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Encyclopedia > Leadership

The word leadership can refer to: Look up Leader (disambiguation) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  1. Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.
  2. The ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader.


Categories and types of leadership

Leadership can have a formal aspect (as in most political or business leadership) or an informal one (as in most friendships). Speaking of "leadership" (the abstract term) rather than of "leading" (the action) usually implies that the entities doing the leading have some "leadership skills" or competencies. Competencies represent certain clusters of skills, abilities and knowledges needed to perform certain jobs. ...

Different Types of leadership styles:

The laissez-faire “leave it be” leadership (Lewin, Liippit, & White, 1939) is the leadership style that gives no continuous feedback or supervision because the employees are highly experienced and needs little supervision to obtain the expected outcome. On the other hand, this type of style is also associated to leaders that don’t lead at all, failing in supervising its team members, resulting in lack of control and higher costs, bad service or failure to meet deadlines.

The bureaucratic leader (Weber, 1905) is very structured and follows the procedures as they had been established. This type of leadership has no space to explore new ways to solve problems and is usually slow paced to ensure approval of the ladders stated by the company. Leaders ensure that all the steps had been followed prior sending it to the next level of authority. Universities, hospitals, banks and government usually requires this type of leader in its organizations to ensure quality, increase security and decrease corruption. Leaders that try to speed up the process will only lead to frustration and anxiety.

The charismatic leader (Weber, 1905) leads by infusing energy and eagerness into to their team members. This type of leader has to be committed to the organization for the long run. Otherwise, charismatic leaders are a risk for the company when they decide to resign for other opportunities because his/her staff only saw the success of the division or project thanks to the leader and not the team. It takes time and hard work to gain the employees confidence back with other type of leadership.

In the case of autocratic leadership (Lewin, Liippit, & White, 1939) we could say that is when the it has been given the power to take decisions based solely on his person, having total authority to its. This leadership style is good for employees that needs close supervision to perform certain tasks. Creative employees and team players resent this type of leadership, not being able to enhance processes or decision making, resulting in job dissatisfaction.

The democratic leader (Lewin, Liippit, & White, 1939) means that even though you want to hear your teams ideas, the leader will study those ideas and will take the final decision. Team players contributes to the final decision thus increasing employee satisfaction and ownership, feeling their input was considered when the final decision was taken. When changes arises, this type of leadership help the team assimilate the changes better and rapidly than other styles, knowing they were consulted and contributed to the decision making process, minimizing resistance and intolerance. It’s important to highlight that this type of style is not recommended when decisions are needed in a short period of time or at the moment.

People-Oriented Leader (Fiedler, 1967) is the one that in order to comply with effectiveness and efficiency, supports, train and develop his personnel increasing job satisfaction and genuine interest to do a good job.

Task oriented leaders (Fiedler, 1967) are those who focus on the job, and concentrate in the specific tasks assigned to each employee to reach goal accomplishment. This leadership style suffers the same motivation issues as autocratic leadership, showing no involvement in the teams needs. It requires close supervision and control to achieve expected results.

A servant leader (Greenleaf, 1977) is the leader that facilitates goal accomplishment by giving its team members what they need in order to be productive. Is an instrument employees uses to reach the goal rather than an commanding voice that moves to change. This leadership style, as well as democratic leadership tends to achieve the results in a slower motion than other styles, although employee engagement is higher.

A transaction leader (Burns, 1978) is the power given to a certain person to perform certain tasks and reward or punish for the team’s performance. It gives the opportunity to manager to lead the group and the group agrees to follow his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal in exchange of something else. Power is given to the leader to evaluate, correct and train is subordinates when productivity is not up to the desired results and reward effectiveness when expected outcome is reached.

A transformation leader (Burns, 1978) is the one who motivates its team to be effective and efficient. Communication is the base for goal achievement focusing the group in the final desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible and uses chain of command to get the job done. Transformational leaders focus on the big picture, needing to be surrounded of people who take care of the details. The leader is always looking for ways to ideas that moves the organization to reach the company’s vision.

The Environment Leader (Carmazzi, 2005) is the one who nurtures group or organisational environment to affect the emotional and psychological perception of an individual’s place in that group or organisation. An understanding and application of group psychology and dynamics is essential for this to style to be effective. The leader uses organisational culture to inspire individuals to and develop leaders at all levels. This leadership style is relies on creating an education matrix where groups interactively learn the fundamental psychology of group dynamics and culture from each other. The leader uses this psychology, and complementary language, to influence direction through the members of the inspired group to do what is required for the benefit of all.

The situation leader (Joseph Praveen Kumar,Hersey, Blanchard, & Johnson, 2008) is the leader that uses different leadership styles depending on the situation and the type of employee that is being supervised.


Arnold, S. B. (2001). Leader traits and leadership competencies necessary during organizational change. Tennessee.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.

Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A thery of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant Leadership: A Journey Into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness. New Jersey: Paulist Press.

Hersey, P., Blanchard, K., & Johnson, D. (2008). Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

House, R. J., & Podsakoff, P. M. (1994). Leadership effectiveness: past perspectives and future directions for research. In J. Greenberg, Organizational behavior: The state of the science (pp. 45-82). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco, Ca: John Wiley and Sons.

Krulak, C. C. (1998). The Fourteen Basic Traits of Effective Leadership. About Campus , 8-12.

Lewin, K., Liippit, R., & White, R. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology , 271-301.

Maxwell, J. (2002). Leadership 101. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.

Meyers, S. (2007). Leadership Styles. Trustees , 11.

Weber, M. (1905). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: and Other Writings . New York: Penguin Group.

Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspective. American Psychology , 62 (1), 7-16.

Leadership associated with positions of authority

According to Thomas Carlyle, leadership emerges when an entity as "leader" contrives to receive deference from other entities who become "followers". The process of getting deference can become competitive in that the emerging "leader" draws "followers" from the factions of the prior or alternative "leaders". [1] Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... This article is about the concept of an entity. ...

