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Encyclopedia > League of Communists of Yugoslavia
SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script
SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script
SKJ flag in Albanian
SKJ flag in Albanian
SKJ flag in Hungarian
SKJ flag in Hungarian
SKJ flag in Italian
SKJ flag in Italian
SKJ flag in Macedonian
SKJ flag in Macedonian
SKJ flag in Slovenian
SKJ flag in Slovenian

League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major Communist party in Yugoslavia. The party was founded as an opposition party in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1919. After initial success in the elections, it was proscribed by the royal government and remained as an illegal terrorist revolutionary underground organization until the Second World War, when it was embroiled in a War of National Liberation, defeating the Axis forces by liberating Yugoslavia from their occupation and overthrowing their local puppet-states and winning a bloody civil war. After the liberation, it consolidated its power and established a one-party rule in second Yugoslavia from 1945 until 1991, when the Yugoslav wars broke out after the death of Tito. SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... SKJ flag. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical ideology based on Marxism. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Bože Pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino and Naprej zastava slave medley Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander I... The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...   Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian Macedonian Slovenian Government Federation of socialist republics Last President Stjepan Mesić Last Prime Minister Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution 21 February 1974  - formation of FRY April 28 1992 Area  - July 1989 255,800... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that took place between 1991 and 2001. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


The party, which was led by Josip Broz Tito from 1937 to 1980, was the first communist party in power in the history of communism that openly opposed the common policy as directed by the Soviet Union and thus was expelled from the Cominform in 1948 after Stalin accused Tito of nationalism and moving to the right. After internal purges, the party renamed itself the League of Communists and adopted politics of workers' self-management and independent communism, known as Titoism. This does not cite its references or sources. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ...


The party disintegrated in the late 1980s and the early 1990s, together with Yugoslavia.

Contents

Creation and early successes

Before the Great War the Slavic peoples of the Balkans were divided among four countries: Austria-Hungary, Serbia, Montenegro and (until 1912) the Ottoman Empire. Each country had their own social democratic party. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1680) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


After the First World War in late 1918 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created. Under the influence of the October Revolution in Russia (brought to Yugoslavia by soldiers captured by Russia in World War I), the different social-democratic parties and organizations created by returners from Russia called for a unification of leftist parties. The idea was widely accepted by parties and organizations from all over the country, except Slovenia. Congress of unification of social-democratic, socialist and workers' parties and organizations was held in April 20-23 1919 in Belgrade and was attended by parties from every part of the Kingdom except the Slovenian lands. It became known as the "Congress of Unification in Belgrade". The Congress decided to form a single political party named Socialist Labor Party of Yugoslavia (Communists) (Socijalistička radnička partija Jugoslavije (komunista), SRPJ(K)) which would be a member of Communist International. Filip Filipović was elected General secretary of SLPY(C). The Central Workers’ Trade-Union Council (Centralno radničko sindikalno vijeće) – party workers’ federation was also established. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Bolshevik (1920), by Boris Kustodiev. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ...


On the same year, Young Communist League of Yugoslavia was formed, which accepted program and aims of SLPY(C). Young Communist League of Yugoslavia, commonly known by its abbreviation SKOJ (from Serbo-Croatian Savez komunističke omladine Jugoslavije) was the youth wing of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia from 1919 to 1948. ...


Newly formed SLPY(C) was rather active and organised several protests against political situation in the country and rallies of support for Bolshevik Russia and the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Popularity of the party was shown for the first time on local elections in Croatia, Dalmatia, Slavonia and Montenegro in March 1920, where communists won majority in several cities (including big cities like Zagreb, Osijek, Slavonski Brod, Križevci and Podgorica), but the royalist regime refused to confirm communist administrations of these districts. The leadership of the Party was imprisoned and subsequently released after a hunger strike. This affirmation of SLPY(C) led to extending of party's influence to Slovenia and incorporation of whole Yugoslav leftist scene into SLPY(C). Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, Italian: Dalmazia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Zagreb (pronounced: ) is the largest and capital city of Croatia. ... Osijek (pronounced: []) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ... Slavonski Brod is the sixth largest city in Croatia, with a population of 64,612 in 2001. ... Križevci is a town in central Croatia with a population of 22,324 (2001), the oldest town in its county, the Koprivnica-Križevci county. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...


