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Encyclopedia > Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War (Phase I)
Date 1975 - 1977
Location Lebanon
Result ADF-enforced ceasefire
De facto Syrian control over Lebanon
Belligerents
Flag of Lebanon Lebanese Front
Flag of Syria Syria
Flag of Lebanon LNM
Palestinian flag PLO

Amal Arab Deterrent Force As the Lebanese Civil War escalated in 1976, the Arab League created an intervention force composed almost entirely of Syrian forces with token contributions from other Arab states, including Saudi Arabia and Libya. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... The Lebanese Front (Arabic: الجبهة اللبنانية) was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... PLO redirects here. ...

Flag of Israel Israel
Commanders
Flag of LebanonBachir Gemayel
Flag of LebanonDany Chamoun
Flag of LebanonKamal Jumblatt
Palestinian flagYasser Arafat
Flag of IsraelAriel Sharon
Lebanese Civil War (Phase II)
Date 1977 - 1982
Location Lebanon
Result PLO departure from Beirut.
Lebanese Civil War (Phase III)
Date 1982 - 1983
Location Lebanon
Result May 17 Agreement
Lebanese Civil War (Phase IV)
Date 1984 - 1990
Location Lebanon
Result Taif Agreement

The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanon's administration by the Ottoman Empire. The conflict became greatly exacerbated by Lebanon's changing demographic trends, the Palestinian refugee influx between 1948 and 1982, Christian and Muslim inter-religious strife, and the involvement of Syria, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). After a short break in the fighting in 1976 due to Arab League mediation and Syrian intervention, Palestinian-Lebanese strife continued, with fighting primarily focused in south Lebanon, occupied first by the PLO, then occupied by Israel. Black Saturday was a series of massacres and armed clashes in Beirut, that occurred in the first stages of the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Karantina massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ... The Tel al-Zaatar Massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on August 12, 1976. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was a massacre carried out in September 1982 by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia group. ... The War of the Camps was a subconflict within the Lebanese Civil War in which Palestinian refugee camps were besieged by the Shiite Amal militia. ... Belligerents Lebanese Armed Forces Fatah al-Islam Jund al-Sham Commanders Michel Sulaiman Francois al-Hajj Shaker al-Abssi Abu Youssef Sharqieh # Abu Hureira â€  Strength 72,100 troops 450 Fatah militants, 50 Jund militants, unknown number of al-Qaeda bombers Casualties and losses Northern casualties: 168 killed, 400-500 wounded... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... About 91% of the population of Lebanon is urban and comprises many different ethnic groups and religions, including numerous Christian and Muslim sects. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... PLO redirects here. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


During the course of the fighting, alliances shifted rapidly and unpredictably. By the end of the war, nearly every party had allied with and subsequently betrayed every other party at least once. The 1980s were especially bleak: much of Beirut lay in ruins as a result of the 1976 Karantina massacre carried out by Lebanese Christian militias, the Syrian Army shelling of Christian neighborhoods in 1978 and 1981, and the Israeli invasion that evicted the PLO from the country. A number of atrocities and terrorist acts were committed by the Palestinian, Lebanese and Israeli factions participating in the war, including the Damour massacre in which Palestinians killed Christian inhabitants (from 25 to almost 600 according to different sources) of the coastal town 20 miles south of Beirut, and the infamous Sabra and Chatila Massacre where Christian and Israeli forces led to the massacre of more than 700 palestinians civilians and refugees. The war deteriorated ever further into sectarian carnage, and in the end Lebanon's effective independence counted among the casualties. This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The Karantina massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre) was carried out in September 1982 by Lebanese Maronite Christian militias in then-Israeli-occupied Beirut, Lebanon. ...


By the time of the Taif Agreement in 1989, Israel held on to a security zone in southern Lebanon as a buffer to prevent attacks on northern Israel. The Israeli Army eventually withdrew in 2000. Syria itself, which had heretofore controlled the rest of the country, did not withdraw its troops until 2005, when it was forced out by the joint pressure created by Lebanese protest and powerful diplomatic intervention from the United States and the United Nations in the aftermath of the assassination of Rafik Hariri. The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament; fathered by Parliament Speaker President Hussein El-Husseini. ... Israeli Security Zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon composed of two Governates: the South Lebanon Governate and the Nabatiyeh Governate. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... UN redirects here. ... Rafik Bahaeddine Al-Hariri — (November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), (Arabic: ) a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, was Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. ...

Contents

Formation of militias

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 884 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Lebanon Phoenicia 1982 Lebanon War Lebanon crisis of 1958 Lebanese Civil War Cedar Revolution 2005 Lebanon...


History of Lebanon Map of Lebanon. ...

Ancient History
Phoenicia
Ancient history of Lebanon
Foreign Rule
Assyrian Rule
Babylonian Rule
Persian Rule
Greek Rule
Roman Rule
Byzantine Rule
Arab Rule
Ottoman Rule
French Rule
Modern Lebanon
1958 Lebanon crisis
Lebanese Civil War
1982 Lebanon War
2005 Lebanon bombings
Cedar Revolution
2006 Lebanon War
2006-7 political protests
2007 North Lebanon conflict
Topical
Military history
Economic history
Timeline of Lebanese history
This box: view  talk  edit

The influx of Palestinian refugees between 1948 and 1970, the 1950s and 1960s reassertion of pan-Arab nationalism as espoused by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, the founding of the PLO in 1965, the eviction or squashing of all armed Palestinian resistance movements in Syria, Jordan and Egypt, and the escalating assertion of Palestinian nationalism through armed struggle, unsettled the politically and demographically delicate balance between the Lebanese communities. After its eviction from Jordan by King Hussein during "Black September" in 1970, the PLO and all its affiliate movements settled in Beirut and the Lebanese south from which they vowed to continue liberating Palestine, in violation of every agreement made with the Lebanese authorities to regulate the activities of the Palestinian organizations. The Muslim community in Lebanon saw Monastir Palestinian movements (Sunni in their vast majority) as an opportunity to renege on the 1943 National Pact by using the Palestinian weapons to pressure their fellow Christian Lebanese into abrogating the National Pact.The latter is an extra-constitutional unwritten agreement that guarantees the division of power among the three largest communities: The Presidency to the Maronites, the Speakership of Parliament to the Shiites, and the Prime Ministership to the Sunnis. These and other other constitutionally guaranteed distributions of government posts had come under increasing fire from Muslims, now emboldened by a resurging pan-Arab nationalism and secular left wing groups acting at the behest of the Soviet-Communist Bloc in the 1960s, leading them to join forces as the Front for Progressive Parties and National Forces in 1969. The Muslim-leftist opposition coalition (later evolved into the Lebanese National Movement) called for the taking of a new census (the last one had been conducted in 1932) and the subsequent drafting of a new governmental structure that would reflect the shifts in the actual population balance. The Christian (especially Maronite) community saw this as an attack on the foundations of the State of Lebanon and a reneging on the National Pact. Furthermore, the Christians did not want to renegotiate the Pact or other rearrangements since they wanted to keep their domination on the Lebanese society. Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : Phoiníkē, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... Template:History of Lebanon The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning of Arab rule. ... During the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, what is today known as Lebanon, came under nominal Assyrian rule on several occasions[1]. The approach of the devastating Assyrian armies would more often than not result in the vassalage of these states. ... Throughout her history, the lands known today as Lebanon came under foreign rule from various powers. ... The history of Lebanon under Arab traces the course of human events in the section of the Middle East now known as Lebanon. ... The State of Greater Lebanon is the name of a territory that was created by France and is the precursor of modern Lebanon. ... The Lebanon crisis of 1958 was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... The 2005 Lebanon bombings were a series of bombings that occurred mainly in Beirut, Lebanon and its suburbs. ... Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... The 2006–2007 Lebanese political protests were a series of protests and sit-ins that began on 1 December 2006, led by groups in Lebanon that opposed the Western-backed government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora. ... Combatants Lebanese Armed Forces Fatah al-Islam Commanders Michel Sulaiman Shaker al-Abssi Strength ~70,000 troops, ~1000 surrounding the camp ~500 Casualties 35 killed, 58 wounded 37 killed, 20 captured; 60 killed (Lebanese claim) 10 killed (FaI claim) [1]. Civilian casualties: 22 killed Casualties sources: [2] The 2007 North... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Monastir could be a city in the Republic of Macedonia now called Bitola Monastir, Italy - a village near Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, famous for fruit production. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The National Pact is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon and has shaped the country to this day. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... The Front for Progressive Parties and National Forces was a leftist organization that gatherered parties and organizations opposing the Maronite-dominated sectarian order in Lebanon. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Both sides were unable to reconcile their conflicts of interest and began forming militias for self-protection. As the situation escalated these militias grew stronger and soon surpassed the regular army. This rapidly undermined the authority of the central government. The government's ability to maintain order was also handicapped by the nature of the Lebanese Army. One of the smallest in the Middle East, it was composed based on a fixed ratio of religions. As members defected to sectarian militias, the army would eventually prove unable to contain the militant groups, rein in the PLO or monitor foreign infiltration. Since the government was Christian-dominated, especially the officers' ranks, trust among Muslims for central institutions, including the army, was low. The disintegration of the Lebanese Army was eventually initiated by Muslim deserters declaring that they would no longer take orders from the Maronite generals. Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... This article was imported from the CIA World Factbook and needs to be rewritten and/or reformatted in accordance with Wikipedia styles. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Desertion is the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from someone or something to which you owe allegiance, responsibility or loyalty. ...


