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Encyclopedia > Le Refus Global

Le Refus Global, or Total Refusal, was an anti-establishment and anti-religious manifesto released on August 9, 1948 in Montreal by a group of sixteen young Quebecois artists and intellectuals that included Paul-Émile Borduas and Jean-Paul Riopelle, . Anti-establishment defines a certain view or belief that goes against the conventional social, political and economic principles being used in society. ... Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion, but should not be confused with atheism. ... A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions, often political in nature. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Motto: Concordia Salus Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area    - City 366. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: ) is a native or resident of the province of Quebec, Canada, especially a French-speaking one. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Paul-Émile Borduas (November 1, 1905 - February 22, 1960) was a Canadian painter known for his abstract paintings. ... La Joute, by Jean-Paul Riopelle Jean-Paul Riopelle (7 October 1923 - 12 March 2002) was a painter and sculptor from Quebec. ...


Le Refus Global originated from a group called Les Automatistes, led by Paul-Émile Borduas. This group created abstract paintings inspired by French surrealists of the time and scorned all academic teaching available at the time in Quebec. The signatories were also highly influenced by French poet André Breton's stream-of-consciousness style and extolled the creative force of the subconscious. Les Automatistes were a group of Quebecois artistic dissidents from Montreal, Quebec. ... Paul-Émile Borduas (November 1, 1905 - February 22, 1960) was a Canadian painter known for his abstract paintings. ... One of Kandiskys most famous paintings Yellow Red Blue (Kandinsky 1925) Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses shapes and colours in a non-representational or non-objective way. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... André Breton (February 18, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness denotes a literary technique which seeks to describe an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ...


Le Refus Global was a manifesto that completely rejected the social, artistic and psychological norms and values of Quebecois society at the time. Calling for "an untamed need for liberation," the manifesto cried out for "resplendent anarchy" and criticized the "cassocks that have remained the sole repositories of faith, knowledge, truth, and national wealth[1]." Pierre Gauvreau, one of the signatories, said that the main message of the manifesto is that "God does not exist [2]." Almost immediately after its launch, all of the 400 copies of Le Refus Global were sold out. This manifesto caused an uproar, and as a result of this manifesto, Borduas lost his job at the Ecole du Meuble[3]. The word norm coming from the latin word norma which means angle measure or (lawlike) rule, has a number of meanings: A social or sociological norm; see norm (sociology). ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: ) is a native or resident of the province of Quebec, Canada, especially a French-speaking one. ... Pierre Gauvreau (born 23 August 1922 in Montreal) is a Québécois painter who has also worked in film and television productions. ... Paul-Émile Borduas (November 1, 1905 - February 22, 1960) was a Canadian painter known for his abstract paintings. ...


It has been said by commentators that from the publication of this manifesto, "modern French Canada began" [4], while CBC calls it "one of the most important and controversial artistic and social documents in modern Quebec society". [5] Along with the publication of Les insolences du Frère Untel (the impertinences of Brother Somebody), the Asbestos miners' strike of 1949, and the Maurice Richard Riot of 1955, Le Refus Global is widely seen to have been one of the fundamental causes of the Quiet Revolution. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Les insolences du Frère Untel is a book first published in Montreal by les Editions de lhomme in 1960. ... The Asbestos Strike of 1949, based in and around Asbestos, Quebec, Canada, was a four-month labour dispute by the asbestos miners. ... The Richard Riot was a riot that had occurred on 17 March 1955 in Montreal, Quebec. ... The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ...


See also

Les Automatistes were a group of Quebecois artistic dissidents from Montreal, Quebec. ...

External links

  • Text of Refus global (in French)
  • English translation of "Refus global"
  • CBC Digital Archives - Le Refus global: Revolution in the Arts
  • Time Article on Borduas and Le Refus Global

 
 

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