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Encyclopedia > League of Nations
Société des Nations (French)
Sociedad de Naciones (Spanish)
League of Nations (English)
International organization
1919 – 1946

1939–1941 semi-official emblem of League of Nations Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links Symbol_of_the_League_of_Nations. ...


1939–1941 semi-official emblem 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...

Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world
Capital Not applicable¹
Language(s) English, French and Spanish
Political structure International organization
Secretary-general
 - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond
 - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol
 - 1940–1946 Seán Lester
Historical era Interwar period
 - Treaty of Versailles 28 June 1919
 - First meeting 16 January 1920
 - Liquidation 20 April 1946
¹ The headquarters were based at the Palais des Nations, Geneva Flag of Switzerland Switzerland

The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to economic sanctions which the League ordered, or provide an army, when needed, for the League to use. However, they were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could also hurt the League members imposing the sanctions and given the pacifist attitude following World War I, countries were reluctant to do so. Benito Mussolini stated that "The League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x863, 70 KB)Anachronous map of the world between 1920-1944 which shows the The League of Nations and the world. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... James Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth, KCMG, CB (August 17, 1876 – December 15, 1951) was a Scottish representative peer, a British diplomat and the first general secretary of the League of Nations. ... Categories: People stubs | 1879 births | 1952 deaths | League of Nations ... Seán Lester Seán Lester (1889 – June 13, 1959) was an Irish diplomat and the last General Secretary of the League of Nations. ... Interbellum redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Winding up redirects here. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palais des Nations as it appears today. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... This article is about negotiations. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


After a number of notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis Powers in the 1930s. The onset of the Second World War suggested that the League had failed in its primary purpose, which was to avoid any future world war. The United Nations replaced it after the end of the war and inherited a number of agencies and organizations founded by the League. Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... UN redirects here. ...

Contents

Origins

A commemorative card depicting American President Wilson and the "Origin of the League of Nations"
A commemorative card depicting American President Wilson and the "Origin of the League of Nations"

The concept of a peaceful community of nations had been outlined as far back as 1795, in Immanuel Kant’s Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch.[1] One attempt to put such a concept into practice were the international Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The "Hague Confederation of States", as the Neo-Kantian pacifist Walther Schücking called this initiative, was to have been a universal alliance aiming at disarmament and the peaceful settlement of disputes through arbitration.[2] Following the failure of the Hague Peace Conferences, a third conference had been planned for 1915. Download high resolution version (872x569, 490 KB)The League of Nations: A Pictorial Summary, . (Courtesy of the Woodrow Wilson House). ... Download high resolution version (872x569, 490 KB)The League of Nations: A Pictorial Summary, . (Courtesy of the Woodrow Wilson House). ... Kant redirects here. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


The idea for the League of Nations itself appears to have originated with the British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey, and it was enthusiastically adopted by the United States President Woodrow Wilson and his advisor Colonel Edward M. House as a means of avoiding any repetition of the bloodshed seen in World War I. The League's creation was a centerpiece of Wilson's Fourteen Points for Peace,[3] specifically the final point: "A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike."[4] The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon (April 25, 1862 – September 7, 1933), better known as Sir Edward Grey was a British politician and ornithologist. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...


The Paris Peace Conference accepted the proposal to create the League of Nations (French: Société des Nations, German: Völkerbund) on January 25, 1919.[5] The Covenant of the League of Nations was drafted by a special commission, and the League was established by Part I of the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28, 1919.[6][7] Initially, the Charter was signed by 44 states, including 31 states which had taken part in the war on the side of the Triple Entente or joined it during the conflict. Despite Wilson's efforts to establish and promote the League, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919,[8] the United States neither ratified the Charter nor joined the League due to opposition in the U.S. Senate, especially influential Republicans Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and William E. Borah of Idaho, together with Wilson's refusal to compromise. Paris 1919 redirects here. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... GOP redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... William E. Borah William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865–January 19, 1940) was an American politician and longtime United States Senator from Idaho noted for his oratorical skills and isolationist views. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ...


The League held its first council meeting in Paris on January 16, 1920 six days after the Versailles Treaty came into force.[9] In November, the headquarters of the League moved to Geneva, where the first general assembly of the League was held on November 15, 1920[10] with representatives from 41 nations in attendance. This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


David Kennedy, a professor at Harvard Law School, examined the League through the scholarly texts surrounding it, the establishing treaties, and voting sessions of the plenary. Kennedy suggests the League is a unique moment when international affairs was "institutionalized" as opposed to the pre-World War I methods of law and politics.[11] David Anthony Kennedy (June 15, 1955 – April 25, 1984) was born in Washington, D.C. He was the fourth of eleven children of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


Symbols

The League of Nations had neither an official flag nor logo. Proposals for adopting an official symbol were made during the League's beginning in 1920, but the member states never reached agreement. However, League of Nations organization used varying logos and flags (or none at all) in their own operations. An international contest was held in 1929 to find a design, which again failed to produce a symbol.[12] One of the reasons for this failure may have been the fear by the member states that the power of the supranational organization might supersede them. For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ...


Finally, in 1939, a semi-official emblem emerged: two five-pointed stars within a blue pentagon. The pentagon and the five-pointed stars were supposed to symbolize the five continents and the five races of mankind. In a bow on top and at the bottom, the flag had the names in English (League of Nations) and French (Société des Nations). This flag was used on the building of the New York World's Fair in 1939 and 1940.[12] The star, as an ideograph, most commonly represents the astronomical star for which it is named. ... Look up pentagon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Trylon, Perisphere and Helicline photo by Sam Gottscho The 1939-40 New York Worlds Fair, located on the current site of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964-1965 New York Worlds Fair), was one of the largest worlds fairs of all time. ...


Languages

The official languages of the League of Nations were French, English[13] and Spanish (from 1920). The League seriously considered adopting Esperanto as their working language and actively encouraging its use but neither option was ever adopted.[14] In 1921, there was a proposal by Lord Robert Cecil to introduce Esperanto into state schools of member nations and a report was commissioned to investigate this.[15] When the report was presented two years later it recommended the teaching of Esperanto in schools, a proposal that 11 delegates accepted.[14] The strongest opposition came from the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux, partially in order to protect the French Language which he argued was already the international language.[16] The opposition meant the report was accepted apart from the part that approved Esperanto in schools.[17] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the language. ... Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, previously known as Lord Robert Cecil (September 14, 1864 – November 24, 1958) was a lawyer, politician and diplomat. ... Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, known as Gabriel Hanotaux, (1853–1944) was a French statesman and historian. ...


Principal organs

Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters

See also Leaders of the League of Nations Palace of Nations. ...


The League had four principal organs, a secretariat (headed by the General Secretary and based in Geneva), a Council, an Assembly and a Permanent Court of International Justice.[18] The League also had numerous Agencies and Commissions. Authorization for any action required both a unanimous vote by the Council and a majority vote in the Assembly. For other uses, see Secretary (disambiguation). ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ...