But, growth of SLPY(C) incited arguments about party's agenda, since SLPY(C) was formed from various political parties. Two major streams developed: “Centrists” and Revolutionaries. The reformist “Centrists” (Centrumaši) suggested SLPY(C) participates in parliamentary life of the Kingdom, demands reforms and tries to become ruling party by legal means. Revolutionaries supported position that power has to be gained by revolution. The Revolutionaries have caught the mass of the Communists and they called for an open revolution. Due to belief that the Socialists will never be able to seize power in the Kingdom democratically, they called for a violent takeover and subsequently even resorted to terrorism. CentrumaÅ¡i (Croatian: Centrists) was a reformist faction in Yugoslav Communist Party then called Socialist Labour Party of Yugoslavia (Communists) in the 1920s. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


The Second congress of the party was held from 20 till June 23, 1920 in Vukovar. The congress was escalation of conflicts inside the party. The Revolutionary wing (led by Filip Filipović) prevailed; th party changed its name to Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije, abbr. KPJ/CPY) with Sima Marković and Filip Filipović elected as its first secretaries. At the Congress, the Party gave support to the idea of s Balkan Communist Federation. The Centrists objected their marginalization in the party and in October 1920 have published "The Manifesto of the Opposition of the CPY".[1] Their position inside the party has been constantly worsening and on 10 December 1920 they were expelled from the CPY. However, this wasn't the end of struggles inside the party. June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Position of Vukovar within Croatia Vukovar (Hungarian: Vukovár, German: Wukowar) is a city in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... The Balkan Communist Federation (1919-1939) was a communist umbrella organisation in which all the Balkan communist parties were represented. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ...


In summer of 1920 local elections were held in Serbia and Macedonia and CPY won a majority in many districts (including Belgrade, Skopje and Niš). Communist administration of Belgrade (with Filip Filipović as mayor) and other cities were due to their revolutionary stance were seen as a threat to the royal government, so communist administrations were suspended. Summer is a season that is astronomically defined as beginning around June 21, and ending around September 23 in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... NiÅ¡ or Nish (Serbian: Ниш / NiÅ¡, Latin: Naissus, Greek: Naissos) is a city in Serbia situated at 43. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... now. ...


On elections for Constitutional Assembly of November 28, 1920 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia won 59 seats (receiving totally 198,736 votes) and was third by number of seats. November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Unlike most parties in the Kingdom, the Communist Party was very revolutionary and supported many strikes, demonstrations and even acts of terrorism. A turning point was to be a miners' strike in Husino near Tuzla, Bosnia. After one policeman and four miners were killed, the royal regime decided to take serious measures against the Communists that were already destabilizing the country. The Government, according to the suggestion of minister of Interior Affairs Milorad Drašković, issued a decree (called "Obznana", "Announcement"), temporary banning the CPY. The only legal communist activity was involvement in Constitutional Assembly. On 28 June 1921, the new Constitution of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was proclaimed. This was not looked upon positive by the Communists, so they organized an assassination attempt of King Alexander I Karadjordjevic that took place right in the moment of the Kingdom's official public constitutional formation. The campaigning against the communists and anti-socialist propaganda was hardened. The communist idea was vastly accepted by the labor & student class as well as the peasants. Under the impression of the Russian Red Revolution and that a violent revolution is the only option, it popularity in the people raised from a minority organization to that of moderate political footage. The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Tuzla (Serbian Cyrillic: Тузла) is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Motto: none Anthem(s): Intermeco Capital Sarajevo Largest city Sarajevo Official language(s) Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Government Republic  - Presidency members Haris Silajdžić1 (Bosniak) NebojÅ¡a Radmanović (Serb) Željko KomÅ¡ić (Croat)  - Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan Terzić Independence From Yugoslavia   - Recognized 6 April 1992  Area  - Total... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The Communists wanted to revenge to Drašković for the Obznana, so they assassinated him on 21 July 1921. This resulted in widespread condemnation. As a result, the Assembly passed a "Law of protection of public security and state order (Zakon o zaštiti javne bezbednosti i poretka u državi), modelled after the same Law in the United States of America, which dismissed the Communists as a Party and banned any communist political activity. July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