Representative democracy

In representative democracies the people retain sovereignty (popular sovereignty) but delegate day-to-day administration and leadership to elected officials. In the United States, for example, the Constitution provides an example of recycling authority. In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the American Founders rejected the idea of a monarch, but they still proposed leadership by people in positions of authority, with the authority split into three powers: in this case the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. Under the American theory, the authority of the leadership derives from the power of the voters as conveyed through the electoral college. Many individuals share authority, including the many legislators in the Senate and the House of Representatives. [1] Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...

Leadership cycles

If a group or an organization wants or expects identifiable leadership, it will require processes for appointing/acquiring and replacing leaders.

Traditional closed groups rely on bloodlines or seniority to select leaders and/or leadership candidates: monarchies, tribal chiefdoms, oligarchies and aristocratic societies rely on (and often define their institutions by) such methods. // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... http://www. ... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ...

Competence or perceived competence provides a possible basis for selecting leadership elites from a broader pool of potential talent. Political lobbying may prove necessary in electoral systems, but immediately demonstrated skill and character may secure leadership in smaller groups such as gangs. For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political effort. ... An electoral system is the system used to administer an election. ... A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... Mara Salvatrucha suspect bearing gang tattoos is handcuffed. ...

Many organizations and groups aim to identify, grow, foster and promote what they see as leadership potential or ability - especially among younger members of society. See for example the Scouting movement. For a specific environment, see leadership development. This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... In organizational development, leadership development is the strategic investment in, and utilization of, the human capital within the organization. ...

The issues of succession planning or of legitimation become important at times when leadership (particularly individual leadership) might or must change due to term-expiry, accident or senescence. In organizational development, succession planning is the process of identifying and preparing suitable employees through mentoring, training and job rotation, to replace key players — such as the chief executive officer (CEO) — within an organization as their terms expire. ... Legitimation is the act of providing legitimacy to a child born out of wedlock. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ...

Titles emphasizing authority

At certain stages in their development, the hierarchies of social ranks implied different degrees or ranks of leadership in society. Thus a knight led fewer men in general than did a duke; a baronet might in theory control less land than an earl. See peerage for a systematization of this hierarchy, and order of precedence for links to various systems. Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nobility title. ... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of people; it is used by many organizations and governments. ...

In the course of the 18th and 20th centuries, several political operators took non-traditional paths to become dominant in their societies. They or their systems often expressed a belief in strong individual leadership, but existing titles and labels ("King", "Emperor", "President" and so on) often seemed inappropriate, insufficient or downright inaccurate in some circumstances. The formal or informal titles or descriptions they or their flunkies employe express and foster a general veneration for leadership of the inspired and autocratic variety. The definite article when used as part of the title (in languages which use definite articles) emphasizes the existence of a sole "true" leader.

Symbolism of leadership

Various symbolic attributes — often varying according to the cultural milieu — mark out authority-figures and help make them seem special and revered or feared. For examples and discussion, see symbols of leadership. Leadership cadres use symbols to reinforce and to make more mysterious their aura of special apartness. ...

Leadership among primates

Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, in Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence present evidence that only humans and chimpanzees, among all the animals living on earth, share a similar tendency for a cluster of behaviors: violence, territoriality, and competition for uniting behind the one chief male of the land. [2] This position is contentious. Many animals beyond apes are territorial, compete, exhibit violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male (lions, wolves, etc.), suggesting Wrangham and Peterson's evidence is not empirical. Richard Wrangham is a professor in Biological Anthropology at Harvard University. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ...

By comparison, bonobos, the second-closest species-relatives of man, do not unite behind the chief male of the land. The bonobos show deference to an alpha or top-ranking female that, with the support of her coalition of other females, can prove as strong as the strongest male in the land. Thus, if leadership amounts to getting the greatest number of followers, then among the bonobos, a female almost always exerts the strongest and most effective leadership. However, not all scientists agree on the allegedly "peaceful" nature of the bonobo or its reputation as a "hippie chimp".[3] For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ...

Some have argued that, since the bonobo pattern inverts the dominant pattern among chimpanzees and men with regard to whether a female can get more followers than a male, humans and chimpanzees both likely inherited gender-bias against women from the ancestors of the chimpanzees; gender-bias features as a genetic condition of men. And the bias against women having leadership as a position of authority occurs in most cultures in the world. As of 2002, Sweden had the highest percentage of women in the legislature: but only 43%. And the United States, Andorra, Israel, Sierra Leone, and Ireland tied for 57th place with less than 15% of the legislature women.[4] Admittedly, those percentages significantly outclass the occurrence of female chimpanzees becoming alpha of the community by getting the most followers, but similar trends exist in manifesting a general gender-bias across cultures against females gaining leadership as a position of authority over followers. For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... An alpha male or alpha female is the individual in the community to whom the others follow and defer. ...

An alternative explanation suggests that those individuals best suited to lead the a group will somehow rise to the occasion and that followers (for some reason) will accept them as leaders or as proto-leaders. In this scenario, the traits of the leaders (such as gender, aggressiveness, etc.) will depend on the requirements of a given situation, and ongoing leadership may become extrapolated from a series of such situations.

In cultural anthropology, much speculation on the origins of human leadership relates to the perceived increasing need for dispute resolution in increasingly densely-populated and increasingly complex societies. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Adjudication be merged into this article or section. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...

The image of swarms of lemmings which follow the first lemming off a cliff appears frequently in characterizing followers. The animal kingdom also provides the actual model of the bellwether function in a mob of sheep. And human society also offers many examples of emulation. The fashion industry, for example, depends on it. Fashion marketers design clothing for celebrities, then offer less expensive variations/imitations for those who emulate the celebrities. This article is about the rodent. ... This article is about Bellwethers in general. ... Species See text. ... Such styles may change quickly, and fashion in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. ...

Unintentional leadership can also occur from more pro-active forms followership. For example, in organizations which punish both leadership inaction and mistakes, and in which a predicament has no good solution, a common tendency involves declaring oneself a follower of someone else — metaphorically passing the buck. In the card game Poker the buck or button is a marker used to indicate the player who is the dealer or, in casino games with a house dealer, the player who acts last on that deal (who would be the dealer in a home game). ...

