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Encyclopedia > Lebanese Forces

Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. After the civil war ended, the movement reinvented itself as a political party. In 1994, it was banned, and the activities of its militants repressed by the Lebanese and Syrian intelligence services in Lebanon and the pro-Syrian government. The LF returned as legal party after the Cedar Revolution in early 2005 resulted in a withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon. The movement is officially secular, but in practice it has always been supported almost exclusively by Christians, mainly Catholic Maronites as well as Orthodox, Evangelicals, and the Armenian Lebanese. Its leader since 1986 is Samir Geagea. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Political parties in Lebanon lists political parties in Lebanon. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Christianity in Lebanon has a long history and has been closely connected with many recent conflicts in that country. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces, comprising some 320,000 troops upon mobilization. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Samir Geagea Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also Samir Ja`ja`) born October 25, 1952 is the leader of the right wing Lebanese Forces (LF) political party. ...

Contents

Early history (1976–1982)

Formation

The Lebanese Forces "LF" were informally organized in 1976 under the leadership of Bachir Gemayel, son of Pierre Gemayel, the founder of one of the main Christian political groups, the Phalanges or Kataeb party. It began as the military wing of the Phalanges and extended later to all other Christian military factions of the joint Lebanese Front. The main reason behind the formation of the LF was to strengthen the Christian side against the alliance of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), including the Palestinian factions of the Rejectionist Front, Muslim militias, and the Lebanese National Movement, an umbrella of leftist Militias. From the start, the LF included the Lebanese Phalanges, the National Liberal Party (or Ahrar), the Tanzim, the "Christian Connections" ("al Rawabit al masihiya") and the Guardians of the Cedars led by Etienne Saqr. Bachir Gemayel Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir (Arabic: بشير الجميل), (November 10, 1947 – September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander, politician and president elect. ... Pierre Gemayel Sheikh Pierre Gemayel (Arabic: ) (November 6, 1905 – August 29, 1984) (last name also spelt Jmayyel, Jemayyel or al-Jumayyil, Sheikh is an honorific title in Arab countries, Arabic الشيخ بيار الجميّل), was a Lebanese political leader. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... The Lebanese Front (Arabic: الجبهة اللبنانية) was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... The National Liberal Party (Hizb al-Watanyin al-Ahrar) is a political party in Lebanon, established by President Camille Chamoun in 1958. ... The logo of the Guardians of the Cedars. ... Etienne Saqr is a right wing Lebanese nationalist politician and founder of the Guardians of the Cedars militia group. ...


Clashes with Chamoun

In July 1980, following months of intra-Christian clashes between the Tigers and the Phalangists, Bachir Gemayel launched an operation dubbed «Unification of the Rifle», in an attempt to unite all the Christian militias under his command. This operation resulted in a massacre of tens of Tigers' members and their families at the Marine beach resort in Safra, 25 km north of Beirut. Camille Chamoun's silence was interpreted as condonation because the Tigers led by his son Dany were getting out of his control.[citation needed] The Safra massacre or Day of the Long Knives, occurred in the coastal town Safra (north to Beirut) on July 7, 1980 during the Lebanese civil war, as part of Bashir Gemayels effort to consolidate all the Christian fighters under his leadership in the Lebanese Forces. ... Safra may refer to: People: Edmond J. Safra Lily Safra, chairman of the Edmond J. Safra Philanthropic Foundation Jacob Safra Joseph Safra Safra A. Catz Organizations: Banco Safra Safra Group Safra National Bank of New York Bank Jacob Safra Switzerland Else: AL-Safra Category: ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Dany Chamoun (Arabic: داني شمعون) (August 26, 1934, Is a former KKK member who assasinated the president of the United States Of America. ...


Siege of Zahle

On April 2, 1981, the Syrian army heavily bombarded the city of Zahle, the largest Catholic city in the Middle East. There were less than a hundred LF fighters in the city at the beginning of the battle. Zahle was sieged for three months during which it was violently shelled, but the population refused to surrender. Meanwhile, protests were held in East Beirut urging the end of the siege. It finally ended with the withdrawal of the Syrian troops (and snipers) from around the city, and the evacuation of LF fighters to Beirut. The LF combatants were honored at their arrival to the LF headquarters in Karantina. Zahlé (Arabic: زحلة; also transliterated Zahlah or Zahleh) is the capital of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. ... Karantina (Arabic: القرنطينة al-qarantīna) is a residential area in eastern Beirut, named so after having been an old immigration quarantine area. ...