Throughout the war most or all militias operated with little regard for human rights, and the sectarian character of some battles, made non-combatant civilians a frequent target. As the war dragged on, the militias deteriorated ever further into mafia-style organizations with many commanders turning to crime as their main occupation rather than fighting. Finances for the war effort were obtained in one or all of three ways: Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... This article is about the criminal society. ...

  • Outside support, generally from one of the rival Arab governments, Iran or Israel, or a superpower like US, often with strings attached. Alliances would shift frequently.
  • Preying on the population. Extortion, theft, bank robberies and random checkpoints at which "customs" would be collected, were commonplace on all sides. During cease-fires, most militias operated in their home areas as virtual mafia organizations.
  • Smuggling. During the civil war, Lebanon turned into one of the world's largest narcotics producers, with much of the hashish production centered in the Bekaa valley. But much else was also smuggled, such as guns and supplies, all kinds of stolen goods, and regular trade - war or no war, Lebanon would not give up its role as the middleman in European-Arab business. Many battles were fought over Lebanon's ports, to gain smugglers access to the sea routes.

For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Superpowers redirects here. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... A young waif steals a pair of boots Stealing redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The term checkpoint may refer to: A place at which vehicles or pedestrians are stopped in order to enforce laws or security measures. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

The major militias

See also: Lebanese Front and Lebanese National Movement

Most militias claimed that they were non-sectarian forces, but in fact they recruited mainly from the community or region of their chiefs. The Lebanese Front (Arabic: الجبهة اللبنانية) was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ...


Christian militias

Lebanese Forces logo

Christian militias acquired arms from Romania and Bulgaria as well as from West Germany, Belgium and Israel [1], and drew supporters from the larger Christian population in the north of the country. They were generally right-wing in their political outlook, and all the major Christian militias were Maronite-dominated, and other Christian sects played a secondary role. Image File history File links Logo_of_Lebanese_Forces. ... Image File history File links Logo_of_Lebanese_Forces. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


The most powerful of the Christian militias was that of the Kataeb, or Phalange, under the leadership of Bachir Gemayel. The Phalange went on to help found the Lebanese Forces in 1977 which came under the leadership of Samir Geagea in 1986. A smaller faction was the nationalist Guardians of the Cedars. These militias quickly established strongholds in Christian-dominated East Beirut, also the site of many government buildings. In the north, the Marada Brigades served as the private militia of the Franjieh family and Zgharta. The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... Bachir Gemayel Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir (Arabic: بشير الجميل), (November 10, 1947 – September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander, politician and president elect. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also Samir Ja`ja`) born October 25, 1952 is the leader of the right wing Lebanese Forces (LF) political party. ... The logo of the Guardians of the Cedars. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The Marada Brigade was a Maronite Christian faction in the Lebanese civil war. ... Suleiman Frangieh Suleiman Frangieh, last name also spelt Frangié, Franjieh, or Franjiyeh, (15 June 1910 - 23 July 1992, was President of Lebanon from 1970 to 1976. ... Zgharta, or Zghorta (زغرتا Arabic) is a large town in North Lebanon, with an estimated population of around 70,000. ...


Shi'a militias

The Shi'a militias were slow to form and join in the fighting. Initially, many Shi'a had been drawn to the Palestinian movement and the Lebanese Communist Party, but after 1970's Black September, there was a sudden influx of armed Palestinians to the Shi'a areas. The Palestinian movement quickly squandered its influence with the Shi'a, as radical factions ruled by the gun in much of Shi'a-inhabited southern Lebanon, where the refugee camps happened to be concentrated, and the mainstream PLO proved either unwilling or unable to rein them in. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Lebanese Communist Party (LCP, Arabic, الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي hizbu-sh-shuy‘uÄ«-l-lubnānÄ«) is a Marxist political party in Lebanon. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


The Palestinian radicals' secularism and behaviour had alienated the traditionalist Shi'a community, but simultaneously presented a model for revolutionary politics that appealed to the young of Lebanon's poorest and most downtrodden community. After many years without their own independent political organizations, there suddenly arose Musa Sadr's Amal Movement in 1974-75. Its moderate Islamist ideology immediately attracted the urban poor, and Amal's armed ranks grew rapidly. Later, in the early 1980s, a hardline faction would break away to join with Shi'a groups fighting Israel to form the Hezbollah guerrillas, who to this day remain the most powerful militia of Lebanon. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... This article is about secularism. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... Musa al-Sadr (Persian امام موسى صدر) also transliterated Moussa Sader, and many other variants, was an Iranian philosopher and a prominent Shiite religious leader who spent many years of his life in Lebanon as a religous and political leader. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Guerrilla redirects here. ...


The Lebanese Alawites, followers of a sect of Shia Islam, were represented by the Red Knights Militia of the Arab Democratic Party, which was pro-Syrian due to the Alawites being dominant in Syria, and mainly acted in Northern Lebanon around Tripoli. Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ...


Sunni militias

Al-Murabitun logo
Al-Murabitun logo

Some Sunni factions received support from Libya and Iraq, and a number of minor militias existed, the more prominent with Nasserist or otherwise pan-Arab and Arab nationalist leanings, but also a few Islamist ones, such as the Tawhid Movement. The main Sunni-led organization was the al-Murabitun. To compensate for weakness on the battlefield, the Sunni leadership turned early in the war to the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which was dominated by Palestinian Sunnis, although it also had a Christian (mainly Greek Orthodox) minority. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... President Gamal Abdel Nasser Nasserism is an Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology in Arab world. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Al-Murabitun (al-murabitÅ«n, also transliterated as al-Mourabitoun, an Arabic term literally meaning The Sentinels, but with Muslim historical connotations) was an alternative name for the Independent Nasserist Organization of Lebanon. ... PLO redirects here. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...

The Druze

The small Druze sect, strategically and dangerously seated on the Chouf in central Lebanon, had no natural allies, and so were compelled to put much effort into building alliances. Under the leadership of the Jumblatt family, first Kamal Jumblatt (the LNM leader) and then his son Walid , the Progressive Socialist Party ( (PSP) served as an effective Druze militia, building excellent ties to the Soviet Union mainly, with Israel upon its invasion to Lebanon and with Syria upon the withdrawal of Israel to the south of the country. Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ... The Jumblatt Family (Joumblatt, Junblat, Junblatt, ...) is an influential Druze family who settled in the Lebanon mountains (coming from Syria) around the 15-16th century, fleeing persecution from the Ottoman governor. ... Kamal Jumblatt (Arabic: كمال جنبلاط; (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese politician. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Picture of Walid Jumblatt Walid Jumblatt (Arabic: وليد جنبلاط‎) (born August 7, 1949) is the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party of Lebanon and the most prominent leader of the Druze community. ... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ...


Non-religious groups

SSNP logo
SSNP logo

Although several Lebanese militias claimed to be secular, most were little more than vehicles for sectarian interests. Still, there existed a number of non-religious groups, primarily but not exclusively of the left and/or Pan-Arab right. This article is about secularism. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ...


Examples of this was the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP) and the more radical and independent Communist Action Organization (COA). Another notable example was the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), which promoted the concept of Greater Syria, in contrast to Pan-Arab or Lebanese nationalism. The SSNP was generally aligned with the Syrian government, although it did not ideologically approve of Hafez al-Assad's Ba'thist regime, and up to this day, it still opposes the Syrian Government's regime. The Lebanese Communist Party (LCP, Arabic, الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي hizbu-sh-shuy‘uī-l-lubnānī) is a Marxist political party in Lebanon. ... The Communist Action Organization (COA) or Organization of Communist Action (Arabic munażżamatu-l-‘amali-sh-shuyū‘ī fī lubnān, French Organisation de lAction Communiste du Liban, OCAL) was a minor Marxist-Leninist political party and militia in Lebanon. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) is a nationalist political party in Syria and Lebanon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Baath Party flag The Baath Parties (also spelled Baath or Bath; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Baath movement. ...


Two competing Baath party factions were also involved in the early stages of the war: a nationalist one known as "pro-Iraqi" headed by Abdul-Majeed Al-Rafei (Sunni) and Nicola Y. Firzli (Greek Orthodox Christian), and a Marxist one known as "pro-Syrian" headed by Assem Qanso (Shiite). Baath Party of Iraq Baath son of Magog of Milesian tradition This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ...


