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Encyclopedia > League of Nations Mandate
Mandates in the Middle east and Africa.
Mandates in the Middle east and Africa.
Mandates in the Pacific.
Mandates in the Pacific.

A League of Nations mandate refers to several territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919. Upon the entry into force of the Charter of the United Nations in late 1945, the mandates of the League of Nations became United Nations Trust Territories, as agreed earlier at the Yalta Conference. Image File history File links LN_Mandate_Map1. ... Image File history File links LN_Mandate_Map1. ... Image File history File links LN_Mandate_Map2. ... Image File history File links LN_Mandate_Map2. ... ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... United Nations Trust Territories were the successors of the League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ...


All the territories subject to League of Nations mandates were previously controlled by states defeated in World War I, principally Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The mandates were fundamentally different from protectorates in that the Mandatory power undertook obligations to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League of Nations. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russian Empire Kingdom of Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nikolay II Nikolay Yudenich Radomir Putnik Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek İsmail... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity (a sovereign state or a less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which...


The process of establishing the mandates consisted of two phases:

  1. the formal removal of sovereignty of the previously controlling states
  2. the transfer of mandatory powers to individual states among the Allied Powers.

The exact level of control by the Mandatory power over each mandate was decided on an individual basis by the League of Nations. However, in every case the Mandatory power was forbidden to construct fortifications or raise an army within the mandate and was required to present an annual report on the territory to the League of Nations. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... European military alliances in 1915. ...


Despite this, mandates were seen as de facto colonies of the empires of the victor nations.


The mandates were divided into three distinct groups based upon the level of development each population had achieved at that time.

Contents


Class A mandates

The first group or Class A mandates were areas fomerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire deemed to "...have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory." The Class A mandates were

By 1949 all of these mandates had been replaced by new governments. Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


Class B mandates

The second group or Class B mandates which included the region of Central Africa were deemed to require a greater level of control by the mandatory power: "...the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion". The mandatory power was forbidden to construct military or naval bases within the mandates. The Class B mandates were

The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in West Africa, now divided between Nigeria and Cameroon. ... Ruanda-Urundi was a Belgian League of Nations Mandate and then UN trust territory from 1924 to 1962 when it became the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi. ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... British Togoland was a League of Nations Mandate in Africa, formed by the splitting of German Togoland into French Togoland and British Togoland. ... French Togoland was a France Mandate territory in West Africa, which later became the Togolese Republic. ...

Class C mandates

A final group, the Class C mandates, including South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands were considered to be "best administered under the laws of the mandatory as integral portions of its territory"


The Class C mandates consisted of

The South Pacific Mandate (Nan-Yo) refers to a group of islands in Micronesia. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory...

Treaties

Germany's divestiture of territories was accomplished in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 and alloted to the Allied Powers on May 7, 1919. Ottoman territorial claims were first dispensed with in the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 and later finalized in the Treaty of Lausanne of 1923. The Turkish territories were alloted to the Allied Powers in the Conference of Sanremo of 1920. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Conference of Lausanne. ... The Sanremo conference was an international meeting held in Sanremo, Italy, from 19-26 April 1920. ...


With the exception of Palestine, all of the former mandates are now independent states; the last mandate to gain independence was South West Africa which gained independence as Namibia in 1990 after a long war with South Africa. (Technically, also with the exception of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of Palau as part of the Pacific Islands Mandate became the last to get independence effective October 1, 1994.) Palestine (Hebrew: , Palestina; Arabic: ‎ Filastīn or Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... This article is about the year. ...


References


 
 

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