Another example of followership without intentional leadership comes with the market leadership of a pioneering company, or the price leadership of a monopolist. Other companies will emulate a successful strategy, product, or price, but originators may certainly not desire this — in fact they often do all they can legally do to prevent such direct competition. Price leadership is an observation made of oligopic business behavior in which one company, usually the dominant competitor among several leads the way in determining prices, the others soon following. ... This article is about the economic term. ...

The term "leadership" sometimes applies (confusingly) to a winning position in a race. One can speak of a front-runner in a sprint or of the "leader" in an election or poll as in a position of leadership. But such "leadership" does not involve any influence processes, and the "leader" will have followers who may not willingly choose to function as followers. Once again: one can make an important distinction between "in the lead" and the process of leadership. Once again, leadership implies a relationship of power - the power to guide others. In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Scope of leadership

One can govern oneself, or one can govern the whole earth. In between, we may find leaders who operate primarily within:

Intertwined with such categories, and overlapping them, we find for example religious leaders potentially with their own internal hierarchies, work-place leaders corporate officer|executives, corporate officer|officers,senior management,senior/upper managers,middle management|middle managers, staff-managers, line-managers,team leader|team-leaders,supervisors and leaders of voluntary associations. For other uses, see Youth (disambiguation) Youth is defined by Websters New World Dictionary as, The time of life when one is young; especially: a: the period between childhood and maturity b: the early period of existence, growth, or development. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... This article is on the social structure. ... Alternative meaning: Organisation (band). ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... Empires is currently a Half-Life 2 modification that saw its first public release for the HL2 source engine on March 4, 2006. ...

Some anthropological ideas envisage a widespread but by no means universal pattern of progression in the organization of society in ever-larger groups,with the needs and practices of leadership changing accordingly. Thus simple dispute resolution may become legalistic dispensation of justice before developing into proactive legislature/legislative activity. Some leadership careers parallel this sort of progression: today's school-board chairperson may become tomorrow's city councilor, then take in say a mayor dom before graduating to nation-wide politics. Compare the "cursus honorum" in ancient Rome.

Leadership in organizations

Leadership in formal organizations

An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure. Thus, the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships with clients or with its members. According to Weber's definition, entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. Each employee receives a salary and enjoys a degree of tenure that safeguards him from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients. The higher his position in the hierarchy, the greater his presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position. [2] An Instrument is a tool, intended for a purpose other than mechanical work, in particular a refined one. ... Template:Wiktionarypar objective Objective may be: Objective lens, an optical element in a camera or microscope. ... Job (plural jobs) refers to a piece of work or a task. ... In common language, a task is part of a set of actions which accomplish a job; the sense is that useful work is getting done. Task analysis is the analysis or a breakdown of exactly how a task is accomplished, such as what sub-tasks are required. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Leadership in informal organizations

In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life — the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves. Template:Wiktionarypar objective Objective may be: Objective lens, an optical element in a camera or microscope. ... Look up goal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In prehistoric times, man was preoccupied with his personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now man spends a major portion of his waking hours working for organizations. His need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or unofficial, leaders.[3]

Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain co-operation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment.[3] Look up factor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Leader in organizations

An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his position. However, he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority, because authority is only potentially available to him. In the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority.[3] Leadership can be defined as one's ability to get others to willingly follow. Every organization needs leaders at every level.[4]

Orthogonality and leadership

Those who praise leadership may encounter problems in implementing consistent leadership structures. For example, a pyramidal structure in which authority consistently emanates from the summit can stifle initiative and leave no path for grooming future leaders in the ranks of subordinate levels. Similarly, a belief in universal direct democracy may become unwieldy, and a system consisting of nothing but representative leaders may well become stymied in committees.

Thus many leadership systems promote different rules for different levels of leadership. Hereditary autocrats meet in the United Nations on equal representative terms with elected governments in a collegial leadership. Or individual local democracies may assign some of their powers to temporary dictators in emergencies, as in ancient Rome. Hierarchies intermingle with equality of opportunity at different levels. A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...

Support-structures for leadership

Charisma and personality alone can work miracles, yet most leaders operate within a structure of supporters and executive agents who carry out and monitor the expressed or filtered-down will of the leader. This undercutting of the importance of leadership may serve as a reminder of the existence of the follower: compare followership. A more or less formal bureaucracy (in the Weberian sense) can throw up a colorless nonentity as an entirely effective leader: this phenomenon may occur (for example) in a politburo environment. Bureaucratic organizations can also raise incompetent people to levels of leadership (see Peter Principle). For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... For the BBC sitcom, see The Peter Principle (TV series). ...

In modern dynamic environments formal bureaucratic organizations have started to become less common because of their inability to deal with fast-changing circumstances. Most modern business organizations (and some government departments) encourage what they see as "leadership skills" and reward identified potential leaders with promotions.

In a potential down-side to this sort of development, a big-picture grand-vision leader may foster another sort of hierarchy: a fetish of leadership amongst subordinate sub-leaders, encouraged to seize resources for their own sub-empires and to apply to the supreme leader only for ultimate arbitration. A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Arbitration is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the arbitrators or arbitral tribunal), by whose decision (the award) they agree to be bound. ...

Some leaders build coalitions and alliances: political parties abound with this type of leader. Still others depend on rapport with the masses: they labor on the shop-floor or stand in the front-line of battle, leading by example.

Determining what makes "effective leadership"

Leadership maintains its effectiveness sometimes by natural succession according to established rules, and sometimes by the imposition of brute force.

The simplest way to measure the effectiveness of leadership involves evaluating the size of the following that the leader can muster. By this standard, Adolf Hitler became a very effective leader for a period — even if through delusional promises and coercive techniques. However, this approach may measure power rather than leadership. To measure leadership more specifically, one may assess the extent of influence on the followers, that is, the amount of leading. Within an organizational context this means financially valuing productivity. Effective leaders generate higher productivity, lower costs, and more opportunities than ineffective leaders. Effective leaders create results, attain goal, realize vision, and other objectives more quickly and at a higher level of quality than ineffective leaders. Hitler redirects here. ...

