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Encyclopedia > Lazare Carnot
Lazare Carnot
Lazare Carnot

Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (May 13, 1753August 2, 1823) was a French politician, engineer, and mathematician. He is best known for his role as Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars. Lazare Carnot, taken from fr: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Lazare Carnot, taken from fr: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For article about famous philosopher and sociologist, see Auguste Comte Comte is a title of French nobility. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain Russian Empire Sardinia France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, beginning in 1792 and lasting until the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ...

Contents

Life

Education and early life

Born in Nolay, Carnot was educated in Burgundy and obtained a commission in the engineer corps of the Prince de Condé. Although in the army, he continued his mathematical studies in which he felt great interest. His first work, published in 1784, was on machines; it contains a statement which foreshadows the principle of energy as applied to a falling weight, and the earliest proof of the fact that kinetic energy is lost in the collision of imperfectly elastic bodies. Nolay is the name of two communes in France: Nolay, in the Côte-dOr département Nolay, in the Nièvre département Category: ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive and defensive structures for warfare. ... Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Kinetic energy is the energy that a body possesses as a result of its motion. ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ...


Political career

On the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Carnot entered political life. He became a delegate to the Legislative Assembly in 1791, to the National Convention in 1792 (where he voted in favor of King Louis XVI's death penalty), and in 1793 he was elected to the Committee of Public Safety. The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, kept at the National Library of France The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later as emperors, from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. ...


The creation and victories of the French Revolutionary Army were largely due to his powers of organization and enforcing discipline, with successes both in the actual theatre of operations and in obtaining fresh recruits by compulsion: the levée en masse, which amounted to a one-off conscription. It added significantly to discontent with the course of the Revolution in still Bourbon-loyalist areas — such as the Vendée, which broke out in open revolt — but the government of the time considered it a success, and Carnot became known as the Organizer of Victory. In autumn 1793, he took charge of French columns on the Northern Front, and contributed to Jean-Baptiste Jourdan's victory in the Battle of Wattignies. The standard of the Revolutionary 1ére Demi-Brigade dInfanterie de Bataille, 1794 pattern. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... Vendée is a département in west central France, on the Atlantics Bay of Biscay. ... Flag of the so-called Armée Royale et Catholique (Royal and Catholic Army) from Vendée Insigna of the royalist insurgents During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendéan Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendée... The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1792, with new powers entering the First coalition after the execution of King Louis XVI. Spain and Portugal entered the coalition in January 1793, and on February 1 France declared war on Great Britain and the Netherlands. ... Jean-Baptiste Jourdan Jean-Baptiste, comte Jourdan (April 29, 1762 – November 23, 1833), was a marshal of France. ... The Battle of Wattignies, during the French Revolutionary Wars, was fought at the village of Wattignies-la-Victoire on October 15 and October 16, Austrians under General Cobourg. ...


He had taken no steps to oppose the Reign of Terror, but he, along with other technocrats on the committee like Robert Lindet and Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau, turned on Maximilien Robespierre and his allies during the Thermidorian Reaction. A Phrygian cap from 1790s France, it reads: The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... Technocracy (techno for technology and cracy for power) is an organizational system in which decision makers and political leaders are selected on the basis of technological knowledge —often because of some conflict or competition where technological escalation is a constant feature. ... Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet (1746 - February 17, 1825) was a French Revolutionary. ... Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau. ... Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 9 Thermidor. ...


With the establishment of the Directory in 1795, Carnot became one of the initial directors. His and Étienne-François Letourneur's moderation was viewed as weakness, and it probably contributed to France's failure to capitalize on the Treaty of Campo Formio. After Letourneur had been replaced by another close collaborator of Carnot, François de Barthélemy, both of them, alongside many deputies in the Council of Five Hundred ousted in the Fructidor coup d'état of (September 4, 1797), engineered by Generals Napoleon Bonaparte (originally, Carnot's protégé) and Pierre François Charles Augereau. He took refuge in Geneva, and there in 1797 issued his La métaphysique du calcul infinitésimal. Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Étienne-François-Louis-Honoré Letourneur, Le Tourneur, or Le Tourneur de la Manche (March 15, 1751—October 4, 1817) was a French lawyer, soldier, and politician of the French Revolution. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cents), or simply the Five Hundred was the lower house of the legislature of France during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory (Directoire), from August 22, 1795 until November 9, 1799... Fructidor was the twelfth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Mentoring refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a mentoree (sometimes vernacularized into mentee) or protégé. // Historical The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. ... Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione (October 21, 1757 – June 12, 1816) was marshal of France, a hero of both the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


