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Encyclopedia > Leaning Tower of Pisa
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Torre pendente di Pisa

Shown within Italy
Building information
Location Campo dei Miracoli, Pisa
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Coordinates 43°43′23″N 10°23′47″E / 43.7231, 10.3964Coordinates: 43°43′23″N 10°23′47″E / 43.7231, 10.3964
Construction start date August 9, 1173 (1173-08-09) (age 834)
Completion date 1347
Style Romanesque
Size 55.9 m (183 ft)

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply The Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. It is situated behind the Cathedral and it is the third structure in Pisa's Campo dei Miracoli (field of Miracles). Download high resolution version (750x1000, 128 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Pisa Leaning Tower of Pisa Image:Leaning-tower-of-pisa-small. ... Image File history File links Italy_Regions_220px_(including_Pelagie_Islands). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canonization of Saint Thomas à Becket, buried at Canterbury Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A campanile (pronounced []) is, especially in Italy, a free-standing bell tower (Italian campana, bell), often adjacent to a church or cathedral. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ...


Although intended to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose substrate that has allowed the foundation to shift direction. Canonization of Saint Thomas à Becket, buried at Canterbury Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...


The height of the tower is 52.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the lowest side and 66.70 m (186.02 ft) on the highest side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 tonnes. The tower has 1,294 steps. The tower leans at an angle of 5.5 degrees[1]. This means that the top of the tower is 4.5 meters from where it would stand if the tower was perfectly vertical. [2] A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ...

Contents

Construction

The Tower of Pisa was a work of art, performed in three stages over a period of about 177 years. Construction of the first floor of the white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, a period of military success and prosperity. This first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical capitals, leaning against blind arches. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canonization of Saint Thomas à Becket, buried at Canterbury Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ...


There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano [3], a well-known 12th-Century resident artist of Pisa, famous for his bronze casting, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. His sarcophagus was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820. For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy (, ), recognized as one of the main centers for Mediaeval art in the world. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s - 1100s - 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s Years: 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 Events and Trends 1107 Emperor Toba ascends the throne of Japan The great Buddhist centre of learning at Nalanda is... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Detail of a stone sarcophagus in the Istanbul Archeological Museum showing a hunting scene Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cádiz A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ...


The tower began to sink after construction progressed to the third floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-meter foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil. This means the design was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Pisans were almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled. In 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the unfinished construction. Óģ Ķ ķ Ļ ļ Ņ ņ Ŗ ŗ Ş ş Ţ ţ Ć ć Ĺ ĺ Ń ń Ŕ ŕ Ś ś Ý ý Ź ź Đ đ Ů ů Č č Ď ď Ľ ľ Ň ň Ř ř Š š Ť ť Ž ž Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔ Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū ǖ ǘ ǚ ǜ Ĉ ĉ Ĝ ĝ Ĥ ĥ Ĵ ĵ Ŝ ŝ Ŵ ŵ Ŷ ŷ Ă ă Ğ ğ Ŭ ŭ Ċ ċ Ė ė Ġ ġ İ ı Ż ż Ą ą Ę ę Į į Ų ų Ł ł Ő ő Ű ű Ŀ ŀ Ħ ħ Ð ð Þ þ Œ œ Æ æ Ø ø Å å Ə ə – — … [] [[]] {{}} ~ | ° § → ≈ ± − × ¹ ² ³ ‘ “ ’ ” £ € Α α Β β Γ γ Δ δ Ε ε Ζ ζ Η η Θ θ Ι ι Κ κ Λ λ Μ μ Ν ν Ξ ξ Ο ο Π π Ρ ρ Σ σ ς Τ τ Υ υ Φ φ Χ χ Ψ ψ Ω ω ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... Pisas coat of arms This article is about Pisa in Italy. ... Generally, a battle is an instance of combat in warfare between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...


