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Encyclopedia > Leather
Modern leather-working tools
Modern leather-working tools

Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses. Download high resolution version (640x914, 167 KB)Modern leather-making tools http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x914, 167 KB)Modern leather-making tools http://www. ... This article is about making hides into leather. ... Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning and thus is much lighter in color than treated animal hides. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Putrefaction is the decomposition of animal proteins, especially by anaerobic microorganisms. ...


Leather is an important material with many uses. Together with wood, leather formed the basis of much ancient technology. The leather industry and the fur industry are distinct industries that are differentiated by the importance of their raw materials. In the leather industry the raw materials are by-products of the meat industry, with the meat having higher value than the skin. The fur industry uses raw materials that are higher in value than the meat and hence the meat is classified as a by-product. Taxidermy also makes use of the skin of animals, but generally the head and part of the back are used. Hides and skins are also used in the manufacture of glue and gelatin. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... A mounted snow leopard. ... An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ...

Contents

Forms of leather

There are a number of processes whereby the skin of an animal can be formed into a supple, strong material commonly called leather.

  • Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannin (hence the name "tanning") and other ingredients found in vegetable matter, tree bark, and other such sources. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry it will shrink and become less supple and harder. In hot water, it will shrink drastically and partly gelatinize, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding. This is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping.
  • Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and other salts of chromium. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather, and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More esoteric colors are possible using chrome tanning.
  • Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of leather used in chrome-free leather often seen in infant's shoes and in automobiles made with chrome-free leather. Formaldehyde tanning (being phased out due to its danger to workers and the sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde) is another method of aldehyde tanning. Brain-tanned leathers fall into this category and are exceptionally water absorbent. Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process which uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains. They are known for their exceptional softness and their ability to be washed. Chamois leather also falls into the category of aldehyde tanning and like brain tanning produces a highly water absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made by using oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidise easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather.
  • Synthetic-tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers such as the Novolac or Neradol types. This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply, i.e. during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category as well and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require. Urea-formaldehyde resins were also used in this tanning method until dissatisfaction about the formation of free formaldehyde was realised.
  • Alum-tanned leather is tanned using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour, egg yolk, etc. Purists argue that alum-tanned leather is technically "tawed" and not tanned, as the resulting material will rot in water. Very light shades of leather are possible using this process, but the resulting material is not as supple as vegetable-tanned leather.
  • Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically "leather", but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather, and is primarily found in uses such as drum heads where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching, or for making many varieties of dog chews.

Leather—usually vegetable-tanned leather—can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil or a similar material, keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. A bottle of tannic acid. ... Boiled leather, sometimes called cuir bouilli, was historically a popular construction material for armour. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of separate sheets of paper or other material. ... Chromium sulfate is commonly used as a leather preservative. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... Glutaraldehyde is a colourless liquid with a pungent odor used to sterilize medical and dental equipment. ... Oxazolidines consist of one or more five-membered heterocyclic rings containing oxygen and nitrogen. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Example of a possible structure in a PF resin. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... This article is about common table salt. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning and thus is much lighter in color than treated animal hides. ... A drumhead is a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum. ... Mink oil is made from the thick fatty layer minks have just under their skins. ... Neatsfoot oil is a yellow oil rendered and purified from the feet and shin bones (not the hooves) of cattle. ...


Leather with the hair still attached is called hair-on.