Israeli invasion

In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon, arguing that a military intervention was necessary to root out PLO guerrillas from the southern part of the country. Israeli forces eventually moved towards Beirut and laid siege to the city, aiming to reshape the Lebanese political landscape. Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


After the PLO had been expelled from the country to Tunisia, in a negotiated agreement, LF leader Bachir Gemayel was promoted by Israeli and American governments as president of Lebanon. He was elected by the parliament in September; most Muslim members of parliament boycotted the vote. Nine days before he was to take office, on September 14, 1982, he was killed along with 25 others in a bomb explosion in the Kataeb headquarters in Achrafieh. The attack was carried out by a member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), believed by many to have acted on instructions of the Syrian government of President Hafez al-Assad. Israel then moved to occupy the city, allowing Phalanges and LF members to enter the centrally located Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila; a massacre followed, which Killed 5000 women and Childern in about 3 hours.that caused an international uproar. This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Achrafieh, (Arabic: الأشرفية; sometimes spelled as Ashrafieh in English), is a part of Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) is a nationalist political party in Syria and Lebanon. ... This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinian Arabs call the Nakba (Arabic: , meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre) was carried out in September 1982 by Lebanese Maronite Christian militias in then-Israeli-occupied Beirut, Lebanon. ...


The Amine Gemayel years (1982–1988)

Battles

Mountain War

After the Israeli invasion, the IDF troops settled in the Chouf and Aley districts in Mount Lebanon. This, along with the election of Bachir Gemayel as president of the republic led to the return of the Christian refugees that fled their homes at the beginning of war. The LF returned back to the positions in the villages they were in seven years ago. Some individual vengeance acts committed against the Druze population caused anger and resentment among them. This will be one of the reasons behind the atrocities perpetrated during the Mountain War. The LF participated in the "Mountain War," but could not prevent the evacuation of the majority of the Christian population and the destruction of many Christian villages by the Druze Progressive Socialist Party "PSP" and allied Palestinian militias. Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ... The Aley River is a Russian river. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ...


The LF also fought battles against the Palestinians, Druze PSP and Syrians east of the southern city of Sidon. The outcome was a PSP militia victory and a contigous Druze Chouf district with access to the sea. View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...


Internal power struggles

After the death of Bachir, his brother Amine Gemayel had replaced him as President, and his cousin, Fadi Frem, as commander of the LF. The two had a frosty relationship, and in 1984, pressure from Amine led to Frem's replacement by Fuad Abou Nader, a nephew of Gemayel's. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fadi Frem (1954-), born in Achrafieh suburb of Beirut, Lebanon is the former leader of the Lebanese Forces Christian milita and political party. ... Fouad Abou Nader was born on the 27th of June 1956 in Baalbeck, Lebanon. ...


On March 12, 1985, Samir Geagea, Elie Hobeika and Karim Pakradouni rebelled against Abou Nader's command, ostensibly to take the LF back to its original path. The relationship between Geagea and Hobeika soon broke down, however, and Hobeika began secret negotiations with the Syrians. On December 28, 1985, he signed the Tripartite Accord, against the wishes of Geagea and most of the other leading Christian figures. Claiming that the Tripartite Accord gave Syria unlimited power in Lebanon, Geagea mobilized factions inside the LF and on January 15, 1986, attacked Hobeika's headquarters in Karantina. Hobeika surrendered and fled, first to Paris and subsequently to Damascus. He then moved to Zahle with tens of his fighters where he prepared for an attack against East Beirut. On September 27, 1986, Hobeika's forces tried to take over the city of Achrafieh but the LF held them back. is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Samir Geagea Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also Samir Ja`ja`) born October 25, 1952 is the leader of the right wing Lebanese Forces (LF) political party. ... Elie Hobeika Elie Hobeika, (1956–24 Jan 2002) (Arabic: إيلي حبيقة) was a former Phalangist and Lebanese Forces militia commander during the Lebanese Civil War. ... Karim Pakradouni, is a Lebanese- Armenian Christian attorney. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... 28 December 1985, Nabih Berri of Amal, Walid Jumblat of the Druze Progressive Socialist Party, and Elie Hobeika of the Lebanese Forces sign the Tripartite Accord in Damascus which is supposed to end the war and give strong influence to Damascus regarding Lebanese matters. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Karantina (Arabic: القرنطينة al-qarantīna) is a residential area in eastern Beirut, named so after having been an old immigration quarantine area. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Zahlé (Arabic: زحلة; also transliterated Zahlah or Zahleh) is the capital of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Achrafieh, (Arabic: الأشرفية; sometimes spelled as Ashrafieh in English), is a part of Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. ...