James MacGregor Burns introduced a normative element: an effective Burnsian leader will unite followers in a shared vision that will improve an organization and society at large. Burns calls leadership that delivers "true" value, integrity, and trust transformational leadership. He distinguishes such leadership from "mere" transactional leadership that builds power by doing whatever will get more followers. [5] But problems arise in quantifying the transformational quality of leadership - evaluation of that quality seems more difficult to quantify than merely counting the followers that the straw man of transactional leadership James MacGregor Burns has set as a primary standard for effectiveness. Thus transformational leadership requires an evaluation of quality, independent of the market demand that exhibits in the number of followers. A goal is a state of affairs or a state of a concrete activity domain which a person or a system is going/tends to achieve or obtain. ... The term transformational leadership was first coined by J.V. Downton in 1973 in Rebel Leadership: Commitment and charisma in a revolutionary process. ... Transactional leaders use conventional reward and punishment to gain compliance from their followers. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... The demand for various commodities by individuals is generally thought of as the outcome of a utility-maximizing process. ...

Current assessments of transformational and transactional leadership commonly make use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), developed by Bass and Avolio in 1990 and revised in 1995. It measures five dimensions of transformational leadership: 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. idealized influence - attributions
  2. idealized influence - behaviors
  3. inspirational motivation
  4. individualized consideration
  5. intellectual stimulation

The three dimensions of transactional leadership measured by the MLQ[citation needed] cover:

  1. contingent reward
  2. management by exception (active)
  3. management by exception (passive)

The functional leadership model conceives leadership as a set of behaviors that helps a group perform a task, reach their goal, or perform their function. In this model, effective leaders encourage functional behaviors and discourage dysfunctional ones. In the functional leadership model, one conceives of leadership not as a person but rather as a set of behaviors that help a group perform their task or reach their goal. ...

In the path-goal model of leadership, developed jointly by Martin Evans and Robert House and based on the "Expectancy Theory of Motivation", a leader has the function of clearing the path toward the goal(s) of the group, by meeting the needs of subordinates. The path-goal model is a leadership theory developed jointly by Martin Evans and Robert House. ... Robert House Robert J. House is a ?British? professor of management at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. ...

Some commentators use the metaphor of an orchestral conductor to describe the quality of the leadership process. An effective leader resembles an orchestra conductor in some ways. He/she has to somehow get a group of potentially diverse and talented people - many of whom have strong personalities - to work together toward a common output. Will the conductor harness and blend all the gifts his or her players possess? Will the players accept the degree of creative expression they have? Will the audience enjoy the sound they make? The conductor may have a clear determining influence on all of these questions. For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ... Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...

Suggested qualities of leadership

Studies of leadership have suggested qualities that people often associate with leadership. They include:

  • Technical/specific skill at some task at hand
  • Charismatic inspiration - attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this esteem to motivate others
  • Preoccupation with a role - a dedication that consumes much of leaders' life - service to a cause
  • A clear sense of purpose (or mission) - clear goals - focus - commitment
  • Results-orientation - directing every action towards a mission - prioritizing activities to spend time where results most accrue
  • Cooperation - work well with others
  • Optimism - very few pessimists become leaders
  • Rejection of determinism - belief in one's ability to "make a difference"
  • Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them - delegate in such a way as people will grow
  • Role models - leaders may adopt a persona that encapsulates their mission and lead by example
  • Self-knowledge (in non-bureaucratic structures)
  • Self-awareness - the ability to "lead" (as it were) one's own self prior to leading other selves similarly
  • Awareness of environment - the ability to understand the environment they lead in and how they affect and are affected by it
  • With regards to people and to projects, the ability to choose winners - recognizing that, unlike with skills, one cannot (in general) teach attitude. Note that "picking winners" ("choosing winners") carries implications of gamblers' luck as well as of the capacity to take risks, but "true" leaders, like gamblers but unlike "false" leaders, base their decisions on realistic insight (and usually on many other factors partially derived from "real" wisdom).
  • Empathy - Understanding what others say, rather than listening to how they say things - this could partly sum this quality up as "walking in someone else's shoes" (to use a common cliché).
  • Integrity - the integration of outward actions and inner values.

In 2008 Burman and Evans[5] published a 'charter' for leaders: For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... ķ Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Strategic planning is an organizations process SCREW YOU, RILEY of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. ... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... Don Imus, The term role model was introduced by Robert K. Merton[1]. Merton says that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... The four Techniques of Knowledge, also known as kriyas may have originated from the Surat Shabda Yoga, Sant Mat and other ancient traditions in the Far East. ... For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... Gamble redirects here. ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... This article is about the ethical concept. ...

  1. Leading by example in accordance with the company’s core values.
  2. Building the trust and confidence of the people with which they work.
  3. Continually seeking improvement in their methods and effectiveness.
  4. Keeping people informed.
  5. Being accountable for their actions and holding others accountable for theirs.
  6. Involving people, seeking their views, listening actively to what they have to say and representing these views honestly.
  7. Being clear on what is expected, and providing feedback on progress.
  8. Showing tolerance of people’s differences and dealing with their issues fairly.
  9. Acknowledging and recognizing people for their contributions and performance.
  10. Weighing alternatives, considering both short and long-term effects and then being resolute in the decisions they make.

The approach of listing leadership qualities, often termed "trait theory of leadership", assumes certain traits or characteristics will tend to lead to effective leadership. Although trait theory has an intuitive appeal, difficulties may arise in proving its tenets, and opponents frequently challenge this approach. The "strongest" versions of trait theory see these "leadership characteristics" as innate, and accordingly labels some people as "born leaders" due to their psychological makeup. On this reading of the theory, leadership development involves identifying and measuring leadership qualities, screening potential leaders from non-leaders, then training those with potential. Trait theory is an approach to personality theory in psychology. ... In organizational development, leadership development is the strategic investment in, and utilization of, the human capital within the organization. ...

