coastline along its western edge.
A Middle Eastern country, Lebanon is bordered on the west by the Mediterranean (coast: 225 km) and to the east by the Syro-African Depression.
Lebanon borders Syria for 375 kilometres to the north and to the east and Israel for 79 kilometres to the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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