The Palestinians

PLO logo
PLO logo

The Palestinian movement relocated most of its fighting strength to Lebanon at the end of 1970 after being expelled from Jordan in the events known as Black September. The umbrella organization, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)—by itself undoubtedly Lebanon's most potent fighting force—was little more than a loose confederation, and its leader, Yassir Arafat, proved unable to control rival factions. This undermined both the PLO's operative strength and the sympathy of the Lebanese for the PLO, as the organization's image in Lebanon was increasingly marred by radical factions whose "Communist revolutionary order" rarely turned out to be anything other than protection rackets. In the end, the PLO was held together more by shared interests and Arafat's continual attempts at intra-organizational mediation, than by any coherent organizational structure. The official PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) Source: [1] This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The official PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) Source: [1] This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... PLO redirects here. ... The monarchs of the member states of the German Confederation meet at Frankfurt in 1863. ... Yasser Arafat Yasser Arafat (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Muhammad `Abd ar-Rauf al-Qudwa al-Husayni (Arabic محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known as Abu `Ammar (ابو عمّار), was co-founder and Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


The mainstream PLO, represented by Arafat's powerful Fatah [[guerrilla warfare|-socialist- doctrine. Among the most important were the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), and its splinter, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP). Lesser roles were played by the fractious Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF) and another split-off from the PFLP, the Syrian-aligned Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC). To complicate things, the Ba'thist systems of Syria and Iraq both set up Palestinian puppet organizations within the PLO. The as-Sa'iqa was a Syrian-controlled militia, paralleled by the Arab Liberation Front (ALF) under Iraqi command. The Syrian government could also count on the Syrian brigades of the Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA), formally but not functionally the PLO's regular army. Some PLA units sent by Egypt were under PLO (Arafatist) control, but never played the same dominant role as the heavily armed Syrian-backed factions. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) was founded to create a Palestinian state; it was headquartered first in Lebanon, and later in Tunisia. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ... Baath Party flag The Baath Parties (also spelled Baath or Bath; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Baath movement. ... As-Saiqa (Arabic: الصاعقة meaning thunderbolt) is a Palestinian political and military faction supported by Syria. ... ALF symbol Arab Liberation Front (Arabic: جبهة التحرير العربية, jabha at-tahrir al-arabia) is a minor Palestinian political movement, politically tied to the Baath Party of Saddam Hussein. ... The Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA) was set up as the military wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964, with the mission of fighting Israel. ...


In 1974, a stone was added to Arafat's burden with the near-formal breakup of the PLO. A controversial proposal (the Ten Point Program) that aimed to make way for a two-state solution had been advanced by Arafat and Fatah in the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Under furious accusations of treason, many of the PLO's hard line anti-Israel factions simply walked out of the organization. With Iraqi, and later Syrian and Libyan, backing, they formed the Rejectionist Front, espousing a no-compromise line towards Israel. The defectors included the PFLP, the PFLP-GC, the PLF, as-Sa'iqa, ALF and several others, and discontent mounted also within Fatah. Arafat would eventually manage to patch up the differences, but this would come back to haunt him throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, and the split effectively prevented organizational unity in crucial stages of PLO's involvement in the Lebanese civil war. The two-state solution is the name for a class of proposed resolutions of the long-running Arab-Israeli conflict now explicitly backed by the Israeli and United States governments. ... Arafat may refer to: Arafat Waheed Khan (born 1981), 2006 transatlantic aircraft terrorist plot suspect Fathi Arafat (1933-2004), Palestinian physician Moussa Arafat (circa 1940-2005), cousin of Yasser Arafat Raed Arafat (born 1964), Romanian physician Suha Arafat (born 1963), widow of Yasser Arafat Yasir Arafat (cricketer) (born 1982), Pakistani... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization. ... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) was founded to create a Palestinian state; it was headquartered first in Lebanon, and later in Tunisia. ... As-Saiqa (Arabic: الصاعقة meaning thunderbolt) is a Palestinian political and military faction supported by Syria. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ...


The PLO and regional conflict

Arafat in Palestinian refugee camp in Southern Lebanon in 1978
Arafat in Palestinian refugee camp in Southern Lebanon in 1978

Due to major Arab political pressure, the Cairo Agreement brokered by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1969, the Lebanese were forced to allow a foreign force (the PLO) to conduct military operations against Israel from inside their own territory. Although initially very reluctant to sign, the Lebanese government saw this accord as its last hope of regaining control of the country whereby it was agreed that attacks would be carried out in co-ordination with the Lebanese army. The PLO were granted full control over the refugee camps, but soon much of southern Lebanon fell under their effective rule and rarely was the accord abided by. As fighters poured in from Jordan after the Black September destruction of the PLO's apparatus there, the PLO's presence became overbearing to many of inhabitants of these areas. The radical factions operated as a law unto themselves, and quickly alienated conservative Shi'a villagers. Much the same way that the PLO had lost its welcome in Jordan, Muslim support for the Palestinians began to erode in Lebanon. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon composed of two Governates: the South Lebanon Governate and the Nabatiyeh Governate. ... Secret agreement between Palestine Liberation Organization and the government of Lebanon granting the PLO the right to operate on Lebanese soil. ... Nasser redirects here. ... A territory (from the word terra, meaning land) is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... bjhgfshudgfgbfsfas Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A camp in Guinea for refugees from Sierra Leone. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


A significant left-wing opposition also started to evolve within Fatah, as radical veteran fighters from Jordan began pouring into its ranks, to the worry of Arafat himself. Still, Arafat set about building a "state-within-the-state" in southern Lebanon, to create a secure base area for the PLO, headquartered in the Bekaa Valley and West Beirut. Gradually the Lebanese authorities were being pushed into irrelevancy. Harsh Israeli retribution after Palestinian raids from what was now termed "Fatahland" did nothing to endear the civilian Shi'a and Christian population to the Palestinian guerrillas. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Guerrilla redirects here. ...


The PLO was welcomed, however, by the Sunnis - who thought of them as a natural ally in sectarian terms - and by the Druze. A personal friendship developed between Arafat and the charismatic Druze leader Kamal Jumblatt, who not only headed the PSP, but who had also set up a Lebanese National Movement (LNM). Many of the Rejectionist Front organizations joined the leftist LNM straightway, and indeed portions of the Fatah left followed. But Arafat was unwilling to commit the Palestinians to what he regarded as an intra-Lebanese conflict, fearing it would bog the movement down in Lebanon and unnecessarily alienate potential supporters among the Christians and their foreign allies. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Kamal Jumblatt (Arabic: كمال جنبلاط; (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese politician. ... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ...


First phase of the war, 1975-77

Sectarian violence and civilian massacres

Throughout the spring of 1975, minor clashes had been building up towards all-out conflict, with the LNM pitted against the Phalange, and the ever-weaker national government wavering between the need to maintain order and cater to its constituency. On the morning of April 13th, 1975, unidentified gunmen in a speeding car fired on a church in the Christian East Beirut suburb of Ain El Rummaneh, killing 4 people including two Maronite Phalangists. Hours later, Phalangists led by the Gemayels killed 30 Palestinians traveling in Ein Al-Rumaneh. Citywide clashes erupted in response to this "Bus Massacre." Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir, (November 10, 1947 - September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... The Bus Massacre (also known as the Ayn Rummaneh incident or Massacre) is commonly presented as the spark that set off the Lebanese Civil War. ...


On December 6, 1975, a day later known as Black Saturday, the killings of four Phalange members led Phalange to quickly and temporarily set up roadblocks throughout Beirut at which identification cards were inspected for religious affiliation. Many Palestinians or Muslims passing through the roadblocks were killed immediately. Additionally, Phalange members took hostages and attacked Muslims in East Beirut. Pro-Muslim and Palestinian militias retaliated with force, increasing the total death count to between 200 and 600 civilians and militiamen. After this point, all-out fighting began between the militias. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Black Saturday was a series of massacres and armed clashes in Beirut, that occurred in the first stages of the Lebanese Civil War. ... Phalange redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roadblock (disambiguation). ...


In a vicious spiral of sectarian violence, civilians were an easy target. On January 18, 1976 about 1,000 people were killed by Christian forces in the Karantina Massacre, immediately followed by a retaliatory strike on Damour by Palestinian militias. Those inhabitants who did not manage to flee the village were gunned down or killed with knives. These two massacres prompted a mass exodus of Muslims and Christians, as people fearing retribution fled to areas under the control of their own sect. The ethnic and religious layout of the residential areas of the capital encouraged this process, and East and West Beirut were increasingly transformed into what was in effect Christian and Muslim Beirut. Also, the number of Christian leftists who had allied with the LNM, and Muslim conservatives with the government, dropped sharply, as the war revealed itself as an utterly sectarian conflict. Another effect of the massacres was to bring in Yassir Arafat's well-armed Fatah and thereby the PLO on the side of the LNM, as Palestinian sentiment was by now completely hostile to the Lebanese Christian forces. The Karantina massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ...