Leather types

In general, leather is sold in three forms:

  • Full-Grain leather or Top-Grain is referring to the upper section of a hide that contains the epidermis or skin layer. It refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed or snuffed(otherwise known as Corrected) in order to remove imperfections on the surface of the hide. Only the hair has been removed from the epidermis. The grain remains in its natural state which will allow the best fiber strength, resulting in greater durability. The natural grain also has natural breathability, resulting in greater comfort for clothing. The natural Full-Grain surface will wear better than other leather. Rather than wearing out, it will develop a natural "Patina" and grow more beautiful over time. The finest leather furniture and footwear are made from Full-Grain leather. For these reasons only the best raw hide are used in order to create Full-Grain or Top-Grain leather. Full grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: aniline and semi-aniline.
  • Corrected-Grain leather is any Top-Grain leather that has had its surfaces sanded, buffed or snuffed in order to remove any imperfection on the surface due to insect bites, healed scars or brands. Top-Grain leather is often wrongly referred to as Corrected-Grain. Although Corrected-Grain leather is made from Top-Grain as soon as the surface is corrected in any way the leather is no longer referred to asTop-Grain leather. The hides used to create corrected leather are hides of inferior quality that do not meet the high standards for use in creating aniline or semi-aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected and an artificial grain applied. Most Correct leather is used to make Pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.
  • Split leather is leather that is created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the Top-Grain of the raw hide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation the grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain. Splits can are also used to create Suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is "fuzzy" on both sides. Suede is less durable than top-grain. Suede is cheaper because many pieces of suede can be split from a single thickness of hide, whereas only one piece of top-grain can be made. However, manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede appear to be full-grain. For example, in one operation, glue is mixed with one side of the suede, which is then pressed through rollers; these flatten and even out one side of the material, giving it the smooth appearance of full-grain. Latigo is one of the trade names for this product. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not a true form of suede.

The International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemist Societies has a full glossary of leather terms that can be found at IULTCS Aniline leather is a type of in which high quality hides have been treated with aniline as a dye. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ...


Other less-common leathers include:

  • Buckskin or brained leather is a tanning process that uses animal brains or other fatty materials to alter the leather. The resulting supple, suede-like hide is usually smoked heavily to prevent it from rotting.
  • Patent leather is leather that has been given a high gloss finish. The original process was developed in Newark, New Jersey, by inventor Seth Boyden in 1818. Patent leather usually has a plastic coating.
  • Shagreen is also known as Stingray skin/leather. Applications used in furniture production date as far back as the art deco period. The word "Shagreen" originates from France and is commonly confused with a shark skin and stingray skin combination.
  • Vachetta leather is used in the trimmings of luggage and handbags, popularized by Louis Vuitton. The leather is left untreated and is therefore susceptible to water and stains. Sunlight will cause the natural leather to darken in shade, called a patina.
  • Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft, and is valued for use in making gloves.
  • Deer Skin is one of the toughest leathers, partially due to adaptations to their thorny and thicket filled habitats. Deerskin has been prized in many societies including indigenous Americans. Most modern deer skin is no longer procured from the wild, with "deer farms" breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Large quantities are still tanned from wild deer hides in historic tanning towns such as Gloversville and Johnstown, NY. Deer skin is used in jackets and overcoats, professional sporting equipment such as kendo bogu, as well as high quality personal accessories like handbags and wallets. It commands a high price due to its relative rarity and proven durability.
  • Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.

There are two other descriptions of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage. Buckskin is the soft, pliable, porous preserved hide of an animal, usually deer, moose or elk, but potentially any animals hide. ... Patent leather is leather that has been given a high gloss, shiny finish. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Shagreen is a type of roughened untanned leather, formerly made from a horses back, or that of an onager (wild ass), and typically dyed green. ... Asheville City Hall. ... The Luggage. ... Purses, such as this one by Burberry, are fashion accessories with a function. ... Louis vuitton was a great man he was born on fh 12 3845. ... The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kendo Bogu The Bogu ), special protective armor in the kendo and naginata martial arts, consists of: men: helmet do: trunk protector kote: hand and forearm protector tare: hip protector sune-ate: shin protectors worn only by naginata practitioners The men protects the neck and face. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

  • Belting leather is a full grain leather that was originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is often found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is the only kind of leather used in luxury products that can retain its shape without the need for a separate frame; it is generally a heavy-weight of full-grain, vegetable-tanned leather.
  • Nappa leather, or Napa leather, is extremely soft and supple and is commonly found in higher quality wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods.