David McClelland saw leadership skills, not so much as a set of traits, but as a pattern of motives. He claimed that successful leaders will tend to have a high need for power, a low need for affiliation, and a high level of what he called activity inhibition (one might call it self-control). David McClelland David Clarence McClelland (1917 – March 27, 1998) was an American personality psychologist, social psychologist, and an advocate of quantitative history. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ...

Situational leadership theory offers an alternative approach. It proceeds from the assumption that different situations call for different characteristics. According to this group of theories, no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. The situational leadership model of Hersey and Blanchard, for example, suggest four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of followership-development. In this model, leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well. Other situational leadership models introduce a variety of situational variables. These determinants include: Situational leadership theories in organizational studies are a type of leadership theory, leadership style, and leadership model that presumes that different leadership styles are better in different situations, and that leaders must be flexible enough to adapt their style to the situation they are in. ...

  • the nature of the task (structured or routine)
  • organizational policies, climate, and culture
  • the preferences of the leader's superiors
  • the expectations of peers
  • the reciprocal responses of followers

The contingency model of Vroom and Yetton uses other situational variables, including:

  • the nature of the problem
  • the requirements for accuracy
  • the acceptance of an initiative
  • time-constraints
  • cost constraints

However one determines leadership behavior, one can categorize it into various leadership styles. Many ways of doing this exist. For example, the Managerial Grid Model, a behavioral leadership-model, suggests five different leadership styles, based on leaders' strength of concern for people and their concern for goal achievement. The Managerial Grid Model (1964) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. ...

Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and R. K. White identified three leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire, based on the amount of influence and power exercised by the leader. Kurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German psychologist and one of the pioneers of social psychology. ...

The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader’s effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorableness (later called "situational control"). The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler (born 1922), one of the leading scientists who helped his field move from the research of traits and personal characteristics of leaders to leadership styles and behaviours. ... FIEDLER, Fred Edward, (1922–) one of the leading scientists in Industrial and Organizational Psychology of the 20. ...

Leadership "styles" (per House and Podsakoff)

In 1994 House and Podsakoff attempted to summarize the behaviors and approaches of "outstanding leaders" that they obtained from some more modern theories and research findings. These leadership behaviors and approaches do not constitute specific styles, but cumulatively they probably[citation needed] characterize the most effective style of today's leaders/managers. The listed leadership "styles" cover: 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...

  1. Vision. Outstanding leaders articulate an ideological vision congruent with the deeply-held values of followers, a vision that describes a better future to which the followers have an alleged moral right.
  2. Passion and self-sacrifice. Leaders display a passion for, and have a strong conviction of, what they regard as the moral correctness of their vision. They engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and mission.
  3. Confidence, determination, and persistence. Outstanding leaders display a high degree of faith in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they articulate. Theoretically, such leaders need to have a very high degree of self-confidence and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the status quo and, therefore, may offend those who have a stake in preserving the established order.
  4. Image-building. House and Podsakoff regard outstanding leaders as self-conscious about their own image. They recognize the desirability of followers perceiving them as competent, credible, and trustworthy.
  5. Role-modeling. Leader-image-building sets the stage for effective role-modeling because followers identify with the values of role models whom they perceived in positive terms.
  6. External representation. Outstanding leaders act as spokespersons for their respective organizations and symbolically represent those organizations to external constituencies.
  7. Expectations of and confidence in followers. Outstanding leaders communicate expectations of high performance from their followers and strong confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectations.
  8. Selective motive-arousal. Outstanding leaders selectively arouse those motives of followers that the outstanding leaders see as of special relevance to the successful accomplishment of the vision and mission.
  9. Frame alignment. To persuade followers to accept and implement change, outstanding leaders engage in "frame alignment". This refers to the linkage of individual and leader interpretive orientations such that some set of followers’ interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leader’s activities, goals, and ideology, becomes congruent and complementary.
  10. Inspirational communication. Outstanding leaders often, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid stories, slogans, symbols, and ceremonies.

Even though these ten leadership behaviors and approaches do not really equate to specific styles, evidence has started to accumulate[citation needed] that a leader’s style can make a difference. Style becomes the key to the formulation and implementation of strategy[citation needed] and plays an important role in work-group members’ activity and in team citizenship. Little doubt exists that the way (style) in which leaders influence work-group members can make a difference in their own and their people’s performance[citation needed]. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the... Look up mission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about virtue. ... Persistence is the term used in computer science to describe a capability used by a computer programmer to store data structures in non-volatile storage such as a file system or a relational database. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Articulation may refer to several topics: In speech, linguistics, and communication: Topic-focus articulation Articulation score Place of articulation Manner of articulation In music: Musical articulations (staccato, legato, etc) In education: Articulation (education) In sociology: Articulation (sociology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Don Imus, The term role model was introduced by Robert K. Merton[1]. Merton says that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. ... A spokesperson (person could be replaced with the gender of the person), or spokesmodel is a person who speaks on behalf of others, but is understood not to be necessarily part of the others (e. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Change For other uses, see Change (disambiguation). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... As an abstract term, congruence means similarity between objects. ... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... Difference is the contrary of equality, in particular of objects. ... A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... Citizen redirects here. ...

(Adopted from: Robert House and Philip M. Podsakoff, "Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Directions for Research" in Greenberg, Jerald ed.),pp. 45-82 Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Hillsdale, NJ, England: Erlbaum Associates, Inc, 1994. x, 312 pp.}} .)

Leadership and vision

Many definitions of leadership involve an element of Goal management|vision — except in cases of involuntary leadership and often in cases of traditional leadership. A vision provides direction to the influence process. A leader or group of leaders can have one or more visions of the future to aid them to move a group successfully towards this goal. A vision, for effectiveness, should allegedly:

  • appear as a simple, yet vibrant, image in the mind of the leader
  • describe a future state, credible and preferable to the present state
  • act as a bridge between the current state and a future optimum state
  • appear desirable enough to energize followers
  • succeed in speaking to followers at an emotional or spiritual level (logical appeals by themselves seldom muster a following)

For leadership to occur, according to this theory, some people "leaders" must communicate the vision to others "followers" in such a way that the followers adopt the vision as their own. Leaders must not just see the vision themselves, they must have the ability to get others to see it also. Numerous techniques aid in this process, including: narratives, metaphors, symbolic actions, leading by example,incentives, and penalty|penalties.