Syrian intervention

In June, 1976, with fighting throughout the country and the Maronites on the verge of defeat, President Suleiman Frangieh called for Syrian intervention, on the grounds that the port of Beirut would be closed and that is how Syria received a large portion of their goods. Christian fears had been greatly exacerbated by the Damour massacre, and both sides felt the stakes had been raised above mere political power. Syria responded by ending its prior affiliation with the Palestinian Rejectionist Front and began supporting the Maronite-dominated government. This technically put Syria on the same side as Israel, as Israel had already begun to supply Maronite forces with arms, tanks, and military advisers in May 1976.[2] Syria had its own political and territorial interests in Lebanon, which harbored cells of the Islamists and anti-Ba'thist Muslim Brotherhood, and was also a possible route of attack for Israel. This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... Suleiman Frangieh Suleiman Kabalan Frangieh, last name also spelled Frangié, Franjieh, or Franjiyeh, (15 June 1910 - 23 July 1992) (Arabic: سليمان فرنجية), was President of Lebanon from 1970 to 1976. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Baath Party flag The Baath Parties (also spelled Baath or Bath; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Baath movement. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political...


At the President's request, Syrian troops entered Lebanon, occupying Tripoli and the Bekaa Valley, easily brushing aside the LNM and Palestinian defenses. A cease-fire was imposed[3], but it ultimately failed to stop the conflict, so Syria added to the pressure. With Damascus supplying arms, Christian forces managed to break through the defenses of the Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp in East Beirut, which had long been under siege. A massacre of about 2,000 Palestinians followed, which unleashed heavy criticism against Syria from the Arab world. This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... Béqaa is a region in Lebanon with a population of 750,000 inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... The Tel al-Zaatar Massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on August 12, 1976. ... Arab States redirects here. ...


On October 19, 1976, the Battle of Aishiya took place, when a combined force of PLO and a Communist militia attacked Aishiya, an isolated Christian village in a mostly Muslim area. The Artillery Corps of the Israel Defence Forces fired 24 shells (66 kilograms of TNT each) from US-made 175-millimeter field artillery units at the attackers, repelling their first attempt. However, the PLO and Communists returned at night, when low visibility made Israeli artillery far less effective. The Christian population of the village fled. They returned in 1982. is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ...


In October 1976, Syria accepted the proposal of the Arab League summit in Riyadh. This gave Syria a mandate to keep 40,000 troops in Lebanon as the bulk of an Arab Deterrent Force charged with disentangling the combatants and restoring calm. Other Arab nations were also part of the ADF, but they lost interest relatively soon, and Syria was again left in sole control, now with the ADF as a diplomatic shield against international criticism. The Civil War was officially ended at this point, and an uneasy quiet settled over Beirut and most of the rest of Lebanon. In the south, however, the climate began to deteriorate as a consequence of the gradual return of PLO combatants, who had been required to vacate central Lebanon under the terms of the Riyadh Accords. Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Arab Deterrent Force As the Lebanese Civil War escalated in 1976, the Arab League created an intervention force composed almost entirely of Syrian forces with token contributions from other Arab states, including Saudi Arabia and Libya. ...


An uneasy quiet

The nation was now effectively divided, with southern Lebanon and the western half of Beirut becoming bases for the PLO and Muslim-based militias, and the Christians in control of East Beirut and the Christian section of Mount Lebanon. The main confrontation line in divided Beirut was known as the Green Line. For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... The Green Line was a line of demarcation in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War from 1975 to 1990: it served to separate the Muslim Lebanese in West Beirut from the Christian Lebanese in East Beirut. ...

A rough approximation of the regions of control over Lebanese territory, 1976

In East Beirut, in 1977, Christian leaders of the National Liberal Party (NLP), the Kataeb Party and the Lebanese Renewal Party joined in the Lebanese Front, a political counterpart to the LNM. Their militias - the Tigers, Phalange and Guardians of the Cedars - entered a loose coalition known as the Lebanese Forces, to form a military wing for the Lebanese Front. From the very beginning, the Kataeb and Phalange, under the leadership of Bashir Gemayel, dominated the LF. Through absorbing or destroying smaller militias, he both consolidated control and strengthened the LF into the dominant Christian force. Image File history File links Lebanon_civil_war_map_1976. ... Image File history File links Lebanon_civil_war_map_1976. ... The National Liberal Party (Hizb al-Watanyin al-Ahrar) is a political party in Lebanon, established by President Camille Chamoun in 1958. ... Phalange redirects here. ... The Lebanese Renewal Party is a nationalist party in Lebanon formed in 1972 as the political arm of the paramilitary force known as the Guardians of the Cedars. ... The Lebanese Front (Arabic: الجبهة اللبنانية) was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... it s a group of 18 guys started the training in 1968 in saadyat where was the Pr. ... Phalange redirects here. ... The logo of the Guardians of the Cedars. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir, (November 10, 1947 - September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander and politician. ...


In March the same year, Lebanese National Movement leader Kamal Jumblatt was assassinated. The murder was widely blamed on the Syrian government. While Jumblatt's role as leader of the Druze Progressive Socialist Party was filled surprisingly smoothly by his son, Walid Jumblatt, the LNM disintegrated after his death. Although the anti-government pact of leftists, Shi'a, Sunni, Palestinians and Druze would stick together for some time more, their wildly divergent interests tore at opposition unity. Sensing the opportunity, Hafez al-Assad immediately began splitting up both the Christian and Muslim coalitions in a game of divide and rule. The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Kamal Jumblatt (Arabic: كمال جنبلاط; (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese politician. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ... Picture of Walid Jumblatt Walid Jumblatt (Arabic: وليد جنبلاط‎) (born August 7, 1949) is the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party of Lebanon and the most prominent leader of the Druze community. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ...


Second phase of the war, 1977-82

Israel intervenes in South Lebanon, 1978

Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ...

Operation Litani

PLO attacks from Lebanon into Israel in 1977 and 1978 escalated tensions between the countries. On 11 March 1978, eleven Fatah fighters landed on a beach in northern Israel and proceeded to hijack two buses full of passengers on the Haifa - Tel-Aviv road, shooting at passing vehicles. They killed 37 and wounded 76 Israelis before being killed in the firefight with the Israeli forces.[4] Israel invaded Lebanon four days later in Operation Litani. The Israeli Army occupied most of the area south of the Litani River The UN Security Council passed Resolution 425 calling for immediate Israeli withdrawal and creating the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), charged with maintaining peace. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ...


The Security Zone

Israeli forces withdrew later in 1978, but retained control of the southern region by managing a 12-mile (19 km) wide "security zone" along the border. To hold these positions, Israel installed the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a Christian-Shi'a proxy militia under the leadership of Major Saad Haddad. Israel supplied the SLA with arms and resources, and posted "advisers" to strengthen and direct the militia. The Israeli Prime Minister, Likud's Menachem Begin, compared the plight of the Christian minority in southern Lebanon (then about 5% of the population in SLA territory) to that of European Jews during World War II.[5] The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: ; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«bi. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Saad Haddad was the founder and head of the South Lebanon Army (SLA). ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Violent exchanges resumed between the PLO, Israel, and the SLA, with the PLO attacking SLA positions and firing rockets into northern Israel, Israel conducting air raids against PLO positions, and the SLA continuing its efforts to consolidate power in the border region.


Conflicts between Syria and the Phalange

Syria, meanwhile, clashed with the Phalange, a Maronite militia led by Bashir Gemayel, whose increasingly aggressive actions - such as his April 1981 attempt to capture the strategic city of Zahle in central Lebanon - were designed to thwart the Syrian goal of brushing aside Gemayel and installing Suleiman Frangieh as president. Consequently, the de facto alliance between Israel and Gemayel strengthened considerably. In April 1981, for instance, during fighting in Zahle, Gemayel called for Israeli assistance. Israeli Prime Minister Begin responded by sending Israeli fighter jets to the scene, which shot down two Syrian helicopters.[6] This led to Syrian President Hafiz al-Assad's decision to place surface-to-air missiles on the hilly perimeter of Zahle. Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir, (November 10, 1947 - September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... This article is about a town in Lebanon. ... Suleiman Frangieh Suleiman Kabalan Frangieh, last name also spelled Frangié, Franjieh, or Franjiyeh, (15 June 1910 - 23 July 1992) (Arabic: سليمان فرنجية), was President of Lebanon from 1970 to 1976. ... This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (October 6, 1930 - June 10, 2000) was the President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. ...