This as well as subsequent unorthodox Communists' practises have resulted in a massive breakdown of the Party's numeral strength and popularity. This led to the Party's withdrawal to the Underground, founding allies with the Kingdom's separatist movements and affirmed their aims as stopping Greater Serbian imperialism, the hegemony of the Serb ethnic group as well as the breakup of the Common Yugoslav state (so-called "Versailles Yugoslavia"). Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


Underground

In 1924 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia received strict instructions from the Comintern to begin its struggle against the pan-Serb hegemony, giving it the goal to mark all the langs that were non-Serb in the Kingdom (ethnically Slovene, Croatian, Albanian) with the purpose of dividing of the Yugoslav peoples. This year the Party mainly questioned the status of Vojvodina. It expressed that it was unjustly given to Serbia due to capitalist global imperialism and that the Serbian bourgeoisie is exploiting its German, Hungarian and Romanian minorities, so Vojvodina no longer deserves to be identified as a "Serb Land". This is contrary to the historical democratic joining of Vojvodina to Serbia in 1918 as per the democratically elected Assembly in Novi Sad. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ...


The Communist Party has held its underground Third Congress in Vienna in June 1926. The aim of the Congress was to clearly define what in the Kingdom of SCS was strictly Serb and what (territorially) non-Serb. "Non-Serb" were defined Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Vojvodina, whereas the rest of the Kingdom an "area of the Serbian Nation", but not finally determined. A decision was brought that national movements were to be instigated in Montenegro and Vojvodina to forge separate nations in the best interests of those regions. Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with a length of 30 days. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


The Communist Party of Yugoslavia held its Fourth Congress in Dresden in October 1928. One of the main subjects was the Montenegrin question. It was concluded that Montenegro had been deprived of its autonomy as a state and annexed to the foreign rule of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia "..under the savage occupier regime of the Pan-Serb bourgeoisie", strictly because of French and British "Allied capitalist imperialism". The Congress also concluded that numerous Albanian, Bulgarian (the way the called Macedonian Slavs) and Hungarians territories were occupied by the very same Serbian regime of the so-called "Versailles Yugoslavia", which the Communists didn't recognize. The claim was that northern Vojvodina was annexed to the Yugoslav state on the basis of the Treaty of Trianon, as well ratified invalid by the Yugoslav Communists. Solidarity with the Albanian revolutionary separatist Kosovo Committee movement was expressed as well as the necessity to support in every way the struggle of the "oppressed Albanian ethnic group" dismemberment from the South Slavic-dominated state and the formation of an independent and unified ethnic Albania. The Hungarian minority in the north of the Kingdom was decided to be recognized the right of secession and joining to Hungary, while most of south and east Serbia (including Macedonia) was defined as "Old Bulgarian territory which has been seized by force". Finally, the full declaration was declared the independences of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia, as well as annexations of Kosovo to Albania and northern Vojvodina to Hungary. The Communists were henceforward heavily criticized as spreading xenophobic hatred towards the Serbs under the disguize of national equality and working for the destruction of the common state. Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Slavic ethnic group. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement imposed on Hungary after World War I by the victorious powers. ... The Albanians are an ethnic group generally associated with Albania, Kosovo (nominally Serbia) including the PreÅ¡evo Valley, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and also the Albanian language. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Adolf Hitler with Tsar Boris III The military history of Bulgaria during World War II embraces a primary period of neutrality until 1 March 1941, a period of alliance with the Axis Powers until 9 September 1944 and a period of alignment with the Allies until the end of the... For other uses of the name Kosovo, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