The following are not 'true' leathers, but contain leather material. Nappa leather is a full-grain leather, typically dyed, made from unsplit kid-, lamb- or sheep-skin, and noted for softness and durability. ...

  • Bonded Leather , or "Reconstituted Leather", is not really a true leather but a man-made material composed of 90% to 100% leather fibers (often scrap from leather tanneries or leather workshops) bonded together with latex binders to create a look and feel similar to that of genuine leather at a fraction of the cost. Bonded leather is not as durable as other leathers, and is recommended for use only if the product will be used infrequently. One example of bonded leather use is in Bible covers.
  • Bicast leather is a man-made product that consists of a thick layer of polyurethane applied to a substrate of low-grade or reconstituted leather. Most of the strength of bicast leather comes from the polyurethane coating. Bicast was originally made for the shoe industry and recently was adopted by the furniture industry. The original formula created by Bayer was fairly strong, but creating Bicast from the original recipe is expense. Most of the Bicast used today is created using inferior generic chemicals resulting in an inferior material. The result is a much stiffer product that tends to delaminate resulting in bubbles and cracking.

The vast majority of leather is sold according to its area. The leather is placed through pin-wheel or electronic measuring machines and its surface area is determined. The unit of measurement is square metre, square decimetre or square foot. The thickness is also important, and this is measured using a thickness gauge (the unit of measurement is millimetres, e.g., 1.8 mm is a standard thickness for a school shoe). Bonded Leather , or Reconstituted Leather is not really a true leather but a man-made material composed of 90% to 100% leather fibers (often scrap from leather tanneries or leather workshops). ... Bicast leather (also known as bycast leather or PU leather) is a synthetic upholstery product consisting of a thick polyurethane layer applied to a leather or reconstituted leather substrate. ...


In some parts of the world top-grain thicknesses are described using weight units of ounces. Although the statement is in ounces only, it is an abbreviation of ounces per square foot. The thickness value can be obtained by the conversion:

  • 1 oz/ft² = 1/64 inch (0.4 mm)

Hence, leather described as 7 to 8 oz is 7/64 to 8/64 inches (2.8 to 3.2 mm) thick. The weight is usually given as a range because the inherent variability of the material makes ensuring a precise thickness very difficult. Other leather manufacturers state the thickness directly in millimetres.


Leather from other animals

Tanned leather in Marrakech
Tanned leather in Marrakech
Ostrich leather

Today, most leather is made of cattle skin, but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deer skin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparels. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 671 KB) Summary Freshly tanned leather in Marrakech Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Leather Tanning Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 671 KB) Summary Freshly tanned leather in Marrakech Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Leather Tanning Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Image File history File links Fan. ... Image File history File links Fan. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


Kangaroo skin is used to make items which need to be strong but flexible, it is the material most commonly used in high quality bullwhips. Kangaroo leather is favored by some motorcyclists for use in Motorcycle Leathers specifically because of its lighter weight and higher abrasion resistance compared with cowhide, thus providing greater protecting in case of a fall on the roadway. Kangaroo leather is also used for high performance football footwear. Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning large foot). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, the Red Kangaroo, the Antilopine Kangaroo, and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo... A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip, usually made of braided leather, which was originally used as a farmers tool for working with livestock. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... A motorcyclist wearing full safety clothing of helmet, gloves, boots and leathers To improve motorcycle safety many developed countries mandate the wearing of protective clothing by motorcyclists, especially a helmet. ...


Leather made from more exotic skins has at different times in history been considered very beautiful. For this reason certain snakes and crocodiles have been hunted to near extinction. For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ...


In the 1970s, ostrich farming for their feathers became popular, and ostrich leather became available as a side product. There are different processes to produce different finishes for many applications, i.e., upholstery, footwear, automotive products, accessories and clothing. Ostrich leather is considered one of the finest and most durable in the world and is currently used by many major fashion houses such as Hermès, Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton. Ostrich leather has a characteristic "goose bump" look because of the large follicles from which the feathers grew. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Hermès (French pronunciation [1], typical American English , typical British English ) is a leather goods, fashion, and perfume company based in Paris. ... Prada, S.p. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Guccio Gucci and Gucci, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Louis vuitton was a great man he was born on fh 12 3845. ...