Israeli Bombing of Beirut

On July 17, 1981, Israeli air craft bombed multi-story apartment buildings in Beirut that contained offices of PLO associated groups. The Lebanese delegate to the United Nations Security Council reported that 300 civilians had been killed, and 800 wounded. The bombing led to worldwide condemnation, and a temporary embargo on the export of U.S. aircraft to Israel.[7]


Israel plans for attack

In August, Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin was re-elected, and in September, Begin and his defense minister Ariel Sharon began to lay plans for a second invasion of Lebanon for the purpose of driving out the PLO. Sharon's intention was to "destroy the PLO military infrastructure and, if possible, the PLO leadership itself; this would mean attacking West Beirut, where the PLO headquarters and command bunkers were located".[8]   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


Sharon also wanted to ensure the presidency of Bashir Gemayel. In return for Israeli assistance, Sharon expected Gemayel, once installed as president, to sign a peace treaty with Israel, presumably stabilizing forever Israel's northern border. Begin brought Sharon's plan before the Knesset in December 1981; however, after strong objections were raised, Begin felt compelled to set the plan aside. But Sharon continued to press the issue. In January 1982, Sharon met with Gemayel on an Israeli vessel off the coast of Lebanon and discussed a plan "that would bring Israeli forces as far north as the edge of Beirut International Airport".[9] In February, with Begin's input, Yehoshua Seguy, the chief of military intelligence, was sent to Washington to discuss the issue of Lebanon with Secretary of State Alexander Haig. In the meeting, Haig "stressed that there could be no assault without a major provocation from Lebanon".[10] Terminal Overview Beirut International Airport is an airport located in Beirut, Lebanon. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ...


Israel-PLO security situation

Thus far, no major provocation had been launched from Lebanon. In fact, during the entire effective period of the cease-fire, August 1981 to May 1982, there was a total of one PLO rocket attack from Lebanese territory, in May. The attack was a retaliation for Israel's 9 May bombing of PLO positions in Lebanon, which was itself a retaliation for the PLO bombing of a Jerusalem bus.[11] This particular exchange highlights a central problem with the cease-fire from the Israeli perspective: it applied only to the border with Lebanon, meaning that PLO attacks from other locations, such as Jordan and the West Bank, could (and did) continue unabated, while an Israeli response directed against the PLO in Lebanon would technically be a violation of the cease-fire. An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arafat refused to condemn attacks occurring outside of Lebanon, on the grounds that the cease-fire was only relevant to the Lebanese theater.[12] Arafat's interpretation underscored the fact that the cease-fire agreement did nothing to address ongoing violence between the PLO and Israel in other theaters. Israel thus continued to weather PLO attacks throughout the cease-fire period. At the same time, it violated the terms of the cease-fire by committing "2125 violations of Lebanese airspace and 652 violations of Lebanese territorial waters" from August 1981 to May 1982, including the above mentioned 9 May bombing and the 21 April bombing of coastal PLO targets south of Beirut.[13] is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Third phase of the war, 1982-83

Israeli invasion of Lebanon

Argov assassination

On 3 June 1982, the Abu Nidal Organization attempted to assassinate Israeli ambassador Shlomo Argov in London. Abu Nidal had assassinated numerous PLO diplomats, and attempted to kill both Arafat and Mahmud Abbas, and was in fact condemned to death by the PLO.[14] Additionally, British intelligence reported that the attempt had likely been sponsored by Iraq, and Israeli intelligence agreed. However, Ariel Sharon and Menachem Begin, ordered a retaliatory aerial attack on PLO and PFLP targets in West Beirut that led to over 100 casualties,[15].-1... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Created by a split from the Fatah in 1974, the Abu Nidal Organization (officially named Fatah - the Revolutionary Council) is an international organization named for its founder Abu Nidal. ... Shlomo Argov (December 14, 1929 - February 23, 2003) was the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom whose attempted killing sparked Israels Invasion of Lebanon. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli Defense Forces, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known as Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President (Raees) of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005 and took office on January 15, 2005. ... MI-5 redirects here. ... For the organization that coordinated pre-state Jewish immigration, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ...


The PLO responded by launching a counterattack from Lebanon with rockets and artillery, which also constituted a clear violation of the cease-fire. This was the immediate cause of Israel's subsequent decision to invade. Meanwhile, on 5 June, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution (UNSCR 508) calling for "all the parties to the conflict to cease immediately and simultaneously all military activities within Lebanon and across the Lebanese-Israeli border and no later than 0600 hours local time on Sunday, 6 June 1982."[16] is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


June 6, 1982: Israel invades

Main article: 1982 Lebanon War

Israel launched Operation Peace for Galilee on June 6, 1982, attacking PLO bases in Lebanon. Israeli forces quickly drove 25 miles (40 km) into Lebanon, moving into East Beirut with the tacit support of Maronite leaders and militia. When the Israeli cabinet convened to authorize the invasion, Sharon described it as a plan to advance 40 kilometers into Lebanon, demolish PLO strongholds, and establish an expanded security zone that would put northern Israel out of range of PLO rockets. In fact, Israeli chief of staff Rafael Eitan and Sharon had already ordered the invading forces to head straight for Beirut, in accord with Sharon's blueprint dating to September 1981. After the invasion had begun, the UN Security Council passed a further resolution on 6 June 1982, UNSCR 509, which reaffirms UNSCR 508 and "demands that Israel withdraw all its military forces forthwith and unconditionally to the internationally recognized boundaries of Lebanon". [17] Thus far the US had not used its veto. However, on 8 June 1982, the US vetoed a proposed resolution that "reiterates [the] demand that Israel withdraw all its military forces forthwith and unconditionally to the internationally recognized boundaries of Lebanon" [18], thereby giving implicit assent to the Israeli invasion. Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For the former Mossad operative and director of the Israeli Bureau of Scientific Relations, and current leader of Gil, see Rafi Eitan. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Siege of Beirut

Main article: Siege of Beirut

By 15 June 1982, Israeli units were entrenched outside Beirut. The United States called for PLO withdrawal from Lebanon, and Sharon began to order bombing raids of West Beirut, targeting some 16,000 PLO troops who had retreated into fortified positions. Meanwhile, Arafat attempted through negotiations to salvage politically what was clearly a disaster for the PLO, an attempt which eventually succeeded once the multinational force arrived to evacuate the PLO. Belligerents Israel Defense Forces Palestine Liberation Organization Commanders Ariel Sharon Yasir Arafat Strength 30,000 15,000 Casualties and losses 368 soldiers killed, 2,383 wounded 1000 PLO guerillas killed, 6000 captured. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


The fighting in Beirut resulted in approximately 6,700 deaths with 1,100 PLO deaths against 88 for the IDF. Fierce artillery duels between the IDF and the PLO, and PLO shelling of Christian neighborhoods of East Beirut at the outset gave way to escalating aerial IDF bombardment beginning on 21 July 1982 [19] [20]. It is commonly estimated that during the entire campaign, approximately 20,000 were killed on all sides, including many civilians, and 30,000 were wounded[citation needed]. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Negotiations for a cease-fire

On 26 June, a UN Security Council resolution was proposed that "demands the immediate withdrawal of the Israeli forces engaged round Beirut, to a distance of 10 kilometers from the periphery of that city, as a first step towards the complete withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon, and the simultaneous withdrawal of the Palestinian armed forces from Beirut, which shall retire to the existing camps"[21]; the United States vetoed the resolution because it was "a transparent attempt to preserve the P.L.O. as a viable political force"[22], an indication of Washington's support for Sharon's objective of destroying the PLO before it could negotiate a withdrawal agreement. is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finally, amid escalating violence and civilian casualties, Philip Habib was once again sent to restore order, which he accomplished on 12 August on the heels of IDF's intensive, day-long bombardment of West Beirut. The Habib-negotiated truce called for the withdrawal of both Israeli and PLO elements, as well as a multinational force composed of U.S. Marines along with French and Italian units that would ensure the departure of the PLO and protect defenseless civilians. Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920–May 25, 1992) was an American career diplomat known for work in Vietnam and the Middle East. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


International intervention: 1982-84

A multinational force landed in Beirut on August 20, 1982 to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon and U.S. mediation resulted in the evacuation of Syrian troops and PLO fighters from Beirut. The agreement also provided for the deployment of a multinational force composed of U.S. Marines along with French, Italian and British units. However, Israel reported that some 2,000 PLO militants were hiding in Palestinian refugee camps on the outskirts of Beirut. The Multinational Force in Lebanon (also MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in 1982 and sent to Lebanon to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... bjhgfshudgfgbfsfas Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A camp in Guinea for refugees from Sierra Leone. ...


Bashir Gemayel was elected president under Israeli military control on 23 August. His presidency was unpopular, being voted by a slim margin with most of the Muslim MPs boycotting the session. Many, especially in the Muslim circles, feared his relationship with Israel. He was assassinated on 14 September and general belief is that Syria was behind his killing. Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir, (November 10, 1947 - September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sabra and Shatila Massacre

See Sabra and Shatila massacre The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was a massacre carried out in September 1982 by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia group. ...