Stacey (1992) has suggested that the emphasis on vision puts an unrealistic burden on the leader. Such emphasis appears to perpetuate the myth that an organization must depend on a single, uncommonly talented individual to decide what to do. Stacey claims that this fosters a culture of dependency and conformity in which followers take no pro-active incentives and do not think independently.

Kanungo's charismatic leadership model describes the role of the vision in three stages that are continuously ongoing, overlapping one another. Assessing the status quo, formulation and articulation of the vision, and implementation of the vision.

Leadership's relation with management

Some commentators link leadership closely with the idea of management. Some regard the two as synonymous, and others consider management a subset of leadership. If one accepts this premise, one can view leadership as:

  • centralized or decentralized
  • broad or focused
  • decision-oriented or morale-centred
  • intrinsic or derived from some authority

Any of the bipolar labels traditionally ascribed to management style could also apply to leadership style. Hersey and Blanchard use this approach: they claim that management merely consists of leadership applied to business situations; or in other words: management forms a sub-set of the broader process of leadership. They put it this way: "Leadership occurs any time one attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group, regardless of the reason.Management is a kind of leadership in which the achievement of organizational goals is paramount."

However, a clear distinction between management and leadership may nevertheless prove useful. This would allow for a reciprocal relationship between leadership and management, implying that an effective manager should possess leadership skills, and an effective leader should demonstrate management skills. One clear distinction could provide the following definition:

  • Management involves power by position.
  • Leadership involves power by influence.

Abraham Zaleznik (1977),for example, delineated differences between leadership and management. He saw leaders as inspiring visionaries, concerned about substance; while managers he views as planners who have concerns with process.Warren Bennis (1989) further explicated a dichotomy between managers and leaders. He drew twelve distinctions between the two groups:

  • Managers administer, leaders innovate
  • Managers ask how and when, leaders ask what and why
  • Managers focus on systems, leaders focus on people
  • Managers do things right, leaders do the right things
  • Managers maintain, leaders develop
  • Managers rely on control, leaders inspire trust
  • Managers have a short-term perspective, leaders have a longer-term perspective
  • Managers accept the status-quo, leaders challenge the status-quo
  • Managers have an eye on the bottom line, leaders have an eye on the horizon
  • Managers imitate, leaders originate
  • Managers emulate the classic good soldier, leaders are their own person
  • Managers copy, leaders show originality

Paul Birch (1999) also sees a distinction between leadership and management. He observed that, as a broad generalization, managers concerned themselves with tasks while leaders concerned themselves with people. Birch does not suggest that leaders do not focus on "the task." Indeed, the things that characterise a great leader include the fact that they achieve. Effective leaders create and sustain competitive advantage through the attainment of cost leadership, revenue leadership, time leadership, and market value leadership. Managers typically follow and realize a leader's vision. The difference lies in the leader realising that the achievement of the task comes about through the goodwill and support of others (influence), while the manager may not.

This goodwill and support originates in the leader seeing people as people, not as another resource for deployment in support of "the task". The manager often has the role of organizing resources to get something done. People form one of these resources, and many of the worst managers treat people as just another interchangeable item. A leader has the role of causing others to follow a path he/she has laid out or a vision he/she has articulated in order to achieve a task. Often, people see the task as subordinate to the vision. For instance, an organization might have the overall task of generating profit, but a good leader may see profit as a by-product that flows from whatever aspect of their vision differentiates their company from the competition.

Leadership does not only manifest itself as purely a business phenomenon. Many people can think of an inspiring leader they have encountered who has nothing whatever to do with business: a politician, an officer in the armed forces, a Scout or Guide leader, a teacher, etc. Similarly, management does not occur only as a purely business phenomenon. Again, we can think of examples of people that we have met who fill the management niche in non-business organisationsNon-business organizations should find it easier to articulate a non-money-driven inspiring vision that will support true leadership. However, often this does not occur.

Differences in the mix of leadership and management can define various management styles. Some management styles tend to de-emphasize leadership. Included in this group one could include participatory management, democratic management, and collaborative management styles. Other management styles, such as authoritarian management, micro-management, and top-down management, depend more on a leader to provide direction. Note, however, that just because an organisation has no single leader giving it direction, does not mean it necessarily has weak leadership. In many cases group leadership (multiple leaders) can prove effective. Having a single leader (as in dictatorship) allows for quick and decisive decision-making when needed as well as when not needed. Group decision-making sometimes earns the derisive label "committee-itis" because of the longer times required to make decisions, but group leadership can bring more expertise, experience, and perspectives through a democratic process.

Patricia Pitcher (1994) has challenged the bifurcation into leaders and managers. She used a factor analysis (in marketing)factor analysis technique on data collected over 8 years, and concluded that three types of leaders exist, each with very different psychological profiles:'Artists' imaginative, inspiring, visionary, entrepreneurial, intuitive, daring, and emotional Craftsmen: well-balanced, steady, reasonable, sensible, predictable, and trustworthy Technocrats: cerebral, detail-oriented, fastidious, uncompromising, and hard-headed She speculates that no one profile offers a preferred leadership style. She claims that if we want to build, we should find an "artist leader" if we want to solidify our position, we should find a "craftsman leader" and if we have an ugly job that needs to get done like downsizing.we should find a "technocratic leader".Pitcher also observed that a balanced leader exhibiting all three sets of traits occurs extremely rarely: she found none in her study.

Bruce Lynn postulates a differentiation between 'Leadership' and ‘Management’ based on perspectives to risk. Specifically,"A Leader optimises upside opportunity; a Manager minimises downside risk." He argues that successful executives need to apply both disciplines in a balance appropriate to the enterprise and its context. Leadership without Management yields steps forward, but as many if not more steps backwards. Management without Leadership avoids any step backwards, but doesn’t move forward.

Leadership by a group

In contrast to individual leadership, some organizations have adopted group leadership. In this situation, more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs, or downsizing. Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. In some situations, the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive - either by draining the resources of the group as a whole, or by impeding the creativity within the team, even unintentionally. Look up boss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ...