Secretariat and Assembly

The staff of the League's secretariat was responsible for preparing the agenda for the Council and Assembly and publishing reports of the meetings and other routine matters, effectively acting as the civil service for the League. The League of Nations' Assembly was a meeting of all the Member States, with each state allowed up to three representatives and one vote.[19] The Assembly met in Geneva and, after its initial sessions in 1920,[20] sessions were held once a year in September.[19] The Roman civil service in action. ...


Council

The League Council acted as a type of executive body directing the Assemblies business.[21] The Council began with four permanent members (the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan) and four non-permanent members,[22] which were elected by the Assembly for a three year period. The first four non-permanent members were Belgium, Brazil, Greece and Spain. The United States was meant to be the fifth permanent member, but the United States Senate voted on March 19, 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, thus preventing American participation in the League. This prompted the United States to go back to policies of isolationism. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ...


The initial composition of the Council was subsequently changed a number of times. The number of non-permanent members was first increased to six on September 22, 1922, and then to nine on September 8, 1926. Germany also joined the League and became a fifth permanent member of the Council on the latter date, taking the Council to a total of fifteen members. When Germany and Japan later both left the League, the number of non-permanent seats was eventually increased from nine to eleven. The Council met on average five times a year, and in extraordinary sessions when required. In total, 107 public sessions were held between 1920 and 1939. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other bodies

The League oversaw the Permanent Court of International Justice and several other agencies and commissions created to deal with pressing international problems.These were the Disarmament Commission, the Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the Mandates Commission, the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation (ancestor of the UNESCO), the Permanent Central Opium Board, the Commission for Refugees, and the Slavery Commission. Several of these institutions were transferred to the United Nations after the Second World War. In addition to the International Labour Organization, the Permanent Court of International Justice became a UN institution as the International Court of Justice, and the Health Organization was restructured as the World Health Organization. Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. ... WHO redirects here. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... The International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation (in French, Commission internationale de coopération intellectuelle, CICI) was a body of the League of Nations created in September 1921 on a French proposal. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article is about the drug. ... Slave redirects here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... WHO redirects here. ...


The League's health organization had three bodies, a Health Bureau, containing permanent officials of the League, an executive section the General Advisory Council or Conference consisting of medical experts, and a Health Committee. The Committee's purpose was to conduct inquiries, oversee the operation of the League's health work, and get work ready to be presented to the Council.[23] This body focused on ending leprosy, malaria and yellow fever, the latter two by starting an international campaign to exterminate mosquitoes. The Health Organization also worked successfully with the government of the Soviet Union to prevent typhus epidemics including organising a large education campaign about the disease.[24] For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...

Child Labour in Kamerun during 1919
Child Labour in Kamerun during 1919

In 1919 the International Labour Organization was created as part of the Versailles Treaty and became part of the League's operations.[25] This body's first director was Albert Thomas.[26] It successfully restricted the addition of lead to paint,[27] and convinced several countries to adopt an eight-hour work day and forty-eight hour working week. It also worked to end child labour, increase the rights of women in the workplace, and make shipowners liable for accidents involving seamen.[25] The organization continued to exist after the end of the League, becoming an agency of the United Nations in 1946.[28] The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 The Eight-hour day movement, also known as the Short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ...


The League wanted to regulate the drugs trade and established the Permanent Central Opium Board to supervise the statistical control system introduced by the second International Opium Convention that mediated the production, manufacture, trade and retail of opium and its by-products. The Board also established a system of import certificates and export authorizations for the legal international trade in narcotics.[29] Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ... This article is about the drug. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ...

A sample Nansen passport
A sample Nansen passport

The Slavery Commission sought to eradicate slavery and slave trading across the world, and fought forced prostitution.[30] Its main success was through pressing the countries who administered mandated countries to end tackle slavery in those countries. The League also secured a commitment from Ethiopia, as a condition of joining the League in 1926, to end slavery and worked with Liberia to abolish forced labour and inter-tribal slavery.[30] It succeeded in gaining the emancipation of 200,000 slaves in Sierra Leone and organized raids against slave traders in its efforts to stop the practice of forced labour in Africa.[citation needed] It also succeeded in reducing the death rate of workers constructing the Tanganyika railway from 55% to 4%. Records were kept to control slavery, prostitution, and the trafficking women and children.[31] Led by Fridtjof Nansen the Commission for Refugees looked after the interests of refugees including overseeing their repatriation and, when necessary resettlement.[32] At the end of the First World War there were two to three million ex-prisoners of war dispersed throughout Russia[32], within two years of the commission's foundation, in 1920, it had helped 425,000 of them return home.[33] It established camps in Turkey in 1922 to deal with a refugee crisis in that country and to help prevent disease and hunger. It also established the Nansen passport as a means of identification for stateless peoples.[34] Slave redirects here. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Whore redirects here. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Nansen passports are internationally recognized identity cards first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees. ... A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or nationality. ...


The Committee for the Study of the Legal Status of Women sought to make an inquiry into the status of women all over the world. Formed in April 1938, dissolved in early 1939. Committee members included Mme. P. Bastid (France), M. de Ruelle (Belgium), Mme. Anka Godjevac (Yugoslavia), Mr. HC Gutteridge (United Kingdom), Mlle. Kerstin Hesselgren (Sweden),[35] Ms. Dorothy Kenyon (United States), M. Paul Sebastyen (Hungary) and Secretariat Mr. McKinnon Wood (Great Britain).


Members

An anachronous map of the world in the years 1920–1945, which shows the League of Nations and the world.
An anachronous map of the world in the years 1920–1945, which shows the League of Nations and the world.

Of the 42 founder members, 23 (or 24, counting Free France) remained members until the League of Nations was dissolved in 1946. In the founding year six other states joined, only two of which remained members throughout its existence. An additional 15 countries joined in later years. Twenty-eight countries were members of the League of Nations for its entire existence. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x863, 70 KB)Anachronous map of the world between 1920-1944 which shows the The League of Nations and the world. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x863, 70 KB)Anachronous map of the world between 1920-1944 which shows the The League of Nations and the world. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in...


The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was the only (founding) member to leave the league but return to it later.[citation needed] Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


The Soviet Union, only became a member on September 18, 1934,[36] when it joined to antagonise Germany (which had left the year before),[37] and was expelled from the League on December 14, 1939,[36] for aggression against Finland.[37] In expelling the Soviet Union, the League broke its own norms. Only 7 out of 15 members of the Council voted for the expelling (Great Britain, France, Belgium, Bolivia, Egypt, South African Union and the Dominican Republic), which was not a majority of votes as was required by the Charter to do so. Three of these members were chosen as members of the Council the day before the voting (South African Union, Bolivia and Egypt).[37] This was one of the League's final acts before it practically ceased functioning[38] due to the Second World War.[39] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...


Egypt was the last state to join, in 1937.