After conferring with Phalange leaders, Sharon and Eitan bypassed the Israeli cabinet and sent Israeli troops into West Beirut, violating the Habib agreement; these troops helped transport approximately 200 Phalange personnel to the camps, which the Phalangists entered on 16 September at 6:00 P.M. The Phalangists remained in the camps until the morning of 19 September, killing an estimated 700-3,000 Palestinians, according to official Israeli statistics, "none apparently members of any PLO unit".[23] is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Kahan Commission, set up by the Israeli government to investigate the circumstances of the massacre, held Sharon and Eitan indirectly responsible, concluding that the Israeli officials should have known what would happen if they sent 200 anti-Palestinian militants into Palestinian refugee camps. The Commission recommended that Sharon resign his post as Defense Minister, which he did, though he remained in the government as an influential Minister without Portfolio.[24] The Kahan Commission (ועדת כהן), formally known as the Commission of Inquiry into the Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut, was established by the Israeli government on 28 September 1982, to investigate the Sabra and Shatila Massacre (16 September-18 September, 1982). ...


The massacres made the headlines all over the world, and calls were heard for the international community to assume responsibility for stabilizing Lebanon. As a result, the multinational forces that had begun exiting Lebanon after the PLO's evacuation returned as peace keepers. With U.S. backing, Amine Gemayel was chosen by the Lebanese parliament to succeed his brother as President and focused anew on securing the withdrawal of Israeli and Syrian forces. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


May 17 Agreement

Main article: May 17 Agreement

On May 17, 1983, Lebanon's Amine Gemayel, Israel, and the United States signed an agreement[25] text on Israeli withdrawal that was conditioned on the departure of Syrian troops; reportedly after the US and Israel exerted severe pressure on Gemayel. The agreement stated that "the state of war between Israel and Lebanon has been terminated and no longer exists." Thus, the agreement in effect amounted to a peace agreement with Israel, and was additionally seen by many Lebanese Muslims as an attempt for Israel to gain a permanent hold on the Lebanese South.[26] The May 17 Agreement was widely portrayed in the Arab world as an imposed surrender, and Amin Gemayel was accused of acting as a Quisling President; tensions in Lebanon hardened considerably. Syria strongly opposed the agreement and declined to discuss the withdrawal of its troops, effectively stalemating further progress. The 1983 May 17 Agreement was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1983 May 17 Agreement was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ...


In August 1983, Israel withdrew from the Chouf District (southeast of Beirut), thus removing the buffer between the Druze and the Christian militias and triggering another round of brutal fighting. By September, the Druze had gained control over most of the Chouf, and Israeli forces had pulled out from all but the southern security zone. The IDF would remain in this zone until 2000. Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ...


Resurging violence

The virtual collapse of the Lebanese Army in February 1984, following the defection of many Muslim and Druze units to militias, was a major blow to the government. With the U.S. Marines looking ready to withdraw, Syria and Muslim groups stepped up pressure on Gemayel. On 5 March the Lebanese Government canceled the May 17 Agreement, and the Marines departed a few weeks later. This article was imported from the CIA World Factbook and needs to be rewritten and/or reformatted in accordance with Wikipedia styles. ... This article is about the day. ...


This period of chaos witnessed the beginning of attacks against U.S. and Western interests, such as the 18 April 1983 suicide attack at the U.S. Embassy in West Beirut, which killed 63. Following the bombing, the Reagan White House "ordered naval bombardments of Druze positions, which resulted in numerous casualties, mostly non-combatant," and the "reply to the American bombardments" was the suicide attack.[27] Then, on 23 October 1983, a devastating suicide bombing in Beirut targeted the headquarters of the U.S. and French forces, killing 241 American and 58 French servicemen. [28] On January 18, 1984, American University of Beirut President Malcolm Kerr was murdered. After US forces withdrew in February 1984, anti-US attacks continued, including a second bombing of the U.S. embassy annex in East Beirut on 20 September 1984, which killed 9, including 2 U.S. servicemen. The situation became serious enough to compel the U.S. State Department to invalidate US passports for travel to Lebanon in 1987, a travel ban that was only lifted 10 years later in 1997. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The April 18, 1983, suicide bombing of the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon was the deadliest attack on a US displomatic mission to that time, and is seen by some as marking the beginning of anti-US attacks by Islamic groups. ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Malcolm Kerr (1931–1984) was a political scientist and teacher who was an expert on Middle East politics. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


During these years, Hezbollah emerged from a loose coalition of Shi'a groups resisting the Israeli occupation, and splintered from the main Shi'a movement, Nabih Berri's Amal Movement. The group found inspiration for its revolutionary Islamism in the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and gained early support from about 1,500 Iranian Pasdaran Guards. With Iranian assistance, and a large pool of disaffected Shi'a refugees from which to draw support, Hezbollah quickly grew into a strong fighting force. For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Nabih Berri Nabih Berri (Arabic: ; born January 28, 1938) is the speaker of the Lebanese Parliament of Lebanon. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Fourth phase of the war, 1984-89

Worsening conflict and political crisis

Between 1985 and 1989, sectarian conflict worsened as various efforts at national reconciliation failed. Heavy fighting took place in the War of the Camps of 1985-86 as a Syrian-backed coalition headed by the Amal militia sought to rout the PLO from their Lebanese strongholds. Many Palestinians died, and the Sabra, Shatila, and Bourj al-Barajneh refugee camps were largely destroyed. (Fisk, 609) The War of the Camps was a subconflict within the Lebanese Civil War in which Palestinian refugee camps were besieged by the Shiite Amal militia. ... Sabra may refer to: Sabra (comics), a fictional female superhero in Marvel Comics Sabra (moth), a moth genus Sabra (person), a native-born Israeli Jew Sabra Refugee Camp, a Palestinian refugee camp near Beirut, Lebanon, scene of the Sabra and Shatila Massacre Autocars Co. ... The Shatila refugee camp (Arabic: ‎) (also Chatila refugee camp) is a long-term refugee camp for Palestinian refugees, set up by UNRWA in 1949. ... Bourj al-Barajneh is a municipality in the southern suburbs of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon. ... bjhgfshudgfgbfsfas Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A camp in Guinea for refugees from Sierra Leone. ...


Major combat returned to Beirut in 1987, when Palestinians, leftists, and Druze fighters allied against Amal, eventually drawing further Syrian intervention. Violent confrontation flared up again in Beirut in 1988 between Amal and Hezbollah. Hezbollah swiftly seized command of several Amal-held parts of the city, and for the first time emerged as a strong force in the capital.


The Aoun government

Meanwhile, Prime Minister Rashid Karami, head of a government of national unity set up after the failed peace efforts of 1984, was assassinated on June 1, 1987. The assassination was accused upon Samir Geagea in coordination with the Lebanese army, but would not be proven. President Gemayel's term of office expired in September 1988. Before stepping down, he appointed another Maronite Christian, Lebanese Armed Forces Commanding General Michel Aoun, as acting Prime Minister, contravening the National Pact. Conflict in this period was also exacerbated by increasing Iraqi involvement, as Saddam Hussein searched for proxy battlefields for the Iran-Iraq War. To counter Iran's influence through Amal and Hezbollah, Iraq backed Christian groups; Saddam Hussein helped Aoun and the Lebanese Forces led by samir Geagea between 1988-1990.[29] Rashid Karami Rashid Abdul Hamid Karami (December 30, 1921 – June 1, 1987) (Arabic: رشيد كرامي) was a Lebanese statesman. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... This article was imported from the CIA World Factbook and needs to be rewritten and/or reformatted in accordance with Wikipedia styles. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Michel Naim Aoun (Arabic: ميشال عون) (born 19 February 1935 in Haret Hreik, Lebanon) is a former Lebanese military commander and politician. ... The National Pact is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon and has shaped the country to this day. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


Muslim groups rejected the violation of the National Pact and pledged support to Selim al-Hoss, a Sunni who had succeeded Karami. Lebanon was thus divided between a Christian military government in East Beirut and a civilian government in West Beirut. Selim al-Hoss Selim Ahmed al-Hoss (born 1929) is a Lebanese politician. ...


Aoun's "War of Liberation"

On March 14, 1989, Aoun launched what he termed a "war of liberation" against the Syrians and their Lebanese militia allies. As a result, Syrian pressure on his Lebanese Army and militia pockets in East Beirut grew. Still, Aoun persisted in the "war of liberation", denouncing the regime of Hafez al-Assad and claiming that he fought for Lebanon's independence. While he seems to have had significant Christian support for this, he was still perceived as a sectarian leader among others by the Muslim population, who distrusted his agenda. He was also plagued by the challenge to his legitimacy put forth by the Syrian-backed West Beirut government of Selim al-Hoss. Militarily, this war did not achieve its goal. Instead, it caused considerable damages to East Beirut and provoked massive emigration among the Christian population. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Selim al-Hoss Selim Ahmed al-Hoss (born 1929) is a Lebanese politician. ...