A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams. A team of people with diverse skills and from all parts of an organization assembles to lead a project. A team structure can involve sharing power equally on all issues, but more commonly uses rotating leadership. The team member(s) best able to handle any given phase of the project become(s) the temporary leader(s). In business, a cross-functional team consists of a group of people working toward a common goal and made of people with different functional expertise. ...

Orpheus orchestra

For example, the Orpheus orchestra has performed for over thirty years without a conductor -- that is, without a sole leader. As a team of over 25 members, it has drawn discriminating audiences, and has produced over 60 recordings for Deutsche Grammophon in successful competition with other world-class orchestras.[6] The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra is a small classical music orchestra which has made many recordings. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...

Rather than an autocratic or charismatic conductor deciding the overall conception of a work and then dictating how each individual is to perform the individual tasks, the Orpheus team generally selects a different "core group" for each piece of music. The core group provides leadership in working out the details of the piece, and presents their ideas to the whole team. Members of the whole team then participate in refining the final conception, rehearsal, and product, including checking from various places in the auditorium how the sound balances and verifying the quality of the final recording. Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... Acoustics is the interdisciplinary sciences that always deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... ==Individual Studio== A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ...

At times the entire Orpheus team may follow a single leader, but whom the team follows rotates from task to task, depending on the capabilities of its members. For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ...

The orchestra has developed seminars and training sessions for adapting the Orpheus Process to business.[7] In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ...

Historical views on leadership

Sanskrit litarature identifies ten types of leaders. Defining charecteristics of the ten types of leaders are explained with examples from history and mythology.[6] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

Aristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on one's blue blood or genes: monarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, and may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction: see the divine right of kings. Contrariwise, more democratically-inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent. Aristocrat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up talent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In the autocratic/paternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the Roman pater familias. Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may damn such models as patriarchal and posit against them emotionally-attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic guidance and matriarchies. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Feminists redirects here. ... English family c. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Matriarchy is a term, which is applied to gynocentric form of society, in which the leading role is by the female and especially by the mothers of a community. ...

Comparable to the Roman tradition, the views of Confucianism on "right living" relate very much to the ideal of the (male) scholar-leader and his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety. A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...

In On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History, Thomas Carlyle demonstrated the concept of leadership associated with a position of authority. In praising Oliver Cromwell's use of power to bring King Charles I to trial and eventual beheading, he wrote the following: "Let us remark, meanwhile, how indispensable everywhere a King is, in all movements of men. It is strikingly shown, in this very War, what becomes of men when they cannot find a Chief Man, and their enemies can." [1] Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...

Within the context of Islam, views on the nature, scope and inheritance of leadership have played a major role in shaping sects and their history. See caliphate. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...

In the 19th century, the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question. (Note that the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word "leadership" in English only as far back as the 19th century.) One response to this denial of élitism came with Leninism, which demanded an élite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard of a socialist revolution, bringing into existence the dictatorship of the proletariat. Anarchist redirects here. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite — a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below) — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... The concept of professional revolutionaries, alternatively called cadre, is in origin a Leninist concept used to describe a body of devoted communists who spend the great majority of their time organizing their party toward proletarian revolution. ... A vanguard party is a political party or grassroot organization at the forefront of a mass action, movement, or revolution. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a...

Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership. The doctrines of Caesaro-papism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has often emphasized stewardship of divinely-provided resources - human and material - and their deployment in accordance with a Divine plan. Compare servant leadership. Caesaropapism is the phenomenon of combining the power of worldy (secular) government with the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the subordination of the spiritual power of the Christian Church to governmental authority; in its extreme form, it is a political theory in which the head of state... Look up stewardship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Servant leadership is an approach to leadership development, coined and defined by Robert Greenleaf and advanced by several authors such as Stephen Covey, Peter Block, Peter Senge, Max De Pree, Margaret Wheatley, Ken Blanchard, and others. ...

For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the statesman. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...

Alternatives to leadership

Within groups, alternatives to the cult of leadership include using decision-making structures such as co-operative ventures, collegiality, consensus, anarchism and applied democracy. One can downplay the ubiquitous idea of leadership by using structures such as information clearing houses or stressing functions such as administration. Note the different implications and connotations of the two phrases "coalition of the willing" and "US-led coalition". The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, which practices a form of distributed leadership, provides a textbook example of alternative leadership. A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... Anarchist redirects here. ... A clearing house (or clearinghouse) is an organization affiliated with a securities or derivatives exchange that completes the transactions on that exchange by seeing to validation, delivery, and settlement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... The multi-national force in Iraq invaded the country in March 2003 (see 2003 invasion of Iraq). ... The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra is a small classical music orchestra which has made many recordings. ...