Iraq, which joined in 1932, was the first member of the league which had previously been a League of Nations Mandate.[40] Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ...


Mandates

League of Nations Mandates were established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. These territories were former colonies of the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire that were placed under the supervision of the League following World War I. The Permanent Mandates Commission supervised League of Nations Mandates, and also organised plebiscites in disputed territories so that residents could decide which country they would join. There were three Mandate classifications, A Mandates were mainly applied to parts of the old Ottoman Empire territorys which had: Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...

reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.[41]

Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations

The B Mandates were applied to the former German Colonies that the League took responsibility for after the First World War. This was a territory that the League said was: This article is about former colonies of Germany. ...

at such a stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League.[41]

Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations

Areas in South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands were administrated by League members under a C Mandate. Classified as territory: South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...

which, owing to the sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population."[41]

Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations

The territories were governed by "Mandatory Powers", such as the United Kingdom in the case of the Mandate of Palestine and the Union of South Africa in the case of South-West Africa, until the territories were deemed capable of self-government. There were fourteen mandate territories divided up among the six Mandatory Powers of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, New Zealand, Australia and Japan. In practice, the Mandatory Territories were treated as colonies and were regarded by critics as spoils of war. With the exception of Iraq, which joined the League on October 3, 1932, these territories did not begin to gain their independence until after the Second World War, a process that did not end until 1990. Following the demise of the League, most of the remaining mandates became United Nations Trust Territories. Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... United Nations Trust Territories were the successors of the League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. ...


In addition to the Mandates, the League itself governed the Saarland for 15 years, before it was returned to Germany following a plebiscite, and the free city of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) from 15 November 1920 to 1 September 1939. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Resolving territorial disputes

The aftermath of World War One left many issues to be settled between nations, including the exact position of national boundaries and which country a particular region would become part of. Most of these questions were handled by the victorious Allied Powers in bodies such as the Allied Supreme Council. The Allies only tended to refer matters they did not want to deal with to the League. This meant during the first three years of the 1920s the League played little part in resolving the turmoil that resulted from the war. The questions the League considered in its early years included those designated by the Paris Peace treaties.[42] Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...


The frontiers of Albania had not been set during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, being left to the League to be decided, but had not yet been determined by September 1921. This created an unstable situation with Greek troops repeatedly crossing into Albanian territory on military operations in the south and Yugoslavian forces engaged, after clashes with Albanian tribesmen, far into the northern part of the country. The League sent a commission of representatives from various powers to the region and in November 1921 the League decided that the frontiers of Albania should be the same as they had been in 1913 with three minor changes that favoured Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav forces withdrew a few weeks later, albeit under protest. War was again prevented.[43] Paris 1919 redirects here. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


The Allied Powers referred the problem of Upper Silesia to the League after they had been unable to resolve the territorial dispute.[44] After the First World War Poland laid claim to Upper Silesia that had been part of Prussia. The Treaty of Versailles had recommended a plebiscite in Upper Silesia to determine whether the territory should be part of Germany or Poland. Complaints about the attitude of the German authorities led to rioting and eventually to the first two Silesian Uprisings (1919 and 1920). A plebiscite took place on 20 March 1921 with 59.6% (around 500,000) of the votes were cast for joining Germany, but Poland claimed the conditions surrounding it had been unfair. This result led to the Third Silesian Uprising in 1921.[45] The League was asked to settle the matter on 12 August 1921. The Council agreed and created a commission with representatives from Belgium, Brazil, China and Spain to study the situation.[46] The committee recommended that Upper Silesian was divided between Poland and Germany according to the preferences shown in the plebiscite and that the two sides should decide the details of the interaction between the two areas. For example, if goods should pass freely over the border due to the economic and industrial interdependency of the two areas.[47] In November 1921 a conference was held in Geneva to negotiate a convention between Germany and Poland. A final settlement was reached, after five meetings, in which most of the area was given to Germany but with the Polish section containing the majority of its mineral resources and much of its industry. When this agreement became public in May 1922 there resentment and bitterness was expressed in Germany, but the treaty was still ratified by both countries. The settlement produced peace in the area lasting until the run up to the Second World War.[48] Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Ślůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... The Silesian Uprisings (German: ; Polish: ) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles of Upper Silesia, from 1919–1921, against Weimar rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Third Silesian Uprising (Polish: Trzecie powstanie śląskie, German: Dritter Polnischer Aufstand) was the last out of three military insurections of polish national extremists in the mixed Upper Silesia region (Part of the german/prussian province of Silesia) in order to occupy the region and join it to Poland... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


As the League developed its role expanded and by the middle of the 1920s it became the centre of international activity. This change can be seen in relationship between the League and non-members, for example, the United States and Russia increasingly worked with the League. During the second half of the 1920s the France, Britain and Germany were all using the League of Nations as the focus of their diplomatic activity and each of their foreign secretaries attending League meetings at Geneva during this period. They also used the Leagues machinery to try to improve relations and settle their differences.[49]


Cieszyn

Cieszyn Silesia (German: Teschener Schlesien, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, Slovak: Tešínske Sliezsko, Polish: Śląsk Cieszyński) is a region between Poland and Czechoslovakia, important for its coal mines. Czechoslovak troops moved to the region in 1919 to take over control of it while Poland was defending itself from invasion of Bolshevik Russia. The League intervened, deciding that Poland should take control of most of the region, but that Czechoslovakia should take part of the region, which contained the most valuable coal mines and the only railroad connecting Czech lands and Slovakia. The city was divided into Polish Cieszyn and Czech Český Těšín. Poland refused to accept this decision; although there was no further violence, the diplomatic dispute continued for another 20 years. Ultimately, the situation resulted in Polish military annexation of Český Těšín in 1938.[citation needed] Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia started in 1918 between the two newly independent countries of Poland (Second Polish Republic) and Czechoslovakia. ... Cieszyn Silesia (Polish: ÅšlÄ…sk CieszyÅ„ski, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, between the Vistula and Oder rivers. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ... Motto Czech: Pravda vítÄ›zí (Truth prevails; 1918-1989) Latin: Veritas Vincit (Truth prevails; 1989-1992) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak, Rusyn, Polish Government Republic President  - 1918-1935 Tomáš G. Masaryk (first)  - 1989-1992 Václav Havel... Location of ÄŒeský Těšín Coordinates: , Country Region District Karviná First mentioned 1155 Government  - Mayor Vít Slováček (KDU-ÄŒSL) Area  - Total 33. ... Location of ÄŒeský Těšín Coordinates: , Country Region District Karviná First mentioned 1155 Government  - Mayor Vít Slováček (KDU-ÄŒSL) Area  - Total 33. ...