The Taif Agreement

The Taif Agreement of 1989 marked the beginning of the end of the fighting. In January of that year, a committee appointed by the Arab League, chaired by Kuwait and including Saudi Arabia, Algeria, and Morocco, began to formulate solutions to the conflict. This led to a meeting of Lebanese parliamentarians in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia, where they agreed to the national reconciliation accord in October. The agreement provided a large role for Syria in Lebanese affairs. Returning to Lebanon, they ratified the agreement on November 4 and elected Rene Mouawad as President the following day. Military leader Michel Aoun in East Beirut refused to accept Mouawad, and denounced the Taif Agreement. The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament; fathered by Parliament Speaker President Hussein El-Husseini. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Taif in 1970 Taif (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... René Moawad René Moawad (1925 - November 22, 1989) was President of Lebanon for 17 days in 1989, from the 5th to the 22nd of November, when he was assassinated. ...


Mouawad was assassinated 16 days later in a car bombing in Beirut on 22 November as his motorcade returned from Lebanese independence day ceremonies. He was succeeded by Elias Hrawi (who remained in office until 1998). Aoun again refused to accept the election, and dissolved Parliament. For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Elias Hrawi Elias Hrawi (Arabic: الياس الهراوي) ,(September 4, 1926–July 7, 2006) was a former President of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998. ...


Infighting in East Beirut

On January 16, 1990, General Aoun ordered all Lebanese media to cease using terms like "President" or "Minister" to describe Hrawi and other participants in the Taif government. The Lebanese Forces, which had grown into a rival power broker in the Christian parts of the capital, protested by suspending all its broadcasts.Tension with the LF grew, as Aoun feared that the militia was planning to link up with the Hrawi administration. is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ...


On January 31, 1990, Lebanese Army forces clashed with the LF, after Aoun had stated that it was in the national interest for the government to "unify the weapons" (i.e. that the LF must submit to his authority as acting head of state). This brought fierce fighting to East Beirut, and although the LF made initial advances, the intra-Christian warfare eventually sapped the militia of most of its fighting strength. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


In August 1990, the Lebanese Parliament, which didn't heed Aoun's order to dissolve, and the new president agreed on constitutional amendments embodying some of the political reforms envisioned at Taif. The National Assembly expanded to 128 seats and was for the first time divided equally between Christians and Muslims.


As Saddam Hussein focused his attention on Kuwait, Iraqi supplies to Aoun dwindled. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


On October 13, Syria launched a major operation involving its army, air force (for the first time since Zahle's siege in 1981) and Lebanese allies (mainly the Lebanese Army led by General Émile Lahoud) against Aoun's stronghold around the presidential palace, where hundreds of Aoun supporters were executed . It then cleared out the last Aounist pockets, cementing its hold on the capital. Aoun fled to the French Embassy in Beirut, and later into exile in Paris. He was not able to return until May 2005. is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The October 13 Massacre took place on October 13, 1990, during the final moments of the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية ) is the military of the Republic of Lebanon. ... General Émile Jamil Lahoud (Arabic: , Armenian: ; born January 12, 1936) is a former President of Lebanon. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


William Harris claims that the Syrian operation could not take place until Syria had reached an agreement with the United States, that in exchange for support against the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War, it would convince Israel not to attack Syrian aircraft approaching Beirut. Aoun claimed in 1990 that the United States "has sold Lebanon to Syria" (Harris, p. 260). Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


End of the Civil Strife

In March 1991, parliament passed an amnesty law that pardoned all political crimes prior to its enactment. The amnesty was not extended to crimes perpetrated against foreign diplomats or certain crimes referred by the cabinet to the Higher Judicial Council. In May 1991, the militias (with the important exception of Hezbollah) were dissolved, and the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild themselves as Lebanon's only major non-sectarian institution. The term Amnesty law refers to any law that retroactively exempts a select group of people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal liability for crimes committed. ... This article was imported from the CIA World Factbook and needs to be rewritten and/or reformatted in accordance with Wikipedia styles. ...


Some violence still occurred. In late December 1991 a car bomb (estimated to carry 220 pounds of TNT) exploded in the Muslim neighborhood of Basta. At least thirty people were killed, and 120 wounded, including former Prime Minister Shafik Wazzan, who was riding in a bulletproof car. , Basta is a village in Shetland, Scotland. ... Shafik Wazzan was the prime minister of Lebanon from 1980 until 1984. ...


Conclusions

A war-damaged building in Beirut, still unrepaired in 2004
A war-damaged building in Beirut, still unrepaired in 2004

Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted several elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Following the cease-fire which ended the July 12, 2006 Israeli-Lebanese conflict, the army has for the first time in over three decades moved to occupy and control the southern areas of Lebanon. Only Hezbollah retains its weapons, due to what it claims is legitimate resistance against Israel in the Shebaa Farms area. Beirut - War Damaged Building in 2004 Taken by Nick Fraser (copyright holder is uploader, hence also gfdl) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Beirut - War Damaged Building in 2004 Taken by Nick Fraser (copyright holder is uploader, hence also gfdl) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ...

The famous 'Holiday Inn', where some of the major battles took place, still show the damage inflicted to it from the Civil War.
The famous 'Holiday Inn', where some of the major battles took place, still show the damage inflicted to it from the Civil War.

Lebanon still bears deep scars from the civil war. In all, it is estimated that more than 100,000 people were killed, and another 100,000 permanently handicapped by injuries. Approximately 900,000 people, representing one-fifth of the pre-war population, were displaced from their homes. Perhaps a quarter of a million emigrated permanently. Thousands of land mines remain buried in the previously contested areas. Some Western hostages kidnapped during the mid-1980s (many claim by Hezbollah, though the movement denies this)[citation needed] were held until June 1992[30]. Lebanese victims of kidnapping and wartime "disappeared" number in the tens of thousands[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 914 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Trace from the Lebanese civil war. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 914 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Trace from the Lebanese civil war. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... The Lebanon hostage crisis refers to the systematic kidnapping in Lebanon of almost 100 foreigners between 1982 and 1992. ...


Car bombs became a favored weapon of violent groups worldwide, following their frequent, and often effective, use during the war. In the 15 years of strife, there were at least 3,641 car bombs, which left 4,386 people dead and thousands more injured.[31] Other favorite weapons were the AK-47 and RPGs. Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...


The country made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty after the end of the war, establishing a political system that gives Muslims a greater voice in the political process. Many critics, however, have charged that the arrangements institutionalized sectarian divisions in the government. Though the country repaired much of its infrustructure in the years after the civil war, some of these improvements were lost in the destruction of the 2006 Lebanon War. Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Bregman and El-Tahri (1998), 158pp. (This reference only mentions Israel.)
  2. ^ Charles D. Smith, Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict, p. 354.
  3. ^ Fisk, pp. 78-81
  4. ^ "133 Statement to the press by Prime Minister Begin on the massacre of Israelis on the Haifa - Tel Aviv Road- 12 March 1978", Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1977-79
  5. ^ Smith, op. cit., 355.
  6. ^ Smith, op. cit., p. 373.
  7. ^ "The Bombing of Beirut" (1981). Journal of Palestine Studies 11 (1): 218–225. doi:10.1525/jps.1981.11.1.00p0366x. 
  8. ^ Smith, op. cit., p. 377.
  9. ^ Time, 15 February 1982, cited in Chomsky, op. cit., 195.
  10. ^ Smith, op. cit., p. 378.
  11. ^ Chomsky, op. cit., p. 196-7.
  12. ^ Smith, op. cit., p. 376.
  13. ^ Chomsky, op. cit., p. 195; the figures on territorial violations are cited by Alexander Cockburn & James Ridgeway, Village Voice, 22 June 1982, quoting UN records.
  14. ^ Chomsky, op. cit., p. 196.
  15. ^ Smith, op. cit., p. 378.
  16. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 508", Jewish Virtual Library
  17. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 509", Global Policy Forum
  18. ^ "United Nations Security Council Draft Resolution of June 8, 1982 (Spain), United Nations
  19. ^ George W. Gawrych, "Siege of Beirut, GlobalSecurity.org
  20. ^ "Myths & Facts Online: Israel and Lebanon", Jewish Virtual Library
  21. ^ "United Nations Security Council Revised Draft Resolution of June 25, 1982 (France), United Nations
  22. ^ New York Times, 27 June 1982, cited in Chomsky, op. cit., p. 198
  23. ^ Smith, op. cit., 380-1.
  24. ^ Chomsky, op. cit., 406.
  25. ^ "May 17 Agreement", Lebanese Armed Forces
  26. ^ "Israel and South Lebanon", Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 5, 1984, Page 3
  27. ^ Smith, op. cit., 383.
  28. ^ "Iran responsible for 1983 Marine barracks bombing, judge rules", CNN, May 30, 2003
  29. ^ "Doctrine, Dreams Drive Saddam Hussein", Washington Post, August 12, 1990
  30. ^ "Lebanon (Civil War 1975-1991)", GlobalSecurity.org
  31. ^ World Notes Lebanon - TIME