In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built higher floors with one side taller than the other. This made the tower begin to lean in the other direction. Because of this, the tower is actually curved.[4] Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova (jeno-vah), Genoese Zena (zaynah), French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of Liguria. ... Combatants Genoa Pisa Commanders Oberto Doria Benedetto Zaccaria Alberto Morosini Ugolino della Gherardesca Andreotto Saraceno Strength 78 galleys and 8 panfili Unknown Casualties The Battle of Meloria was fought on Sunday August 6, 1284 near the Meloria islet, in the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


The bell-chamber was not finally added until 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical scale. The largest one was installed in 1655. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Romanesque St. ...


After a phase (1990-2001) of structural strengthening, the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visual damage, mostly corrosion and blackening. These are particularly strong due to the tower's age and to its particular conditions with respect to wind and rain.[5] Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


History

Galileo Galilei is said to have dropped two cannon balls of different masses from the tower to demonstrate that their descending speed was independent of their mass. This is considered an apocryphal tale, and the only source for it comes from Galileo's secretary. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Benito Mussolini ordered that the tower be returned to a vertical position, so concrete was poured into its foundation. However, the result was that the tower actually sank further into the soil.[6] “Mussolini” redirects here. ... This article is about the construction material. ... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ...


During World War II, the Allies discovered that the Nazis were using it as an observation post. A humble U.S. Army sergeant was briefly entrusted with the fate of the tower. His decision not to call in an artillery strike saved the edifice.[6] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


On February 27, 1964, the government of Italy requested aid in preventing the tower from toppling. It was, however, considered important to retain the current tilt, due to the vital role that this element played in promoting the tourism industry of Pisa.[7] A multinational task force of engineers, mathematicians and historians was assigned and met on the Azores islands to discuss stabilization methods. After over two decades of work on the subject, the tower was closed to the public in January 1990. While the tower was closed, the bells were removed to relieve some weight, and cables were cinched around the third level and anchored several hundred meters away. Apartments and houses in the path of the tower were vacated for safety. After a decade of corrective reconstruction and stabilization efforts, the tower was reopened to the public on December 15, 2001. It was found that the lean was increasing due to the stonework expanding and contracting each day due to the heat of sunlight. This was working in combination with the softer foundations on the lower side. Many methods were proposed to stabilize the tower, including the addition of 800 metric tons of lead counterweights to the raised end of the base.[8] The final solution to prevent the collapse of the tower was to slightly straighten the tower to a safer angle, by removing 38 m3 of soil from underneath the raised end. Through this, the tower was straightened by 18 inches (45 centimeters), returning to the exact position that it was in 1838. The tower has been declared stable for at least another 300 years.[8] is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1987, the tower was declared as part of the Campo dei Miracoli UNESCO World Heritage Site along with neighbouring cathedral, baptistery and cemetery. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Latin baptisterium) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. ...


Technical information

View looking up
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  • Elevation of Piazza dei Miracoli: about 2 metres (6 feet, DMS)
  • Height: 55.863 metres (183 ft 3 in), 8 stories
  • Outer diameter of base: 15.484 m
  • Inner diameter of base: 7.368 m
  • Angle of slant: 5.5 degrees[9] or 4.5 m from the vertical[10]
  • Weight: 14,700 tonnes
  • Thickness of walls at the base: 8 ft (2.4 m)
  • Total number of bells: 7, tuned to musical scale, clockwise
    • 1st bell: L'assunta, cast in 1654 by Giovanni Pietro Orlandi, weight 3,620 kg (7,981 lb)
    • 2nd bell: il Crocifisso, cast in 1572 by Vincenzo Possenti, weight 2,462 kg (5,428 lb)
    • 3rd bell: San Ranieri, cast in 1719-1721 by Giovanni Andrea Moreni, weight 1,448 kg (3,192 lb)
    • 4th bell: La Terza (1st small one), cast in 1473, weight 300 kg (661 lb)
    • 5th bell: La Pasquereccia, cast in 1262 by Lotteringo, weight 1,014 kg (2,235 lb)
    • 6th bell: il Vespruccio (2nd small one), cast in the 14th century and again in 1501 by Nicola di Jacopo, weight 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)
    • 7th bell: Del Pozzetto, cast in 1606, weight 652 kg (1,437 lb)
  • Steps to bell tower: 294[11]