Åland Islands

Main article: Åland crisis

Åland is a collection of around 6,500 islands midway between Sweden and Finland. The islands are exclusively Swedish speaking, but in 1809 Sweden had lost both Finland and the Åland islands to Imperial Russia. When Finland in December 1917, during the turmoil of the Russian October Revolution, declared independence, most of the Ålanders wished the islands to become part of Sweden again;[50] Finland, however, felt that the islands were part of their new nation, as the Russians had included them in the Grand Duchy of Finland formed in 1809. By 1920 the dispute had raised to the level that meant there was a danger of war between them. The British government referred the problem with the Leagues' Council, but Finland did not let the League intervene as they viewed it was an internal matter. The League created a small panel to decide if the League should investigate the matter and, once it was decided it should be, a neutral commission was created.[50] In June 1921 the League announced its decision, that the islands should remain a part of Finland, but with protection of the islanders guaranteed, including demilitarization. With Sweden's reluctant agreement, this became the first European international agreement concluded directly through the League.[51] The Ã…land crisis was one of the first issues the new League of Nations had to arbitrate. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ...


Memel

The port city of Memel (now Klaipėda) and the surrounding area, whose population was mostly German, was under Allied control under League control after the end of the World War I. The area had been awarded to Lithuania by Article 99 of the Treaty of Versailles but the French and Polish governments favoured turning Memel into an international city. By 1923 control of the area had still not been transferred to Lithuania and this prompted Lithuanian forces to invade in January 1923 and seize the port. After the Allies failed to reach agreement with Lithuania they referred the matter to the League of Nations. In December 1923 the League Council appointed a commission of enquiry who, after investigating chose to cede the Memel to Lithuania and give the area autonomous rights. This was approved by the League Council on 14 March 1924 and then by the Allied Powers and Lithuania.[52] Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


Mosul

The League resolved a dispute between Iraq and Turkey over the control of the former Ottoman province of Mosul in 1926. According to the UK, which was awarded a League of Nations A-mandate over Iraq in 1920 and therefore represented Iraq in its foreign affairs, Mosul belonged to Iraq; on the other hand, the new Turkish republic claimed the province as part of its historic heartland. A three-person League of Nations committee was sent to the region in 1924 to study the case and in 1925 recommended the region to be connected to Iraq, under the condition that the UK would hold the mandate over Iraq for another 25 years, to assure the autonomous rights of the Kurdish population. The League Council adopted the recommendation and it decided on 16 December 1925 to award Mosul to Iraq. Although Turkey had accepted the League of Nations arbitration in the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, it rejected the League's decision. Nonetheless, Britain, Iraq and Turkey made a treaty on 5 June 1926, that mostly followed the decision of the League Council and also assigned Mosul to Iraq. Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres signed by the Ottoman Empire as the consequences of the... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vilna

Main article: Polish-Lithuanian War

After World War I, Poland and Lithuania both regained the independence that they had lost during the partitions of the Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth in 1795. Though both countries shared centuries of common history in the Polish-Lithuanian Union and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, rising Lithuanian nationalism prevented the recreation of the former federated state. The city of Vilna (Lithuanian Vilnius, Polish Wilno) was made the capital of Lithuania. Although Vilnius had been the cultural and political center of Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1323, it happened that the majority of the population of the interwar era was Polish. Combatants Second Polish Republic Lithuania Commanders Adam Nieniewski Silvestras Žukauskas Strength  ? ca. ... The term Polish-Lithuanian union (or Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth—the Republic of the Two... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ...


During the Polish-Soviet War in 1920, the Polish army took control of the city. Despite the Poles' claim to the city, the League chose to ask Poland to withdraw: the Poles did not. The city and its surroundings were proclaimed a separate state of Central Lithuania and on 20 February 1922 the local parliament passed the Unification Act and the city was incorporated into Poland as the capital of the Wilno Voivodship. Theoretically, British and French troops could have been asked to enforce the League's decision; however, France did not wish to antagonise Poland, which was seen as a possible ally in a future war against Germany or the Soviet Union, while Britain was not prepared to act alone. Both Britain and France also wished to have Poland as a 'buffer zone' between Europe and the possible threat from Communist Russia. Eventually, the League accepted Wilno as a Polish town on March 15, 1923. Thus the Poles were able to keep it until the Soviet invasion in 1939. Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Map of the region, with so called Republic of Central Lithuania marked in Green The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ), or simply Central Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ), was a puppet state[1] created in 1920 after the staged rebellion of soldiers of the 1st Lithuanian... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Territory of the Vilnius Voivodeship is marked in red. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


Lithuanian authorities declined to accept the Polish authority over Vilna and treated it as a constitutional capital. It was not until the 1938 Polish ultimatum that Lithuania resolved diplomatic relations with Poland and thus de facto accepted the borders of its neighbour.


Corfu

Main article: Corfu incident

One major boundary settlement that remained to be made after World War I was that between Greece and Albania. The Conference of Ambassadors, a de facto body of the League, was asked to settle the issue. The Council appointed Italian general Enrico Tellini to oversee this. On 27 August 1923, while examining the Greek side of the border, Tellini and his staff were murdered. Italian leader Benito Mussolini was incensed, and demanded that the Greeks pay reparations and execute the murderers. The Greeks refused. The Corfu Incident was diplomatic emergency in 1923. ... The Spa Conference was a meeting between the members of the Entente, and of Poland, Germany, and Czechoslovakia that took place in the town of Spa, Belgium between July 5, 1920 and July 16, 1920. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... General Enrico Tellini (?–27 August 1923) was an Italian general officer. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


On 31 August, Italian forces occupied the island of Corfu, part of Greece, with fifteen people being killed. Initially, the League condemned Mussolini's invasion, but also recommended Greece pay compensation, to be held by the League until Tellini's killers were found. Mussolini, though he initially agreed to the League's terms, set about trying to change them. By working with the Council of Ambassadors, he managed to make the League change its decision. Greece was forced to apologize and compensation was to be paid directly and immediately. Mussolini was able to leave Corfu in triumph. By bowing to the pressure of a large country, the League again set a dangerous and damaging example. This was one of the League's major failures. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ...


Colombia and Peru

Main article: Colombia-Peru War

After several border conflicts between Colombia and Peru in the early part of the 20th century, a Peruvian takeover of the Colombian border town Leticia on 1 September 1932, resulted in an armed conflict between the two nations. After months of diplomatic wrangling, the two nations accepted mediation by the League of Nations. A provisional peace agreement, signed by both parties in May 1933, provided for the League to assume control of the disputed territory while bilateral negotiations proceeded. In May 1934, a final peace agreement was signed, resulting in the return of Leticia to Colombia, a formal apology from Peru for the 1932 invasion, demilitarization of the area around Leticia, free navigation on the Amazon River and Río Putumayo, and a pledge of nonaggression. Colombia-Peru War theater of operations. ... Leticia, Colombia, is a small city of approximately 37,000 inhabitants on the left bank of the Amazon river, and at the point where Colombia, Brazil and Peru, come together in an area called Tres Fronteras. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the river. ... The Içá or Putumayo River is one of the tributaries of the Amazon river, west of and parallel to the Yapura. ...