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References

External links

Book references

  • Al-Baath wa-Lubnân [Arabic only] ("The Baath and Lebanon"), NY Firzli, Beirut, Dar-al-Tali'a Books, 1973.
  • The Iraq-Iran Conflict, NY Firzli, Paris, EMA, 1981. ISBN 2-86584-002-6
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  • Bregman, Ahron and El-Tahri, Jihan (1998). The Fifty Years War: Israel and the Arabs. London: BBC Books. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-026827-8
  • The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967-1976 Khazen Farid El (2000) (ISBN 0-674-08105-6)
  • The Bullet Collection, a book by Patricia Sarrafian Ward, is an excellent account of human experience during the Lebanese Civil War.
  • Civil War in Lebanon, 1975-92 O'Ballance Edgar (1998) (ISBN 0-312-21593-2)
  • Crossroads to Civil War: Lebanon 1958-1976 Salibi Kamal S. (1976) (ISBN 0-88206-010-4)
  • Death of a country: The civil war in Lebanon. Bulloch John (1977) (ISBN 0-297-77288-0)
  • Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions (Princeton Series on the Middle East) Harris William W (1997) (ISBN 1-55876-115-2)
  • The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians Noam Chomsky (1983, 1999) (ISBN 0-89608-601-1)
  • History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine, Vol. 2 Hitti Philip K. (2002) (ISBN 1-931956-61-8)
  • Lebanon: A Shattered Country: Myths and Realities of the Wars in Lebanon, Revised Edition Picard, Elizabeth (2002) (ISBN 0-8419-1415-X)
  • Lebanon in Crisis: Participants and Issues (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East) Haley P. Edward , Snider Lewis W. (1979) (ISBN 0-8156-2210-4)
  • Lebanon: Fire and Embers : A History of the Lebanese Civil War by Hiro, Dilip (1993) (ISBN 0-312-09724-7)
  • Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War Fisk, Robert (2001) (ISBN 0-19-280130-9)
  • Syria and the Lebanese Crisis Dawisha A. I. (1980) (ISBN 0-312-78203-9)
  • Syria's Terrorist War on Lebanon and the Peace Process Deeb Marius (2003) (ISBN 1-4039-6248-0)
  • The War for Lebanon, 1970-1985 Rabinovich Itamar (1985) (ISBN 0-8014-9313-7)
  • Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, fourth edition, Charles D. Smith (2001) (ISBN 0-312-20828-6) (paperback)
  • From Beirut to Jerusalem. Thomas Friedman.

Philip Khuri Hitti was a western scholar of Islam. ...

Documentaries

  • (2001) Harab libnan [TV-Series]. Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar.

Online reference

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For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 to April 1974) was a British politician and writer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Dr. Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1903 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist, diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Palestine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917–January 12, 2002), was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-1948 Civil War in the Mandate Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Arab violence was rampant during wave of anti-Jewish riots in 1920-21, during the pogroms of 1929 (which included the massacre of the Jewish community in Hebron and Safed), during the Arab Revolt of 1936-39 (which included the massacre of Jewish community in Tiberias), and in many other... The Qibya massacre was carried out in October 1953 by Israeli troops on the Jordanian West Bank village of that name. ... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Commanders Yoav Shalam Levi Eshkol Bahjat al-Muhsin Hussein I bin Talal Strength 400 troops 40 half-tracks 10 tanks 100 troops 20 convoy vehicles Casualties 1 killed 10 wounded 16 Jordanian Armed Forces killed 54 Jordanian Armed forces wounded 15 vehicles... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ... Combatants Sayeret Matkal PLO Strength 25,000 unknown Casualties 2 KIA 12-100 KIA 3 civilian casualties The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Spring of Youth) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973 when Israel Defense Forces special forces... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Belligerents Israel PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen Uganda Commanders Yekutiel Kuti Adam Dan Shomron Yonatan Netanyahu† Moshe Muki Betser Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse† Idi Amin Strength Approximately 100 Commandos, plus air crew and support personnel Unknown Casualties and losses Yonatan Netanyahu killed 5 commandos wounded 7 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Belligerents Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties and losses 1282 250 IDF, 1000 SLA During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Operation Wooden Leg was the October 1, 1985 Israeli Air Force raid on the Palestinian Liberation Organizations headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... In July 1993, Israeli Forces launched a massive attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability in Israel and Seven-Day War in Lebanon, in an attempt to displace the Lebanese and Palestinian refugee population, in order to pressure the Lebanese government and population to withdraw support for Hezbollah[1]. Israeli artillery... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Combatants Israel, South Lebanon Army Hezbollah Casualties 3 killed. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim) Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian security forces Commanders Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander) Strength Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces. ... Combatants Israeli Air Force Syria Palestinian militants (Israeli claim) Strength Several F-16s Unknown Casualties 1 injured The Ain es Saheb airstrike occured on October 5, 2003 and was the first Israeli military operation in Syria since the 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... Operation Rainbow (In Hebrew, מבצע קשת בענן) is a controversial military operation which began on May 18, 2004 in the Gaza Strip. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hamas Casualties 5 killed (3 Of them civilians) 104 - 133 killed (42 of them civilians) Operation Days of Penitence (In Hebrew, מבצע ימי תשובה) was the name used by Israel to describe an Israel Defense Forces operation in the northern Gaza Strip, conducted between September 30, 2004 and October... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Belligerents Israeli Air Force Syria Strength F-15I fighters F-16 fighters 1 ELINT aircraft Total: As many as 8 aircraft Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery of the Syrian Air Defence Forces Casualties and losses None Reported. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Damascus Protocol was a document defining the independent Arab territories in the Middle East after the conspired Arab Revolt had taken place. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Arthur James Balfour. ... The Declaration to the Seven was a document written by Sir Mark Sykes and released by the British Government on 16 June 1918 in response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables in Cairo who were members of the newly-formed Party of Syrian Unity, which had been... ANGLO-FRENCH DECLARATION November 7, 1918 The goal envisaged by France and Great Britain in prosecuting in the East the War let loose by German ambition is the complete and final liberation of the peoples who have for so long been oppressed by the Turks, and the setting up of... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920, San Remo, Italy) of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class A League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... London Conference, St. ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: الميثاق الوطني الفلسطيني; transliterated: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 339 (S/RES/339) was adopted on 23 October 1973 in order to bring a cease fire in the Yom Kippur War where Resolution 338 two days before had failed after Israeli forces broke the terms of the cease fire and made substantial military gains. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 350, adopted on 31 May 1974, established the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, to monitor the ceasefire between Israel and Syria in the wake of the Yom Kippur War. ... On March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted, calling on Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon and establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 446 concerned the issue of Israeli settlements in the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem. This refers to the Palestinian territories of the West Bank including East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 452 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. This resolution, not taken under chapter VI or VII of the charter (the binding chapters), advised member... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to rescind its annexation of the Golan Heights. ... The 1983 May 17 Agreement was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 is a counter-terrorism measure adopted September 28, 2001 following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States. ... Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 was a resolution adopted by the United Nations Security Council on September 2, 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 is an anti-terrorism resolution adopted on 8 October 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1583 calls on Lebanon to assert full control over its border with Israel (See: Hezbollah). ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Summit of 2005 took place on February 8, (2005), when four Middle Eastern leaders gathered at Sharm el-Sheikh, a town at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in order to declare their wish to work towards the end of the four-year Al-Aqsa... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... The Prisoners document is a document drawn up by Palestinian prisoners who are currently being held in Israeli jails. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... The Annapolis Conference is being held on November 27, 2007 at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. ...

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Lebanese Civil War - Search Results - MSN Encarta (291 words)
Lebanese Civil War, conflict from April 1975 to October 1990 pitting the many ethnic and religious groups of Lebanon against one another.
The Lebanese Civil War began on April 13, 1975, with a strike and counterstrike: Gunmen attacked Christian Phalangists (members of the Kataib...
The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanon 's...
Lebanese Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7096 words)
The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises of Lebanon's colonial period and was exacerbated by the nation's changing demographic trends, Christian and Muslim inter-religious strife, and the involvement of Syria, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
The agreement stated that "the state of war between Israel and Lebanon has been terminated and no longer exists." Thus, the agreement in effect amounted to a peace agreement with Israel, and was additionally seen by many Lebanese Muslims as an attempt for Israel to gain a permanent hold on the Lebanese South[8].
Heavy fighting took place in the War of the Camps of 1985-86 as a Syrian-backed coalition headed by the Amal militia sought to rout the PLO from their Lebanese strongholds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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