In Thailand, sting ray leather is used in wallets and belts in the same way as regular bovine leather. Sting ray leather is as tough and durable as hard plastic. The leather is often dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps in the natural pattern of the back ridge of an animal. These bumps are then usually dyed white to highlight the decoration. Leather clothing is also popular in Thailand. This article is about the fish. ...


In the United States, bison leather has become popular. It is used for gloves, jackets and some baseball gloves. It is rugged but supple and has a waxy feel. Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ...


Overall, leather comes from a variety of other sources, including the skins of cattle, hogs, goats, sheep, alligators, ostriches, kangaroos, Yak.


There is quite a wide range of different animal leather used both for Leather garments as well as Leather Goods such as Ladies Handbags, Gents wallets, Ladies Purses, Leather Belts, File bags and other customized leather articles.


The most commonly used leather types are Cow leather, Sheep leather, Buffalo Leather and Ox leather. The most expensive is Cow leather and then Buffalo leather, Ox leather and Sheep leather respectively. The Sheep leather is quite famous for its softness and mostly used in leather garments; however due to certain restrictions of its overall size; it cannot be used for long coats and there Cow leather and Buffalo leather is widely used.


Leather production processes

The leather manufacturing process is divided into 3 fundamental sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating can be added into the leather process sequence but not all leathers receive surface treatment. It's difficult to have a list of operations that all leathers must undergo, as there are so many types of leather.


The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. Preparatory stages may include: preservation, soaking, liming, unhairing, fleshing, splitting, reliming, deliming, bating, degreasing, frizing, bleaching, pickling and depickling. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In math, splitting means partition. ... Tanning is the process of converting putrescible skin into non-putrescible leather, usually with tannin, an acidic chemical compound that prevents decomposition and often imparts color. ... // For the here described activities you will often find the following terms: metal cleaning, metal surface cleaning, component cleaning, degreasing. ... In chemistry, to bleach something generally means to whiten it or oxidize it. ... For other uses, see Pickle. ...


Tanning is the process converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard inflexible material that when re-wetted (or wetted back) putrefy, whilst tanned material dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back. There is a large number of different tanning methods and materials that can be used, the choice is ultimately dependent on the end application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material is chromium, which leaves the leather once tanned a pale blue colour (due to the chromium), this product is commonly called “wet blue”. The hides once they have finished pickling will typically be between pH of 2.8-3.2. At this point the hides would be loaded in a drum and immersed in a float containing the tanning liquor. The hides are allowed to soak (while the drum slowly rotates about its axle) and the tanning liquor slowly penetrates through the full substance of the hide. Regular checks will be made to see the penetration by cutting the cross section of a hide and observing the degree of penetration. Once a good even degree of penetration exists, the pH of the float is slowly raised in a process called basification. This basification process fixes the tanning material to the leather and the more tanning material fixed the higher the hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The pH of the leather when chrome tanned would typically finish somewhere between 3.8-4.2. This article is about making hides into leather. ...


Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricated. Often a coloring operation is included in the crusting sub-process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting sub-process is the drying and softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations: wetting back, sammying, splitting, shaving, rechroming neutralisation, retanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, filling, stuffing, stripping, whitening, fixation, setting, drying, conditioning, milling, staking and buffing. In math, splitting means partition. ... This article is about the use of a razor. ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react and produce salt and water. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... In the treatment of dental cavities, after drilling out the cavities, dental fillings are inserted. ... In cooking, stuffing is usually a mixture of various ingredients used to fill a cavity in another food item. ... 1. ... This article is about white noise as a scientific concept, see also: White Noise (novel), a 1985 novel by Don DeLillo. ... Look up Fixation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In drama, the set (or setting) is the location of a storys action. ... Drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. ... Conditioning is a psychological term for what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditional behavior. ... Milling may refer to: Grinding grain and other materials in a mill Cutting and shaping materials into products with milling machines Miller Category: ... Metal polishing, also termed Buffing, is the process of smoothing metals and alloys and polishing to a bright, smooth mirror-like finish. ...