See also

Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... John Adair is recognized as being one of the most influential authorities on leadership and his work is regarded in line with motivational theorists such as Maslow, McGregor and Herzberg. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Jesus is considered by historians such as Weber to be an example of a charismatic religious leader; The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Coaching is a method of directing, instructing and training a person or group of people, with the aim to achieve some goal or develop specific skills. ... Crowd psychology is a branch of social psychology. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci. ... Dale Carnegie Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (originally Carnegey) (November 24, 1888–November 1, 1955) was an American writer and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking and interpersonal skills. ... Dependability is a value showing the reliability of a person to others because of his integrity, truthfulness, and trustfulness, traits that can encourage someone to depend on him. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... The study of the future researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world. ... For other uses, see Forgiveness (disambiguation). ... Four Cardinal Virtues of the Catholic Church doing bad to. ... The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler (born 1922), one of the leading scientists who helped his field move from the research of traits and personal characteristics of leaders to leadership styles and behaviours. ... In the functional leadership model, one conceives of leadership not as a person but rather as a set of behaviors that help a group perform their task or reach their goal. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... Inter-Disciplinary Leadership -- or IDEAL Leadership -- is a scientific leadership theory developed in 2001 by Larry Stout, a professor at the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga (Latvia). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Lance H.K.Secretan Lance H.K. Secretan was born (1939) in Amersham, United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Scoutmaster. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Leadership Character ModelSM is a prescriptive leadership theory developed by Robert Turknett and Carolyn Turknett of the Turknett Leadership Group. ... In organizational development, leadership development is the strategic investment in, and utilization of, the human capital within the organization. ... The Managerial Grid Model (1964) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. ... A minister can mean several things: A government minister is a politician who heads a government ministry A minister of religion is a member of the clergy A minister is the rank of diplomat directly below ambassador This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Nicomachean Ethics Nicomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled Nichomachean), or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotle on virtue and moral character which plays a prominent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Perseverance Perseverance was an early steam locomotive that took part in the Rainhill Trials. ... In physics, a potential may refer to the scalar potential or to the vector potential. ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Professional development often refers to skills required for maintaining a specific career path or to general skills offered through continuing education, including the more general skills area of personal development. ... The path-goal model is a leadership theory developed jointly by Martin Evans and Robert House. ... Respect It also could be applied to taking care of oneself, others or the environment. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... The word restraint has several meanings: the emotional discipline of self-restraint handcuffs, shackles and other forms of physical restraint the act of employing physical restraints See also: constraint This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ... Self-Reliance is an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson. ... Look up sensitivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Servant leadership is an approach to leadership development, coined and defined by Robert Greenleaf and advanced by several authors such as Stephen Covey, Peter Block, Peter Senge, Max De Pree, Margaret Wheatley, Ken Blanchard, and others. ... Situational leadership theories in organizational studies are a type of leadership theory, leadership style, and leadership model that presumes that different leadership styles are better in different situations, and that leaders must be flexible enough to adapt their style to the situation they are in. ... Social skills are skills a social animal uses to interact and communicate with others to assist status in the social structure and other motivations. ... The three Theological Virtues listed in the Bible are: faith hope charity They are mentioned in 1 Corinthians 13:13 And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity (from the King James version) The New King James version and New International version translate... Trait theory is an approach to personality theory in psychology. ... The term transformational leadership was first coined by J.V. Downton in 1973 in Rebel Leadership: Commitment and charisma in a revolutionary process. ... Trustworthiness is a moral value considered to be a virtue. ... Honest redirects here, For other uses, see Honesty (disambiguation) Look up honesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or an organization, and who abuses the leader-follower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when s/he first found them. ... Youth leadership is the practice of teens exercising authority over themselves or others. ...


  1. ^ a b ibiblio.org
  2. ^ Cecil A Gibb (1970). Leadership (Handbook of Social Psychology). Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 884-89. ISBN 0140805176 9780140805178. OCLC 174777513. 
  3. ^ a b c Henry P. Knowles; Borje O. Saxberg (1971). Personality and Leadership Behavior. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 884-89. ISBN 0140805176 9780140805178. OCLC 118832. 
  4. ^ http://www.hrworld.com/features/top-10-leadership-qualities-031908/.
  5. ^ Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008) Target Zero: A Culture of safety, Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal 2008, 22-27. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/849892B2-D6D2-4DFD-B5BD-9A4F288A9B18/0/DASCJournal2008.pdf
  6. ^ KSEEB. Sanskrit Text Book -9th Grade. Governament of Karnataka, India. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

General references

  • Argyris, C. (1976) Increasing Leadership Effectiveness, Wiley, New York, 1976 (even though published in 1976, this still remains a "standard" reference text)
  • Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (1995). MLQ Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire for Research: Premission Set. Redwood City, CA: Mindgarden.
  • Bennis, W. (1989) On Becoming a Leader, Addison Wesley, New York, 1989
  • Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership, New York, NY: Harper Torchbooks.
  • Crawford, C. J. (2005). Corporate rise the X principles of extreme personal leadership. Santa Clara, CA: XCEO. ISBN 0-976-90190-0 9780976901907
  • APA
  • Greiner, K. (2002). The inaugural speech. ERIC Accession Number ED468083 [8].
  • Heifetz, R. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-51858-6
  • House, R. J. (2004) Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, 2004 [9].
  • Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B. Z. (2002). The leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Laubach, R. (2005) Leadership is Influence
  • Machiavelli, Niccolo (1530) The Prince
  • Maxwell, J. C. & Dornan, J. (2003) Becoming a Person of Influence
  • Nanus, Burt (1995) The visionary leadership
  • Pitcher, P. (1994 French) Artists, Craftsmen, and Technocrats: The dreams realities and illusions of leadership, Stoddart Publishing, Toronto, 2nd English edition, 1997. ISBN 0-7737-5854-2
  • Renesch, John (1994) Leadership in a New Era: Visionary Approaches to the Biggest Crisis of Our Time, San Francisco, New Leaders Press (paperback 2002, New York, Paraview Publishing
  • Renesch, John (2001) "Conscious Leadership: Taking Responsibility for Our Better Future," LOHAS Weekly Newsletter, March 1, 2001 [10]
  • Roberts, W. (1987) Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun
  • Stacey, R. (1992) Managing Chaos, Kogan-Page, London, 1992
  • Terry, G. (1960) The Principles of Management, Richard Irwin Inc, Homewood Ill, pg 5.
  • Torbert, W. (2004) Action Inquiry: the Secret of Timely and Transforming Leadership, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Warneka, P and Warneka, T. (2007). The Way of Leading People: Unlocking Your Integral Leadership Skills with the Tao Te Ching. Asogomi Publications Intl. Cleveland, Ohio. website
  • Warneka, T. (2006). Leading People the Black Belt Way: Conquering the Five Core Problems Facing Leaders Today. Asogomi Publications Intl. Cleveland, Ohio. website
  • Warneka, T. (2008). Black Belt Leader, Peaceful Leader: An Introduction to Catholic Servant Leadership. website
  • Zaleznik, A. (1977) "Managers and Leaders: Is there a difference?", Harvard Business Review, May-June, 1977

External links

Leadership at the Open Directory Project The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  • Article on CEO Supercoaching
  • USA Today articles on corporate leadership
  • Executive suite link to USA Today profiles and Q&As with CEOs

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