Although still playing an important role in the class struggle the number of party members declined. The persecution of the party culminated after 1929 when King Alexander of Yugoslavia prohibited all parties. Many key members of the Communist Party were killed including the leadership of the youth wing and party president Đuro Đaković. Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Aleksandar I Karađorđević King Alexander I of Yugoslavia - Serbian Kralj Aleksandar I Karađorđević, in Cyrillic Краљ Александар I Карађорђе&#1074...


Party members in exile in the Soviet Union came under scrutiny during Stalin's Great Purge — party president Milan Gorkić was executed. Under the pressure of persecution as well as the problems of having a multinational party, the Communists became highly fractionalised and almost disintegrated. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ...


The Fourth National Conference of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia was held in Ljubljana in December of 1934. The Yugoslav Communists concluded that the "Allied Imperialist capitalist construction of the Versailles Yugoslavia" was nothing but an "occupation of Croatia, Dalmatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Vojvodina" by Serbian troops. Aims where adopted that the "Serbian occupier, the Serbian troops and the Serbian militia, as well as the remainder of those Serb Chetniks must be driven out from the occupied areas by all means necessary" This Conference was heavily condemned by the Montenegrin communists, headed by Jovan Tomašević, who maintained that Montenegro willingly joined Serbia and how the factual Serbdom of the Montenegrins is being denied and replaced for an artificial one by this decision. They held that Montenegro's unification with Serbia was a progressive move, however lost the debate as the leading (all other) communists said that the Serbian national feeling of the Montenegrins as well as their desire for a common state with the Serbians lies only in Serbian imperialistic oppression, plunder and brainwash of the Montenegro's people, setting the basis for a "national deprogramming" that would be conducted later on when the CPY seizes power in the country, aimed at "enlightening the Montenegrin populace that they are a separate nation from Serbia".   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


With the arrival of 1935 and the Rise of Fascism, advised by the Communist International of its 7th Congress on 21th August 1935, the CPY adopted the plan for a preservation of Yugoslavia, but its reconstruction and federalization. The concept Weak Serbia - Strong Yugoslavia was adopted ever since. It was demanded that for the preservation of the non-Serb nations in such a Yugoslavia, Slovene, Montenegrin, Macedonian and Croat national assemblies (even though there was no Bosnian nation); as well as a national assembly for Vojvodina and its eventual separation from Serbia is to be made.


Josip Broz (using the pseudonyms of "Walter" and "Tito") was able to unite the party after taking over the leadership in 1937. Under instructions from the Comintern, he reactivated the Party and started preparation for the fight against fascism. Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Fascism (IPA: ) is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism. ...


Tito held the Fifth National Congress of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in October of 1940. It called for the national struggle, freedom and equal rights of the Albanian minorities in Kosovo, Metohija and Sandzak. It was demanded that the Serbs, accused for national oppression of Albanians, Macedonians and other peoples in "Old Serbia", must be driven out from these lands. Tito concluded that the territories inhabited by non-Serbs (Macedonians, Slovenes, Albanians, Germans, Hungarians, Romanians and others) must have linguistical autonomy, their own national schools, courts and armies as well as banned these national minorities military service outside the borders of their homelands (whereas obliging the Serbs to do). Old Serbia (Stara Srbija, Стара Србија) is a modern name for the territory which was the core of medieval Serbia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Anti-Fascist Liberation and Civil War

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia quickly fell when attacked by Germany in 1941. The Communists organized the largest resistance movement in Europe under the leadership of the Yugoslav National Liberation Army and was able to use guerrilla warfare with assistance from the British and Americans to establish liberated territories under its control. The Communist-led partisans enacted elements of socialist revolution in the territories they liberated and used propaganda to popularize their aims. At the end of the war the Partisans consisted of 800,000 soldiers under the leadership of 14,000 members of the Communist party. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Bože Pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino and Naprej zastava slave medley Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander I... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... This article is about the year. ... The Yugoslav partisans were the main anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Yugoslavia by Axis forces during World War II. The uniting force of the anti-fascist partisans on the territory was Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan detachments of Yugoslavia (NOV i POJ; Narodnooslobodila&#269... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a certain type of message presentation directly aimed at manipulating the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ...