For some leathers a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing operations may include: oiling, brushing, padding, impregnation, buffing, spraying, roller coating, curtain coating, polishing, plating, embossing, ironing, ironing/combing(for hair-on)and glazing. Oiling is a process whereby leather is hand coated (usually by brush or tampon) with either a raw (un-emulsified) oil or a combination of raw oil, blended with emulsified oils and a penetrating aid. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about padding in fashion. ... Categories: Biological reproduction | Biology stubs ... Metal polishing, also termed Buffing, is the process of smoothing metals and alloys and polishing to a bright, smooth mirror-like finish. ... Spraying may refer to: The creation of a spray The use of a sprayer The action of a male cat in marking its territory with urine Category: ... Plating is the general name surface-covering techniques in which a metal is deposited onto a conductive surface. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An iron Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from washed clothes. ... Glazing, in architecture, is a transparent part of a wall, usually made of glass or plastic (acrylic and polycarbonate). ...


Role of enzymes in leather production

Enzymes like proteases, lipases and amylases have an important role in the soaking, dehairing, degreasing, and bating operations of leather manufacturing.


Proteases are the most commonly used enzymes in leather production. The enzyme used should not damage or dissolve collagen or keratin, but should be able to hydrolyse casein, elastin, albumin and globulin-like proteins, as well as non-structured proteins which are not essential for leather making. It is especially important to hydrolyse the elastin if the leather is to be limed, or treated with calcium hydroxide; if not treated properly before liming, the elastin will harden and the grain will be loose. Vasudeo Zambare and his team have done ample of work on dehairing protease. Vasudeo Zambare is one of the inventor of this work and the team has filled patent application in Indian, German and United States Patent Offices. It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ...


Lipases are used in the degreasing operation to hydrolyse fat particles embedded in the skin.


Amylases are used to soften skin, to bring out the grain, and to impart strength and flexibility to the skin. This process is called bating.


Preservation and conditioning of leather

The natural fibers of leather will break down with the passage of time. Acidic leathers are particularly vulnerable to red rot, which causes powdering of the surface and a change in consistency. Damage from red rot is aggravated by high temperatures and relative humidities, and is irreversible. Red rot (also redrot) is a degradation process found in vegetable-tanned leather. ...


Exposure to long periods of low relative humidities (below 40%) can cause leather to become desiccated, irreversibly changing the fibrous structure of the leather.


Various treatments are available such as conditioners, but these are not recommended by conservators since they impregnate the structure of the leather artifact with active chemicals, are sticky, and attract stains. A conditioner is something which improves the quality of another material. ... Conservation is the profession devoted to the preservation of cultural property for the future. ...


Working with leather

Main article: Leather crafting

Leather can be decorated by a variety of methods, including pyrography and beading. Leather crafting is the practice of making leather into works of art, using shaping techniques, coloring techniques or both. ... Pyrography is the art of decorating wood or other materials with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker. ... Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another or to cloth using a needle and thread. ...


Cordwain

Cordwain, once a synonym to Cordovan (through Old French cordewan) meaning "from Córdoba". Painted or gilded embossed leather decoration for walls, a 12th century north African style, was introduced to Spain (hence it is sometimes referred to as 'Spanish leather'). Around the turn of the 15th-16th century the technique reached Flanders and Brabant in the Low Countries. Though there were craftsmen in several cities (such as Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent), the major handicraft center for this cordwain was Mechelen, where it was mentioned as early as 1504. Since the second half of the 18th century, this luxurious artisan product is no longer made.[1] Cordwainer is still used to describe someone in the profession of shoemaking. Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... Embossing is the process of creating a three-dimensional image or design in paper. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders (or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules). ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... A handicraft shop in Delhi-India, other opction is Apus-Inka. ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Shoemaking is a traditional handicraft profession, which has now been largely superseded by industrial manufacture of footwear. ...