This failed attempt by Hobeika was the last episode of internal struggles in East Beirut during Amine Gemayel's mandate. As a result, the LF led by Geagea were the only major force on the ground. During two years of frail peace, Geagea launched a drive to re-equip and reorganize the Lebanese Forces. He also instituted a social welfare program in areas controlled by the LF. The LF also cut its relations with Israel and emphasized relations with the Arab states, mainly Saudi Arabia, Irak, Jordan, Egypt and the PLO. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...


On August 18, 1988,the LF detained several members of the Lebanese Parliament, thereby preventing the return to the Presidency of Suleiman Franjieh who was pro-Syrian. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... ...


The Aoun years (1988–1990)

Two rival governments contended for recognition following Amine Gemayel's departure from the Presidency in September 1988. The LF initially supported the military government led by Gen. Michel Aoun, the commander of the Lebanese Army. However, clashes erupted between the LF militia and the Lebanese Army under the control of Michel Aoun on February 14, 1989, since the LF controlled many ports illegally.These clashes were stopped, and after a meeting in Bkerké, the LF handed the national ports which it controlled to Aoun's government under pressure from the Lebanese National army. Samir Geagea File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Samir Geagea File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Samir Geagea Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also Samir Ja`ja`) born October 25, 1952 is the leader of the right wing Lebanese Forces (LF) political party. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Michel Naim Aoun (Arabic: ميشال عون) (born 17 February 1935 in Beirut) is a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) consists of three branches: Lebanese Army Lebanese Air Force Lebanese Navy // General overview The Lebanese Armed Forces primary missions include maintaining security and stability in the country, guarding the countrys borders, port security, relief operations, rescue operations, fire fighting, and fighting drug smuggling. ... Michel Naim Aoun (Arabic: ميشال عون) (born 17 February 1935 in Beirut) is a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Bkerké (also Bkerke or Bkerkeh) is the See of the Maronite Catholic Patriarchate, located 650 m above the bay of Jounieh in Lebanon. ...


Geagea initially supported Aoun's "Liberation War" against the Syrian army, but then agreed to the Taif Agreement "Taif," which was signed by the Lebanese deputies on 24 October 1989, which demanded an immediate ceasefire. Aoun's main objection to "Taif" was its vagueness as to Syrian withdrawal from the country. He rejected it vowing that he "would not sign over the country." Syrian occupation would last another 15 years. Fierce fighting in East Beirut broke out between the army and the LF, called the "Elimination War" by on January 30, 1990. The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament; fathered by Parliament Speaker President Hussein El-Husseini. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Second Republic (1990–2005)

After Aoun surrendered on 13 October 1990 to the rival Syrian-backed President, Elias Hrawi, Geagea was offered ministerial posts in the new government. He refused several times, saying that he was opposed to Syrian interference in Lebanese affairs, and his relationship with the new government deteriorated On March 23, 1994, the Lebanese government ordered the dissolution of the LF. On April 21, 1994, Geagea was arrested on charges of setting a bomb in the church in Zouk, of instigating acts of violence, and of committing assassinations during the Lebanese Civil War. Although he was acquitted of the first charge, Geagea was subsequently arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment on several different counts, including the assassination of former Prime Minister Rashid Karami in 1987. He was incarcerated in solitary confinement, with his access to the outside world severely restricted. Amnesty International criticized the conduct of the trials and demanded Geagea's release, and Geagea's supporters argued that the Syrian-controlled Lebanese government had used the alleged crimes as a pretext for jailing Geagea and banning an anti-Syrian party. is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Elias Hrawi Elias Hrawi (Arabic: الياس الهراوي) ,(September 4, 1926–July 7, 2006) was a former President of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Zouk is a style of rhythmic music originating from Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... This page lists prime ministers of Lebanon. ... Rashid Karami Rashid Abdul Hamid Karami (December 30, 1921 – June 1, 1987) (Arabic: رشيد كرامي) was a Lebanese statesman. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