Saar

Saar was a province formed from parts of Prussia and the Rhenish Palatinate that was established and placed under League control after the Treaty of Versailles. A plebiscite was to be held after fifteen years of League rule, to determine whether the region should belong to Germany or France. Votes were 90.3% in favour of becoming part of Germany in that 1935 referendum, and it became part of Germany again. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Peace and security

In addition to territorial disputes, the League also tried to intervene in other conflicts between (and even within) nations. Among its successes were its attempts to combat the international trade in opium and sexual slavery, and its work to alleviate the plight of refugees, particularly in Turkey in the period to 1926. One of its innovations in this latter area was its 1922 introduction of the Nansen passport, which was the first internationally recognized identity card for stateless refugees. Many of the League's successes were accomplished by its various agencies and commissions. This article is about the drug. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Nansen passports are internationally recognized identity cards first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees. ...


Greece and Bulgaria

Main article: War of the Stray Dog

After an incident between sentries on the border between Greece and Bulgaria in 1925, Greek troops invaded their neighbour. Bulgaria ordered its troops to provide only token resistance, trusting the League to settle the dispute. The League did indeed condemn the Greek invasion, and called for both Greek withdrawal and compensation to Bulgaria. Greece complied, but complained about the disparity between their treatment and that of Italy (see Corfu, above). The War of the Stray Dog occurred in 1925 when a Greek soldier allegedly ran after his dog, which had strayed across the border from Macedonia. ...


Liberia

Following rumours of forced labor in the independent African country of Liberia, the League launched an investigation, particularly into the alleged use of forced labor on the massive Firestone rubber plantation. In 1930, a report by the League implicated many government officials in the selling of contract labor, leading to the resignation of President Charles D.B. King, his vice-president and numerous other government officials. The League followed with a threat to establish a trusteeship over Liberia unless reforms were carried out, which became the central focus of President Edwin Barclay. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply pneumatic tires for wagons, buggies, and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era. ... Charles Dunbar Burgess King (1875 1961) was a politician in Liberia. ... Edwin James Barclay (1882-1955) was a Liberian politician. ...


Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident, also known as the "Manchurian Incident" or the "Far Eastern Crisis", was one of the League's major setbacks and acted as the catalyst for Japan's withdrawal from the organization. Under the terms of an agreed lease, Japan had the right to station its troops in the area around the South Manchurian Railway, a major trade route between the two countries, in the Chinese region of Manchuria.[53] In September, 1931, the Japanese army claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway. (In fact, it is now thought that the sabotage had been contrived by officers of the Japanese Kwantung Army without the knowledge of government in Japan, in order to catalyse a full invasion of Manchuria.[citation needed]) In retaliation, the Japanese army, acting contrary to the civilian government's orders, occupied the entire region of Manchuria, which they renamed Manchukuo, and set up a puppet government. This new country was recognised internationally only by Italy and Germany; the rest of the world still saw Manchuria as legally part of China. In 1932, Japanese air and sea forces bombarded the Chinese city of Shanghai, sparking the short war of the January 28 Incident. Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 満鉄); Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... The Kwantung Army ), also known as the Guandong Army simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kwan-tung chün; Korean: ), was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the early twentieth century. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of China, 19th Route Army, 5th Army Empire of Japan, Imperial Japanese Army, 2nd Independent Tank Company, Shanghai Expeditionary Force Commanders 19th Route Army: Jiang Guangnai (Chinese: 蔣光鼐), 5th Army: Zhang Zhizhong (Chinese: 張治中) Commander: Yoshinori Shirakawa (Japanese: 白川義則), Chief of staff: Kanichiro Tashiro (Japanese: 田代皖一郎) Strength 50,000 90,000 Casualties...


The Chinese government asked the League of Nations for help, but the long voyage by ship for League officials to investigate the matter themselves delayed matters. When they arrived, the officials were confronted with Chinese assertions that the Japanese had invaded unlawfully, while the Japanese claimed they were acting to keep peace in the area. Despite Japan's high standing in the League, the subsequent Lytton Report declared Japan to be in the wrong and demanded Manchuria be returned to the Chinese. However, before the report was voted upon by the Assembly, Japan announced its intention to push further into China. The report passed 42-1 in the Assembly in 1933 (only Japan voted against), and Japan withdrew from the League. Lytton Report was a report generated by a League of Nations commission to try to resolve the Manchurian Crisis. ...


According to the Covenant of the League of Nations, the League should now have placed economic sanctions against Japan, or gathered an army and declared war. However, neither event took place. Economic sanctions had been rendered almost useless due to the United States Congress voting against joining the League, despite Woodrow Wilson's keen involvement in drawing up the Treaty of Versailles and his wish for America to join the League. Any economic sanctions the League now placed on its member states would be ineffective, as a state barred from trading with other member states could simply turn and trade with America. On the other hand, the reason why the League did not assemble and army was because the self-interest of many of its member states: countries such as Britain and France were too preoccupied with their own affairs, such as keeping control of their extensive colonies, especially after the turmoil of World War I. Japan was therefore left to keep control of Manchuria, until the Soviet Union's Red Army took over the area and returned it to China at the end of World War II. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Chaco War

The League failed to prevent the Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay in 1932 over the arid Gran Chaco region of South America. Although the region was sparsely populated, it gave control of the Paraguay River which would have given one of the two landlocked countries access to the Atlantic Ocean, and there was also speculation, later proved incorrect, that the Chaco would be a rich source of petroleum. Border skirmishes throughout the late 1920s culminated in an all-out war in 1932, when the Bolivian army, following the orders of President Daniel Salamanca Urey, attacked a Paraguayan garrison at Vanguardia. Paraguay appealed to the League of Nations, but the League did not take action when the Pan-American conference offered to mediate instead. The war was a disaster for both sides, causing 100,000 casualties and bringing both countries to the brink of economic disaster. By the time a ceasefire was negotiated on 12 June 1935, Paraguay had seized control over most of the region. This was recognized in a 1938 truce by which Paraguay was awarded three-quarters of the Chaco Boreal. Combatants Republic of Bolivia Republic of Paraguay Commanders Hans Kundt Mcal. ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Paraguay River near Asunción The River Paraguay (Rio Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil and Paraguay and forming a border between Brazil and Bolivia as well as Paraguay and Argentina. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Petro redirects here. ... Daniel Salamanca Urey (July 8, 1869 - July 17, 1935) was president of Bolivia from March 5, 1931 until he was overthrown in a coup detat on November 27, 1934, during the countrys disastrous Chaco War with Paraguay. ... Vanguardia is a Cuban newspaper. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Italian invasion of Abyssinia, 1935–1936