Leather in modern culture

Leather, due to its excellent abrasion and wind resistance, found a use in rugged occupations. The enduring image of a cowboy in leather chaps gave way to the leather-jacketed and leather-helmeted aviator. When motorcycles were invented, some riders took to wearing heavy leather jackets to protect from road rash and wind blast; some also wear chaps or full leather pants to protect the lower body. Many sports still use leather to help in playing the game or protecting players: due to its flexible nature it can be formed and flexed for the occasion. For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ...


As leather can also be a metonymical term for objects made from it, the term leathering is as logical as tanning in the sense of a physical punishment (such as a severe spanking) applied with a leather whip, martinet etcetera. In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek meta = after/later and onoma = name) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Corporal punishment. ... [1] This article is about the use of spanking as discipline. ... For other uses, see Whip (disambiguation). ... A martinet is either a punitive device or a stickler for rules, apparently unrelated. ...


Leather fetishism is the name popularly used to describe a fetishistic attraction to people wearing leather, or in certain cases, to the garments themselves. The word leather itself became synonymous with sado-masochism in the 1980s after achieving that status in homosexual jargon in the 1970s. Leather fetishism is the name popularly used to describe a fetishistic attraction to people wearing leather, or in certain cases, to the garments themselves. ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Gay slang or LGBT slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ...


A number of rock groups, particularly heavy metal groups such as Judas Priest and Scorpions, are well-known for wearing leather clothing. Leather clothing, particularly jackets, almost come as standard in the heavy metal subculture. Extreme metal bands, especially black metal bands, have extensive leather clothing, i.e. leather trousers, accessories etc. Rock band (or rock group) is a generic name to describe a group of musicians specializing in a particular form of electronically amplified music. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... For other uses, see Judas priest (curse). ... For other bands named The Scorpions or other meanings of scorpion, see scorpion. ... Extreme metal is an umbrella term, somewhat loosely defined, for a variety of heavy metal subgenres developed since the 1980s. ... This article is about the musical genre. ...


In today's times, many cars and trucks come optional or standard with 'leather' seating. This can range from cheap vinyl material, found on some low cost vehicles, to Nappa leather, found on luxury car brands like Mercedes-Benz and Audi. This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ...


Leather biodegrades slowly, e.g. a pair of leather shoes takes 25-40 years to decompose. Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic material by microorganisms. ...


Religious sensitivities to leather

In countries with harmonious multi-religious environments, leather vendors are typically careful to clarify the kinds of leather used in their products. For example, leather shoes will bear a label identifying the animal from which the leather was taken. In this way, a follower of Islam would not accidentally purchase pigskin leather, and a Hindu would avoid cow leather. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A pig is a swine, a common farm animal. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ...


Such taboos increase the demand for religiously neutral leathers like ostrich and deer.


Judaism forbids wearing leather-soled shoes during Yom Kippur and during mourning. Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ...


In muslim countries the products made in Leather were normally banned as due to the religious concerns imposed by some islamic scholars but in the mid of 20th century some eminent scholars from Muslim world have made significant efforts to bring awareness about this issue amongst the people which ultimately starts the trend of using leather products especially leather jackets, wallets, handbags and lot of other customized leather articles.


Concern for animals and alternatives

Some vegan and animal rights activists have boycotted use of all leather items, believing the practice of wearing animal hides is unnecessary and vulgar in today's society. Animal rights groups such as PETA have issued fact sheets calling for boycotts and encouraging use of alternative materials such as synthetic leathers produced from petro-chemicals. Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... Under the name of artificial leather, (not to be confused with pleather) or of American leather cloth, large quantities of a material having, more or less, a leather-like surface were once used, principally for upholstery purposes, such as the covering of chairs, lining the tops of writing desks and...