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... In music, a scale is a collection of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become the lord of Iceland swear fealty to the king of Norway, bringing an end to the Icelandic Commonwealth Births Ladislaus IV of Hungary Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona... 1308 - Avignon Papacy established, which splits and weakens the Roman Catholic Church Turku, the oldest city in Finland experiences rapid growth around the recently consecrated Cathedral of Turku Category: ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near...

Notes

  1. ^ Recently two German churches have challenged the tower's status as the world's most lop-sided building: the 13th century square tower at Suurhusen [1] and the nearby 14th century bell tower in the town of Bad Frankenhausen (Sunday Telegraph no 2,406- 22nd July 2007)
  2. ^ Davies, Andrew (2005). The Children's Visual World Atlas. Sydney, Australia: The Fog Press. ISBN 1-740893-17-4. 
  3. ^ Controversy about the identity of the architect
  4. ^ McLain, Bill [1999]. Do Fish Drink Water?. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc, 291-292. ISBN 0-688-16512-5. 
  5. ^ Restoration work is mentioned inside the official website of the square [2]
  6. ^ a b Shrady, Nicholas. (2003). Tilt: a skewed history of the Tower of Pisa. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  7. ^ "Securing the Lean In Tower of Pisa", The New York Times, November 1, 1987. 
  8. ^ a b "Tipping the Balance", TIME Magazine, June 25, 2001. 
  9. ^ "BBC On This Day", BBCi
  10. ^ Fall of the Leaning Tower
  11. ^ Davies, Andrew (2005). The Children's Visual World Atlas. Sydney, Australia: The Fog Press. ISBN 1-740893-17-4. 

Bad Frankenhausen (officially: Bad Frankenhausen/Kyffhäuser) is a town in Thuringia, Germany. ... There are several well-known people named Andrew Davies, including: Andrew Davies (writer) Andrew Davies (politician) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are several well-known people named Andrew Davies, including: Andrew Davies (writer) Andrew Davies (politician) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Shrady, Nicholas (2003). Tilt: a skewed history of the Tower of Pisa. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2926-6. 

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The Leaning Tower of Pisa The Leaning Tower of Niles This is a list of leaning towers. ... The round tower at Glendalough, Ireland, is approximately thirty metres tall A round tower was primarily a bell tower, or belfry, as the Irish form of the name cloictheach clearly indicates, and as was proved by George Petrie as long ago as 1845 and never seriously challenged since. ... The Leaning Tower of Niles The Leaning Tower of Niles, Illinois, was completed in 1934, to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy. ... The Torre delle Milizie before the demolition of the convent of St. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Machang is a district (jajahan) of Kelantan, Malaysia. ... Kings Lynn is an attractive English market town in West Norfolk. ... Kings Lynn is a town and port in the English county of Norfolk. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Torre di Pisa

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leaning Tower of Pisa - tips by travel authority Howard Hillman (239 words)
And, the tower is part of a magnificent Romanesque architectural complex that includes the famous Baptistery and Cathedral of Pisa.
The tilting of the structure is not new.
From 1990 to 2004, the internal steps of Leaning Tower of Pisa were closed to the public, out of concern for both structure and visitors.
History Of Leaning Tower Of Pisa Tower: (1520 words)
The Tower of Pisa is the bell tower of the Cathedral.
Moreover, the Tower conforms to an emphasis on circular forms in the Piazza, in particular after the foundation of the grandiose Baptistery which, with its circular format, was probably intended as a "modern" version of the Anastasis in Jerusalem.
Since 1988 the Tower has been closed to the public and a committee of experts is working to evaluate every danger likely to worsen the inclination of the Tower and to develop definitive measures to block, and hopefully to invert, the inexorable inclination of the monument towards the ground.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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