Main article: Abyssinia Crisis
Italian troops during the invasion of Abyssinia

In October 1935, Italian leader Benito Mussolini sent 400,000 troops to invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia).[54] General Pietro Badoglio led the campaign from November 1935, ordering the bombing and use of chemical weapons, for example, (mustard gas) and poisoning of water supplies, against targets including undefended villages and medical facilities.[55][54] The modern Italian Army defeated the poorly armed Abyssinians, and captured Addis Ababa in May 1936, forcing Emperor Haile Selassie to flee.[56] The Abyssinia Crisis was a pre-WW2 diplomatic crisis originating in the conflict between Italy and Ethiopia (then called Abyssinia by the British). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


The League of Nations condemned Italy's aggression and imposed economic sanctions in November 1935, but the sanctions were largely ineffective since they did not ban oil or close the Suez Canal which was owned by Britain and France. As Stanley Baldwin, the British Prime Minister, later observed, this was ultimately because no one had the military forces on hand to withstand an Italian attack. On 9 October 1935, the United States (a non-League member) refused to cooperate with any League action. It had embargoed exports of arms and war material to neither combatant (in accordance with its new Neutrality Act) on 5 October and later (29 February 1936) endeavoured (with uncertain success) to limit exports of oil and other materials to normal peacetime levels. The League sanctions were lifted on 4 July 1936, but by that point they were a dead letter in any event. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In December 1935, the Hoare-Laval Pact was an attempt by the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Hoare and the French Prime Minister Laval to end the conflict in Abyssinia by drawing up a plan to partition Abyssinia into two parts, an Italian sector and an Abyssinian sector. Mussolini was prepared to agree to the Pact; however, news of the Pact was leaked and both the British and French public venomously protested against the Pact, describing it as a sell-out of Abyssinia. Hoare and Laval were forced to resign their positions, and both the British and French government disassociated with them respectively. The Hoare-Laval Pact was a December 1935 plan concocted by the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Samuel Hoare and the French Prime Minister, Pierre Laval for the partitioning of Ethiopia, as a means of ending the Italo-Ethiopian War. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ...


As was the case with Japan, the vigour of the major powers in responding to the crisis in Abyssinia was tempered by their perception that the fate of this poor and far-off country, inhabited by non-Europeans, was not a central interest of theirs. In addition, it showed how the League could be influenced by the self-interest of its members.[citation needed] One of the reasons why the sanctions were not very harsh was because both Britain and France did not want to anger Mussolini. This was because Mussolini was then seen as a possible ally against Hitler.


Spanish Civil War

Main article: Spanish Civil War

On 17 July 1936, armed conflict broke out between Spanish Republicans (the left-wing government of Spain) and Nationalists (the right-wing rebels, including most officers of the Spanish Army). Alvarez del Vayo, the Spanish minister of foreign affairs, appealed to the League in September 1936 for arms to defend its territorial integrity and political independence. However, the League could not itself intervene in the Spanish Civil War nor prevent foreign intervention in the conflict. Hitler and Mussolini continued to aid General Franco’s Nationalist insurrectionists, and the Soviet Union aided the Spanish loyalists. The League did attempt to ban the intervention of foreign national volunteers. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ...


Disarmament and failures en route to World War II

A significant amount of the League's time and energy was devoted to disarmament.[57] Article eight of the League's covenant gave the League the task of reducing "armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by common action of international obligations"[58]


The Disarmament Commission obtained initial agreement from France, Italy, Japan, and Britain to limit the size of their navies. However, Britain refused to sign a 1923 disarmament treaty. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, facilitated by the commission in 1928, failed in its objective of outlawing war. Ultimately, the Commission failed to halt the military buildup during the 1930s by Germany, Italy and Japan. The League was powerless and mostly silent in the face of major events leading to World War II such as Hitler's remilitarisation of the Rhineland, occupation of the Sudetenland and Anschluss of Austria, which had been forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. In fact, League members themselves rearmed. As with Japan, both Germany in 1933 – using the failure of the World Disarmament Conference to agree to arms parity between France and Germany as a pretext – and Italy, in 1937, simply withdrew from the League rather than submit to its judgment. The League commissioner in Danzig was unable to deal with German claims on the city, a significant contributing factor in the outbreak of World War II in 1939. The final significant act of the League was to expel the Soviet Union in December 1939 after it invaded Finland. President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March, 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The Disarmament Conference of 1932-34 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S. and the Soviet Union, to actualise the ideology of disarmament. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...


General weaknesses

Moral Suasion.The Rabbit. "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye." Cartoon from Punch magazine, July 28 1920, satirising the perceived weakness of the League.
Moral Suasion.
The Rabbit. "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye."

Cartoon from Punch magazine, July 28 1920, satirising the perceived weakness of the League.

The League did not, in the long term, succeed in its aim to prevent another world war. The outbreak of World War II was the immediate cause of the League's demise, but there was also a variety of other, more fundamental, flaws. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1330x1676, 282 KB) Summary League of Nations cartoon from Punch magazine Project Gutenberg eText 16619 The Project Gutenberg EBook of Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1330x1676, 282 KB) Summary League of Nations cartoon from Punch magazine Project Gutenberg eText 16619 The Project Gutenberg EBook of Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ...


The League, like the modern United Nations, lacked an armed force of its own and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, which they were very reluctant to do. Economic sanctions, which were the most severe measure the League could implement short of military action, were difficult to enforce and had no great impact on the target country, because they could simply trade with those outside the League. The problem is exemplified in the following passage from one of the League's own publication, The Essential Facts About the League of Nations: In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ...

As regards the military sanctions provided for in paragraph 2 of Article 16, there is no legal obligation to apply them ... there may be a political and moral duty incumbent on states ... but, once again, there is no obligation on them.[59]

The League's two most important members, Britain and France, were reluctant to use sanctions and even more reluctant to resort to military action on behalf of the League. So soon after World War I, the populations and governments of the two countries were pacifist. The British Conservatives were especially tepid on the League and preferred, when in government, to negotiate treaties without the involvement of the organization. Ultimately, Britain and France both abandoned the concept of collective security in favour of appeasement in the face of growing German militarism under Adolf Hitler. Pacifist redirects here. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Representation at the League was often a problem. Though it was intended to encompass all nations, many never joined, or their time as part of the League was short. In January 1920 when the League began, Germany was not permitted to join, due to strong dislike to the country after World War I. Soviet Russia was also banned from the League, as their communist views were not welcomed by the victors of World War I. One key weakness of the League was that the United States never joined, which took away much of the League's potential power. Even though US President Woodrow Wilson had been a driving force behind the League's formation, the United States Senate voted on November 19, 1919 not to join the League. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The League also further weakened when some of the main powers left in the 1930s. Japan began as a permanent member of the Council, but withdrew in 1933 after the League voiced opposition to its invasion of the Chinese territory of Manchuria. Italy also began as a permanent member of the Council but withdrew in 1937. The League had accepted Germany as a member in 1926, deeming it a "peace-loving country", but Adolf Hitler pulled Germany out when he came to power in 1933. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


The League's neutrality tended to manifest itself as indecision. The League required a unanimous vote of its nine (later fifteen) member Council to enact a resolution, so conclusive and effective action was difficult, if not impossible. It was also slow in coming to its decisions. Some decisions also required unanimous consent of the Assembly; that is, agreement by every member of the League.