After the Cedar Revolution

The LF was an active participant in the Cedar Revolution of 2005, when popular protests and international pressure following the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri combined to force Syria out of Lebanon. In the subsequent parliamentary election held in May and June, the LF formed part of the Rafik Hariri Martyr List (LF, Future Movement, Popular Socialist Party, the reformed Phalanges, and other political parties), allied with the powerfull (Hizbollah and Amal) against General Aoun and his Free Partiotic Movement and subsequently gained a majority in the Lebanese Parliament based on a controversial election law which was written by the Syrians to control Lebanon. The political alliance with Hizbollah and Amal would soon end, as Hariri used the alliance to win the elections with an unfair law called "2000's law"; these parties and movements would later form the March 14 Alliance, opposed to the oppositional March 8 Coalition backed by Hizbullah and Amal and the Free Patriotic Movement lead by General Aoun. Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... Rafiq Bahaa Edine Hariri (born November, 1944) is a Lebanese billionaire businessman, and was Prime Minister of Lebanon until his resignation on October 20, 2004. ... The 2005 Lebanese General Elections were the first elections in thirty years without a Syrian military or intelligence presence in Lebanon. ... The Rafik Hariri Martyr List is an alliance of political parties and independents in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ... The Current for the Future (Tayyar Al Mustaqbal) is a political party in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ... The Socialist Peoples Party (Portuguese: Partido Popular Socialista, PPS) is a political party in Brazil. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... Amal may refer to: Ã…mÃ¥l, a small town in Sweden Amal Movement, Amal, Arabic for hope, the popular name for a Lebanese political party and militia organisation Amal language of Papua New Guinea AMAL is a tradename for a British make of motorcycle carburettor Amal stands for Association des... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... Amal may refer to: Ã…mÃ¥l, a small town in Sweden Amal Movement, Amal, Arabic for hope, the popular name for a Lebanese political party and militia organisation Amal language of Papua New Guinea AMAL is a tradename for a British make of motorcycle carburettor Amal stands for Association des... The March 14 Alliance is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... Amal may refer to: Ã…mÃ¥l, a small town in Sweden Amal Movement, Amal, Arabic for hope, the popular name for a Lebanese political party and militia organisation Amal language of Papua New Guinea AMAL is a tradename for a British make of motorcycle carburettor Amal stands for Association des...


Geagea was freed on 18 July 2005. is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Present political representation

The LF currently holds 5 out of the 128 seats (4%) in the Lebanese Parliament, and are represented in the Siniora government, formed in July 2005, by the minister of Tourism Joseph Sarkis. In the last by-elections conducted on the August 5, 2007, the Lebanese Forces and the Kataeb obtained the majority of the Christians votes, but still they lost the elections. These are the names of the Lebanese Forces deputies that held or still hold a position in the Lebanese Parliament. ... ... This is the list of the Lebanese government that was formed by Fouad Siniora on 19 July 2005. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph (Joe) Sarkis (Arabic: جوزيف سركيس) born in 1949, is a Lebanese politician and Minister of Tourism since July 19, 2005 in the Fouad Siniora Government. ...


Leaders of the LF

Bachir Gemayel Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir (Arabic: بشير الجميل), (November 10, 1947 – September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander, politician and president elect. ... Fadi Frem (1954-), born in Achrafieh suburb of Beirut, Lebanon is the former leader of the Lebanese Forces Christian milita and political party. ... Dr. Fouad ABOU NADER Son of Antoine Abou Nader and Claude Pierre Gemayel, Fouad Abou Nader was born on June 27, 1956 in Baalbek, in Bekaa. ... Samir Geagea Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also Samir Ja`ja`) born October 25, 1952 is the leader of the right wing Lebanese Forces (LF) political party. ...

See also

Bachir Gemayel Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir (Arabic: بشير الجميل), (November 10, 1947 – September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander, politician and president elect. ... Samir Geagea Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also Samir Ja`ja`) born October 25, 1952 is the leader of the right wing Lebanese Forces (LF) political party. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... These are the names of the Lebanese Forces deputies that held or still hold a position in the Lebanese Parliament. ... Political parties in Lebanon lists political parties in Lebanon. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lebanese Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1127 words)
The Lebanese Forces (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية) are a Lebanese political party and former militia, which played a major role in the civil war which ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990.
In opposition to an alliance of Palestinian and leftist Muslim militias, the Lebanese Forces (LF) were organized in 1977 under the leadership of Bachir Gemayel, as the military counterpart to the Lebanese Front, a political coalition.
Nader was not popular with the rank and file Lebanese Forces, however, and he was soon overthrown by a faction led by Samir Geagea and Elie Hobeika.
Lebanese Armed Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (685 words)
The Lebanese Armed Forces' primary missions include maintaining security and stability in the country, guarding the country's borders, port security, relief operations, rescue operations, fire fighting, and fighting drug smuggling.
The equipment inventory of the Lebanese Armed Forces is approximately 85% US-made with the remaining being British, French, and Soviet-made.
The air force recently acquired 4 brand new Robinson R44 Raven II helicopters, which are used for training purposes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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