State control

The other parties formed before the war were unable to reestablish themselves as credible forces. Eight of them entered the coalition with the Communists and founded the People's Front of Yugoslavia (Narodni front Jugoslavije), while the Democratic Party of Milan Grol tried to boycott the first post-war elections of 1945. Peoples Front can refer to: Peoples Front (Canada) Peoples Front (Georgia) Peoples Front (Singapore) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The elections were held more in the form of a referendum: the People's Front candidate list received 91% of the vote while the option of "no list" won 9%. Yugoslavia became a republic and the other parties disappeared. The People's Front (later called the Socialist Association of Working People of Yugoslavia, Socijalistički Savez Radnog Naroda Jugoslavije) remained open to those who did not consider themselves to be communists, such as members of the clergy. Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ...


In 1948, the party held its fifth Congress. The meeting was held shortly after Stalin accused Tito of being a nationalist and moving to the right branding his heresy Titoism. This resulted in a break with the Soviet Union known as the Informbiro period. Initially the Yugoslav communists, despite the break with Stalin, remained as hard line as before but soon began to pursue a policy of independent socialism that experimented with self-management of workers in state-run enterprises, with decentralization and other departures from the Soviet model of a Communist state. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... It has been suggested that Tito-Stalin Split be merged into this article or section. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...


Under the influence of reformers such as Boris Kidrič and Milovan Đilas, Yugoslavia experimented with ideas of workers self-management where workers influenced the policies of the factories in which they worked and shared a portion of any surplus revenue. This resulted in a change in the party's role in society from holding a monopoly of power to being an ideological leader. As a result, the party name was changed to the Communist League of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije, SKJ) in 1952 during its sixth Congress. Likewise, the names of the regional branches were changed accordingly. LCY consisted of the following regional bodies: Boris Kidrič (1912-1953) was a leading Slovenian communist who, with Edvard Kardelj, organized the partisan uprising in Slovenia in 1941. ... Milovan Đilas or Djilas (1911-1995) was a Communist politician and theorist in Yugoslavia. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Communist Party of Croatia (Croatian Komunistička Partija Hrvatske, KPH) was the Croatian branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ). ... SKM symbol League of Communists of Macedonia (in Macedonian: Sojuz na Komunistite na Makedonija, SKM) was the ruling political party in the Republic of Macedonia during the period 1944 - 1990. ... The League of Communists of Montenegro was the Montenegrin branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990. ... The League of Communists of Serbia was the Serbian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990. ... The League of Communists of Slovenia was the Slovenian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990. ...

Dissidents

The Communists had a number of dissidents within its ranks at various periods:

  • From 1948 to 1953 during the conflict with Stalin, cf. Informbiro, a number of party members were accused of being pro-Moscow and jailed at Goli Otok
  • In 1954, Milovan Đilas was expelled from the party due to his criticisms and his proposals for a multi-party system with a decentralized economy.
  • Aleksandar Ranković argued for a highly centralized system more akin to the Soviet model and was expelled from the party in 1966.
  • In the course of the so-called Croatian spring of 1971, some of the Croatian party members were disciplined due to accusations of liberalism and nationalism, along with Serbian communists accused of liberalism. Many of their ideas were ultimately adopted in the new 1974 Yugoslav constitution.
  • The Praxis School - a Marxist humanist philosophical movement that originated in Zagreb and Belgrade. Its members were critical towards the version of self-management socialism implemented by the LCY and were repressed for their views.
  • In the early 1980s some members such as Vojislav Šešelj turned to an extreme form of nationalism which ended up overtaking the movement under Slobodan Milošević.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... It has been suggested that Tito-Stalin Split be merged into this article or section. ... Goli otok in Adriatic sea Goli otok (literal translation: barren island) is an island off the northern Adriatic coast, located between Rabs northeastern shore and the mainland, in what is today Republic of Croatias Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Milovan Đilas or Djilas (1911-1995) was a Communist politician and theorist in Yugoslavia. ... Marko Ranković Ranković, Tito and Đilas Aleksandar Leka Ranković (Serbian: Александар Лека Ранковић) (1909-1983) was a leading Yugoslav Communist of Serbian origin. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for mass movement) was a political movement from the early 1970s that called for greater rights for Croatia which was then part of Yugoslavia. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and its predecessor, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) was developed after the World War II as follows: Constitution of FLRY, adopted on January 31, 1946 Constitutional Law of the FLRY, adopted on January 13, 1953 Constitution of SFRY, adopted... Praxis school was a Marxist humanist philosophical movement that originated in Zagreb and Belgrade, SFRY, during the 1960s. ... The term Marxist humanism has as its foundation Marxs conception of the alienation of the labourer as he advances it in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844--an alienation that is born of a capitalist system in which the worker no longer functions as (what Marx terms) a... Zagreb (pronounced: ) is the largest and capital city of Croatia. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... A poster for the 2004 presidential elections, for which Å eÅ¡elj himself was not running, due to the fact that he was awaiting trial in the Hague. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević   (IPA Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ...

Crisis and dissolution

After Tito's death in 1980 the party adopted a collective leadership model with the occupant of the top position rotating annually. The party's influence declined and the party moved to a federal structure giving more power to party branches in Yugoslavia's constituent republics. Party membership continued to grow reaching two million in the mid-1980s but membership was considered less prestigious than in the past. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Slobodan Milošević became president of the Communist League of Serbia in 1987 and combined Serbian nationalism with opposition to liberal reforms. The growing rift between the branches of the Communist Party and between the republics of Yugoslavia led to the effective dissolution of the Communist League of Yugoslavia at its 14th Congress held in January 1990 with rifts between Serbian and Slovenian Communists leading to the breakup of the party into different parties for each republic. The Communist associations in most republics later changed their names to Socialist or Social-Democratic parties. The Socialist Party of Serbia (Serbian: Socijalisticka partija Srbije) is a political party in Serbia. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Remnants

There were several attempts to reactivate the Communist League of Yugoslavia.


One pro-Stalinist group, called New Communist Party of Yugoslavia (NKPJ) claimed to continue in the tradition of the original Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), but not of the Titoist Communist League of Yugoslavia (SKJ). Another Stalinist party under the name of Communist Party of Yugoslavia was established in 1990 by Tito’s former Communist opposition. Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... The New Communist Party of Yugoslavia (NKPJ) is a Marxist-Leninist party in Serbia and Montenegro. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after World War II (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Communist Party of Yugoslavia (in Serbo-Croat: Комунистичка партија Југославије / Komunistička Partija Jugoslavije) is a political party in Serbia. ... This article is about the year. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Another attempt to revive the party was the League of Communists - Movement for Yugoslavia (SK-PJ), which was mainly a soldiers' party, and later joined the Yugoslav United Left (JUL). Modern soldiers. ... Yugoslav Left (YUL) is a political organization formed in 1994 as 19 leftist parties and movements fused, the biggest among them being the League of Communists - Movement for Yugoslavia (SKPJ). ...