Another important weakness of the League was that it tried to represent all nations, but most members protected their own national interests and were not committed to the League or its goals. The reluctance of all League members to use the option of military action showed this to the full. If the League had shown more resolve initially, countries, governments and dictators may have been more wary of risking its wrath in later years. These failings were, in part, among the reasons for the outbreak of World War II.


When the British Cabinet discussed the concept of the League during the Great War, Maurice Hankey, the Cabinet Secretary, circulated a memorandum on the subject. He started by saying: "Generally it appears to me that any such scheme is dangerous to us, because it will create a sense of security which is wholly fictitious".[60] He attacked the British pre-war faith in the sanctity of treaties as delusional and concluded by claiming: Maurice Pascal Alers Hankey, 1st Baron Hankey (April 1, 1877-January 26, 1963) was a British civil servant who gained prominence as the first Secretary to the Cabinet and who later made the rare transition from the civil service to ministerial office. ... In the British Government, the Cabinet Secretary, or more formally Secretary of the Cabinet, is the senior civil servant in charge of the Cabinet Office, a department that provides administrative support to the Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and the government as a whole. ...

"It [a League of Nations] will only result in failure and the longer that failure is postponed the more certain it is that this country will have been lulled to sleep. It will put a very strong lever into the hands of the well-meaning idealists who are to be found in almost every Government, who deprecate expenditure on armaments, and, in the course of time, it will almost certainly result in this country being caught at a disadvantage".[60]

The Foreign Office minister Sir Eyre Crowe also wrote a memorandum to the British Cabinet claiming that "a solemn league and covenant" would just be "a treaty, like other treaties": "What is there to ensure that it will not, like other treaties, be broken?". Crowe went on to express scepticism of the planned "pledge of common action" against aggressors because he believed the actions of individual states would still be determined by national interests and the balance of power. He also criticised the proposal for League economic sanctions because it would ineffectual and that "It is all a question of real military preponderance". Universal disarmament was a practical impossibility, Crowe warned.[60] Sir Eyre Alexander Barby Wichart Crowe, GCB, GCMG (30 July 1864–28 April 1925) was a British diplomat. ...


Moreover, the League's advocacy of disarmament for Britain and France (and other members) whilst at the same time advocating collective security meant that the League was unwittingly depriving itself of the only forceful means by which its authority would be upheld. This was because if the League was to force countries to abide by international law it would primarily be the Royal Navy and the French Army which would do the fighting. Furthermore, Britain and France were not powerful enough to enforce international law across the globe, even if they wished to do so. For its members, League obligations meant there was a danger that states would get drawn into international disputes which did not directly affect their respective national interests. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ...


On 23 June 1936, in the wake of the collapse of League efforts to restrain Italy's war of conquest against Abyssinia, British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin told the House of Commons that collective security "failed ultimately because of the reluctance of nearly all the nations in Europe to proceed to what I might call military sanctions ... [T]he real reason, or the main reason, was that we discovered in the process of weeks that there was no country except the aggressor country which was ready for war ... [I]f collective action is to be a reality and not merely a thing to be talked about, it means not only that every country is to be ready for war; but must be ready to go to war at once. That is a terrible thing, but it is an essential part of collective security." is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ...


Demise and legacy

The League of Nations' Assembly building in Geneva
The League of Nations' Assembly building in Geneva

As the situation in Europe deteriorated into war the Assembly transferred, on 30 September 1938 and 14 December 1939, enough power to the Secretary General to allow the League to continue to legally exist and continue with operations on a reduced scale.[39] After this was completed the headquarters of the League, the Palace of Peace, remained unoccupied for nearly six years until the Second World War had ended.[61] The final meeting of the League of Nations was held in April in Geneva. Delegates from 43 nations attended the assembly where their first act was the closure the twentieth meeting, adjourned on 14 December 1939, and opened the twenty-first. This session concerned itself with liquidating the League, the Palace of Peace was given to the UN, reserve funds were returned to the nations that had supplied them and the debts of the League were settled.[62] Robert CecilI is said to have summed up the feeling of the gathering[62] during a speech to the final assembly when he said: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palais des Nations as it appears today. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury (June 1, 1563 -May 24, 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Elizabeth I of England and James I of England. ...

aggression where it occurs and however it may be defended, is an international crime, that it is the duty of every peace-loving state to resent it and employ whatever force is necessary to crush it ... that every well-disposed citizen of every state should be ready to undergo any sacrifice in order to maintain peace ... I venture to impress upon my hearers that the great work of peace is resting not only on the narrow interests of our own nations, but even more on those great principles of right and wrong which nations, like individuals, depend.

Robert Cecil

The motion that dissolved the League, stating that "The League of Nations shall cease to exist except for the purpose of the liquidation of its affairs"[63] passed unanimously. The motion also set the date for the end of the League as the day after the session was closed. On the 19 April 1939 the President of the Assembly, Carl J. Hambro of Norway, declared "the twenty-first and last session of the General Assembly of the League of Nations closed." [64] As a result the League of Nations ceased to exist on 20 April 1946.[65] is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With the onset of World War II, it had been clear that the League had failed in its purpose – to avoid any future world war. During the war, neither the League's Assembly nor Council had been able or willing to meet, and its secretariat in Geneva had been reduced to a skeleton staff, with many offices moving to North America. At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allied Powers agreed to create a new body to replace the League. This body was to be the United Nations. Many League bodies, such as the International Labour Organization, continued to function and eventually became affiliated with the UN.[28] The League's assets of $22,000,000 were then assigned to the U.N. [64] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... UN redirects here. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ...


The structure of the United Nations was intended to make it more effective than the League. The principal Allies in World War II (UK, USSR, France, U.S., and China) became permanent members of the UN Security Council, giving the new "Great Powers" significant international influence, mirroring the League Council. Decisions of the UN Security Council are binding on all members of the UN; however, unanimous decisions are not required, unlike the League Council. Permanent members of the UN Security Council were given a shield to protect their vital interests, which has prevented the UN acting decisively in many cases. Similarly, the UN does not have its own standing armed forces, but the UN has been more successful than the League in calling for its members to contribute to armed interventions, such as the Korean War, and peacekeeping in the former Yugoslavia. However, the UN has in some cases been forced to rely on economic sanctions. The UN has also been more successful than the League in attracting members from the nations of the world, making it more representative. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