In 1800 he was appointed Minister of War by Bonaparte, and served in that office at the time of the Battle of Marengo. In 1802, he voted for the establishment of Napoleon's Consular powers for life. 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... This page is a list of French defence ministers. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian empire Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Desaix† Michael von Melas Strength 28,000 and 24 guns 31,000 and 100 guns Casualties 4-7,000 total 6,000 dead, 8,000 and 40 guns captured The Battle of Marengo was fought near the city of Alessandria, in... --69. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Retirement

However, his republican convictions were inconsistent with high office under the First French Empire, and he resigned from public life - although he was later made a Count of the Empire by Napoleon as Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, comte Carnot. The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non...


In 1803 he produced his Géométrie de position. This work deals with projective rather than descriptive geometry, it also contains an elaborate discussion of the geometrical meaning of negative roots of an algebraic equation. Carnot returned to office in defense of Napoleon during the disastrous invasion of Russia; he was assigned the defence of Anvers against the Sixth Coalition - he only surrendered on the demand of the Count of Artois. Projective geometry is a non-metrical form of geometry that emerged in the early 19th century. ... Descriptive geometry builds on a practice, evolved over centuries, of displaying two images of an object, one as seen in one direction and a second image as seen from a direction 90° rotated (e. ... In mathematics, a root (or a zero) of a function f is an element x in the domain of f such that f(x) = 0. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... An equation is a mathematical statement, in symbols, that two things are the same. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Charles X of France and Navarre (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) was born at the Palace of Versailles. ...


During the Hundred Days, he served as Minister of the Interior for Napoleon, and was exiled as a regicide during the White Terror after the Second Restoration. He lived in Warsaw, and moved to Prussia, where he died in the city of Magdeburg. Carnot's remains were interred at the Panthéon in 1889, at the same time as those of Marie Victor de La Tour-Maubourg, Jean-Baptiste Baudin, and François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers. The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly names the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours was... This page is a list of French interior ministers. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Panthéon The Panthéon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers (March 1, 1769 - September 21, 1796), French general, was born at Chartres. ...


Famous offspring

Sadi Carnot Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French mathematician and engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, the Carnot cycle, and laid the foundations of the second law of thermodynamics. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... A heat engine performs the conversion of heat energy to work by exploiting the temperature gradient between a hot source and a cold sink. Heat is transferred to the sink from the source, and in this process some of the heat is converted into work. ... A heat engine is an engine that uses heat to produce mechanical work by carrying a working substance through a cyclic process. ... Lazare Hippolyte Carnot (October 6, 1801 - March 16, 1888) was a French statesman. ... Marie François Sadi-Carnot, President of France Marie François Sadi Carnot (August 11, 1837 - June 24, 1894) was a French statesman, the fourth president of the third French Republic. ... The President of the French Republic (French: ) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State and also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra and Grand Master of the Légion dhonneur. ...

References

  • W. W. Rouse Ball, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (4th Edition, 1908)

Walter William Rouse Ball (1850 August 14–1925 April 4) was a Brtish mathematician, and a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge from 1878 to 1905. ...

External links

  • O'Connor, John J., and Edmund F. Robertson. "Lazare Carnot". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot - LoveToKnow 1911 (1215 words)
Carnot was a stern and sincere republican, and voted for the execution of the king.
When Carnot's arrest was demanded in May 1 795, a deputy cried "Will you dare to lay hands on the man who has organized victory?" Carnot had just accepted promotion to the rank of major in the engineers.
Carnot was elected one of the five Directors in November 1795, and continued to direct the war department during the campaign of 1796.
Sadi Carnot (867 words)
Sadi Carnot was the eldest son of Lazare Carnot and he was born in the Palais du Petit-Luxembourg.
Lazare Carnot resigned in 1807 and devoted himself to the education of his two sons.
Carnot continued with his research after the publication of his book and although nothing of this was published, notes that Carnot made as his ideas developed have survived.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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