There was also another party calling itself the Communist League of Yugoslavia, which organized what it claimed to be the party's 15th and 16th congresses, the latter in 1994 claiming that it continues the tradition of LCY. It later split into League of Communists of Yugoslavia in Serbia and League of Communists of Yugoslavia-Communist Party of Serbia SKJuS symbol League of Communists of Yugoslavia in Serbia (in Serbo-Croat: Savez komunista Jugoslavije u Srbiji) is a political party in Serbia. ...


There are several parties in Republic of Macedonia, all Titoist. Anthem: (Macedonian for Today over Macedonia) Capital (and largest city) Skopje Macedonian, Albanian1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Branko Crvenkovski  - Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski Independence from Yugoslavia   - Declared September 8, 1991  Area  - Total 25,333 km² (148th) 9,779 sq mi   - Water (%) 1. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ...


The Workers' Communist Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a pro-Yugoslav union party which respects but is also critical of LCY and Tito. The Workers Communist Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a communist party from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


Socialist Labour Party of Croatia adopted the first name of the party on it’s forming 1997 but it is not an all-Yugoslav party (nor does it have ambitions to be). Communist Party of Croatia formed in 2005 by dissidents from Socialist Labour Party of Croatia adheres Titoism. SRP Logo Socialist Labour Party of Croatia (Croatian: Socijalistička radnička partija Hrvatske) is a small Croatian political party with no parliamentary representation. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yugoslav refers to: Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A dissident is a person who actively opposes the established order. ... SRP Logo Socialist Labour Party of Croatia (Croatian: Socijalistička radnička partija Hrvatske) is a small Croatian political party with no parliamentary representation. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ...


See also

Dr. Bakarić, Milutinović, Kardelj, Tito, Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Đilas, members of the Partisan High Command during World War II, in a cave on Vis, Adriatic Sea.
Dr. Bakarić, Milutinović, Kardelj, Tito, Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Đilas, members of the Partisan High Command during World War II, in a cave on Vis, Adriatic Sea.

Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ... Croatian Communist Party (Croatian Komunistička Partija Hrvatske, KPH) also known as the Croatian League of Communists (Croatian Savez Komunista Hrvatske, SKH) was the Croatian branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ). ... The Bleiburg massacre occurred near to the end of World War II, during May 1945. ... Photo: Members of the NOVJ (lit. ... Photo: Members of the NOVJ (lit. ... Vladimir Bakarić (8 March 1912-16 January 1983) was Chairman of the Croatian League of Communists from 1948 to 1969. ... Edvard Kardelj - Sperans (January 27, 1910 - February 10, 1979) was a Slovene prewar communist, politician, statesman and publicist. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Marko Ranković Ranković, Tito and Đilas Aleksandar Leka Ranković (Serbian: Александар Лека Ранковић) (1909-1983) was a leading Yugoslav Communist of Serbian origin. ... Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo (1912-2000 ) A leading Montenegrin communist and member of the Central Commitee. ... Milovan Đilas or Djilas (1911-1995) was a Communist politician and theorist in Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Vis is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, the furthest one from the coast that is also inhabited. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...

External links

  • History of the SKJ (Serbo-Croatian)

  Results from FactBites:
 
League of Communists of Yugoslavia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2090 words)
League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was the major Communist party in Yugoslavia.
The Communists organized the largest resistance movement in Europe under the leadership of the Yugoslav National Liberation Army and was able to use guerrilla warfare with assistance from the British and Americans to establish liberated territories under its control.
The growing rift between the branches of the Communist Party and between the republics of Yugoslavia led to the effective dissolution of the Communist League of Yugoslavia at its 14th Congress held in January 1990 with rifts between Serbian and Slovenian Communists leading to the breakup of the party into different parties for each republic.
League of Communists of Croatia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (915 words)
Communist Party of Croatia (Croatian Komunistička Partija Hrvatske, KPH) was the Croatian branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ).
From 1952 onwards it was known as League of Communists of Croatia (Croatian Savez Komunista Hrvatske, SKH).
In 1989, 30% of the members of the Croatian League of Communists were Serbs, while their overall percentage in the republic was less than 13%.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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