See also

United Nations Portal
World War I Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Winston Churchills edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. ... Interbellum redirects here. ... Minority Treaties[1] refer to the treaties regarding the protection of ethnic minorities signed during of shortly after the Treaty of Versailles and Paris Peace Conference between various minor states and the newly created League of Nations (primarily in the period between 1919 and 1921). ... The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil going on in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following... The Palais des Nations as it appears today. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved on 2008-05-16.
  2. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 10
  3. ^ Kawamura 2000, p. 135
  4. ^ Wilson, Woodrow (8 January 1918). President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. The Avalon Project. Retrieved on 2008-04-19.
  5. ^ Magliveras 1999, p. 8
  6. ^ Magliveras 1999, pp. 8–12
  7. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 35–36
  8. ^ Levinovitz and Ringertz 2001, p. 170
  9. ^ Scott 1973, p. 51
  10. ^ Scott 1973, p. 67
  11. ^ Kennedy 1987
  12. ^ a b League of Nations. FOTW Flags Of The World website (2005-07-09). Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  13. ^ Burkman 1995
  14. ^ a b Kontra et. al. 1999, p. 32
  15. ^ Forster 1982, p. 173
  16. ^ Forster 1982, pp. 171–76
  17. ^ Forster 1982, p. 175
  18. ^ Meyer and Prugl 1999, p. 20
  19. ^ a b Organization and establishment:The main bodies of the League of Nations. The United Nations Office at Geneva. Retrieved on 2008-05-18.
  20. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 72
  21. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 48
  22. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 42–48
  23. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 182
  24. ^ Baumslag 2005, p. 8
  25. ^ a b Northedge 1986, pp. 179–80
  26. ^ Scott 1973, p. 53
  27. ^ Frowein and Rüdiger 2000, p. 167
  28. ^ a b Origins and history. International Labour organization. Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  29. ^ McAllister 1999, pp. 76–77
  30. ^ a b Northedge 1986, pp. 185–86
  31. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 166
  32. ^ a b Northedge 1986, p. 77
  33. ^ Scott 1973, p. 59
  34. ^ Torpey 2000, p. 129
  35. ^ For a full biography, see sv:Kerstin Hesselgren (in Swedish).
  36. ^ a b Scott 1973, pp. 312, 398
  37. ^ a b c (Russian) Igor Pychalov. Velikaja obolgannaja vojna
  38. ^ (Russian) Лига наций Лига наций
  39. ^ a b Magliveras 1999, p. 31
  40. ^ Tripp 2002, p. 75
  41. ^ a b c League of Nations (1924). The Covenant of the League of Nations:Article 22. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  42. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 70–72
  43. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 103–105
  44. ^ Scott 1973, pp. 82–83
  45. ^ Osmanczyk and Mango 2002, p. 2568
  46. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 88
  47. ^ Scott 1973, pp. 83
  48. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 88
  49. ^ Henig 1973, p. 170.
  50. ^ a b Scott 1973, p. 60
  51. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 77–78
  52. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 107
  53. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 138
  54. ^ a b Northedge 1986, pp. 222–25
  55. ^ Hill and Garvey 1995, p. 629
  56. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 221
  57. ^ Northedge 1986, p. 123
  58. ^ League of Nations (1924). The Covenant of the League of Nations:Article 8. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved on 2006-05-17.
  59. ^ League of Nations 1939
  60. ^ a b c Barnett 1972, p. 245.
  61. ^ Scott 1973, p. 399
  62. ^ a b Scott 1973, p. 404
  63. ^ Motion of the League of Nations, quoted in Scott 1973, p. 404
  64. ^ a b "League of Nations Ends, Gives Way to New U.N.", Syracuse Herald-American, April 20, 1946, p. 12
  65. ^ The end of the League of Nations. The United Nations Office at Geneva. Retrieved on 2008-05-18.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Barnett, Correlli (1972). The Collapse of British Power. London: Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0413275806. 
  • Baumslag, Naomi (2005). Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275983123. 
  • Burkman, Thomas W. (Summer 1995). "Japan and the League of Nations: an Asian power encounters the European Club". World Affairs 158 (1): 45–57. 
  • Forster, Peter (1982). The Esperanto Movement. The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 9789027933997. 
  • Frowein, Jochen A.; Wolfrum Rüdiger (2000). Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9041114033. 
  • Henig (ed.), Ruth B. (1973). The League of Nations. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. ISBN 9780050025925. 
  • Hill, Robert; Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1995). The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520072084. 
  • Kawamura, Noriko (2000). Turbulence in the Pacific: Japanese-U.S. Relations During World War I. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275968533. 
  • Kennedy, David (April 1987). "The Move to Institutions" (PDF). Cardozo Law Review 8 (5): 841–988. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  • Kontra, Miklós; Robert Phillipson, Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, and Tibor Varady (1999). Language, a Right and a Resource: Approaching Linguistic Human Rights. Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 9789639116634. 
  • League of Nations Information Section (1939). The Essential Facts About the League of Nations. Geneva: League of Nations. OCLC 220743559. 
  • Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin and Ringertz, Nils (2001). The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years. World Scientific. ISBN 981024665X. 
  • Magliveras, Konstantinos D (1999). Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations: The Law and Practice behind Member States' Expulsion and Suspension of Membership. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9041112391. 
  • McAllister, William B (1999). Drug Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century: An International History. Routledge. ISBN 0415179904. 
  • Meyer, Mary K. and Prugl, Elisabeth (1999). Gender Politics in Global Governance. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0847691616. 
  • Northedge, FS (1986). The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920–1946. New York: Holmes & Meier. ISBN 0-7185-1316-9. 
  • Osmanczyk, Edmund Jan and Mango, Anthony (2002). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements. ISBN 0415939240. 
  • Scott, George (1973). The Rise and Fall of the League of Nations. London: Hutchinson & Co LTD. ISBN 0-09-117040-0. 
  • Torpey, John (2000). The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521634938. 
  • Tripp, Charles (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052152900X. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

Further reading

  • Bassett, John Spencer. The League of Nations: A Chapter in World Politics 1930
  • Egerton, George W. ; Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics, and International Organization, 1914–1919 University of North Carolina Press, 1978
  • Gill, George, (1996) The League of Nations from 1929 to 1946: From 1929 to 1946 . Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 0-89529-637-3
  • Kelly, Nigel and Lacey, Greg (2001) "Modern World History" Heinemann Educational Publishers, Oxford
  • Kennedy, Paul. The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations (2006)
  • Kuehl, Warren F. and Lynne K. Dunn; Keeping the Covenant: American Internationalists and the League of Nations, 1920–1939 1997
  • Malin, James C. The United States after the World War 1930. pp 5–82. online
  • Marbeau, M. (2001). "La Société des Nations". Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-051635-1
  • Pfeil, A (1976). "Der Völkerbund".
  • Walters, F. P. , A History of the League of Nations 2 vol Oxford University Press. 1952
  • Walsh, Ben (1997). Modern World History. John Murray (Publishers) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7195-7231-2.
  • Woodrow Wilson, compiled with his approval by Hamilton Foley; Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of Nations, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1923 contemporary book review
  • Zimmern, Alfred ; The League of Nations and the Rule of Law, 1918–1935 1936

External links

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