Many pseudo-leather materials have been developed, allowing those who wish to wear leather-like garments to do so without actually wearing leather. One example of this is vegan microfiber, which claims to be stronger than leather when manufactured with strength in mind. Vinyl materials, Pleather, Durabuck, NuSuede, Hydrolite, and other alternatives exist, providing some features similar to leather. Drawbacks include the fact that the product is inorganic and not biodegradable along with concerns related to pollution in the production process. Pleather (plastic leather) is a slang term for synthetic leather made out of plastic. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ...


See also

Types of leather

Leather fabrication Aniline leather is a type of in which high quality hides have been treated with aniline as a dye. ... Under the name of artificial leather, (not to be confused with pleather) or of American leather cloth, large quantities of a material having, more or less, a leather-like surface were once used, principally for upholstery purposes, such as the covering of chairs, lining the tops of writing desks and... Bicast leather (also known as bycast leather or PU leather) is a synthetic upholstery product consisting of a thick polyurethane layer applied to a leather or reconstituted leather substrate. ... Boiled leather, sometimes called cuir bouilli, was historically a popular construction material for armour. ... Bonded Leather , or Reconstituted Leather is not really a true leather but a man-made material composed of 90% to 100% leather fibers (often scrap from leather tanneries or leather workshops). ... Chamois leather is leather made from the skin of the chamois, although the term is also commonly used to refer to cloths made from the skin of other animals or a synthetic material version. ... Corinthian leather was a phrase invented for marketing use to describe the leather used in certain Chrysler luxury cars in the 1970s. ... Nappa leather is a full-grain leather, typically dyed, made from unsplit kid-, lamb- or sheep-skin, and noted for softness and durability. ... Patent leather is leather that has been given a high gloss, shiny finish. ... Pleather (plastic leather) is a slang term for synthetic leather made out of plastic. ... Sometimes referred to as poromerics, poromeric imitation leathers are a group of synthetic breathable leather substitutes made from a plastic coating (usually a polyurethane) on a fiberous base layer (typically polyester). ... Vegetarian Chelsea boots Vegan Leather is a artificial alternative to traditional leather, this material may be chosen for ethical reasons or because as a designed material it may have properties designed into it that out-performs a natural material. ...

  • Leather carving, a process of cutting and stamping to give a three-dimensional appearance
  • Leather crafting, the practice of making leather into crafts or pieces of art
  • Liming (leather processing), a process of treating leather
  • British Museum leather dressing, a conservator's treatment for display items
  • Tanning

Other Leather Carving Carving leather really entails using metal implements to compress moistened leather in such a way as to give a three dimensional appearance to a two dimensional surface. ... Leather crafting is the practice of making leather into works of art, using shaping techniques, coloring techniques or both. ... This article is about making hides into leather. ...

The Leather Pride flag, which has become a symbol of the BDSM and fetish subculture. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... Henry Burk (born September 26, 1850-December 5, 1903) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... A leather skirt is a skirt made of leather. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Leather

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References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Leather Supplier - Leather Reseller - Buckskin Leather Company (342 words)
Leather crafters and leather businesses not able to visit our leather warehouse in person may now resort to ordering their leather supplies through this website.
We encourage all leather users to read through the entire website and inform yourself as to leather terminology under each section, and in particular the “References” page.
As every genuine leather hide is unique in characteristic, size, and grain imperfections, the only method to ensure a match to your requirements is contact in person to discuss your leather supply needs.
Leather - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1514 words)
Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides, pelts and skins of animals, primarily cows.
As leather can also be a metonymical term for things made from it, the term leathering is as logical as tanning in the sense of a physical punishment (such as a severe spanking) applied with a leather whip.
Leather fetishism is the name popularly used to describe a fetishistic attraction to people wearing leather, or in certain cases, to the garments themselves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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22nd July 2010

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