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Encyclopedia > Leaf protein concentrate

Leaf protein concentrate (LPC) is a concentrated form of the proteins found in the leaves of plants. It has been examined as a human or animal food source, because it is potentially the cheapest, most abundant source of available protein. Although humans can derive some protein from the direction consumption leaves as leaf vegetables, the human digestive system would not be able to deal with the enormous bulk of leaves needed to meet dietary protein requirements with leaf vegetables alone. In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ...

Contents

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Application

LPC was first suggested as a human food in the 1960s, but it has not achieved much success, despite early promise. The increasing reliance on feedlot based animal rearing to satisfy human appetites for meat has increased demand for cheaper vegetable protein sources. This has recently lead to renewed interest in LPC to reduce the use of human-edible vegetable protein sources in animal feed. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) which is used for fattening livestock, notably beefcattle, prior to slaughter. ...

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Health issues

Leaf protein is a good source of amino acids, with methionine being a limiting factor.[1][2] Leaf proteins can also be rich in polyphenols.[3] The challenges that have to be overcome before LPC becomes a viable protein source for humans include the high fiber content and other antinutritional factors, such as phytate, cyanide and tannins.[4][5] An amino acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a molecule of water has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the carboxylic side) in the formation of a peptide bond. ... Methionine (Met, M. C5H11NO2S) is an essential nonpolar amino acid, and a lipotropic. ... Polyphenols are a group of plant chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system and absorb water. ... Phytic acid (known as inositol hexaphosphate, or phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ... A space-filling model of the cyanide ion A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group -C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ...

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Methods of production

Generally, LPC is produced by pulping leaves and pressing the juice out, heating the juice to coagulate the protein, and filtering the protein out and drying it.

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See also

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Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ...

References

  1.  Laila Hussein, Mohamed M. El-Fouly, F.K. El-Baz, S.A. Ghanem (1999). "Nutritional quality and the presence of anti-nutritional factors in leaf protein concentrates (LPC)". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 50 (5): 333–343.
  2.  Ayodeji O. Fasuyi and Valentine A. Aletor (2005). "Varietal Composition and Functional Properties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) Leaf Meal and Leaf Protein Concentrates". Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4 (1): 43–49.
  3.   J. C. Rambourg, B. Monties (1983). "Determination of polyphenolic compounds in leaf protein concentrates of lucerne and their effect on the nutritional value". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) (Historical Archive) 33: 169–172.
  4.  Ayodeji O. Fasuyi (2005). "Nutritional Evaluation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) Leaf Protein Concentrates (CLPC) as Alternative Protein Sources in Rat Assay". Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4 (1): 50–56.

 
 

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