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Encyclopedia > Lawrence of Arabia (film)
Lawrence of Arabia
Directed by David Lean
Produced by Sam Spiegel
Written by Robert Bolt
Michael Wilson (uncredited due to blacklist)
Starring Peter O'Toole
Omar Sharif
Alec Guinness
Anthony Quinn
Jack Hawkins
José Ferrer
Anthony Quayle
Claude Rains
Music by Maurice Jarre
Cinematography Freddie Young
Editing by Anne V. Coates
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) Flag of the United Kingdom 10 December 1962 (premiere)
Flag of the United States 16 December 1962 (premiere)
Flag of Canada 30 January 1963
Flag of Australia 1 November 1963
Running time 227 Min
Director's Cut
Country UK
Language English / Arabic / Turkish
Budget $15,000,000
IMDb profile

Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. The film stars Peter O'Toole in the title role. It was directed by David Lean and produced by Austrian Sam Spiegel (through his British company, Horizon Pictures), from a script by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson (Lean and Spiegel had recently completed the acclaimed film, The Bridge on the River Kwai). It is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of filmmaking. The dramatic score by Maurice Jarre, and Super Panavision 70 cinematography by Freddie Young, are also hugely acclaimed. This work is copyrighted. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... For other persons named Michael Wilson, see Michael Wilson (disambiguation). ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 Chihuahua, Mexico – June 3, 2001 Boston, Massachusetts) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... John Edward Jack Hawkins (September 14, 1910 - July 18, 1973) was a British film actor of the 1950s and 1960s. ... José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintrón (January 8, 1909 – January 26, 1992), was an Academy Award-winning Puerto Rican actor and film director, born in the Santurce district of San Juan, Puerto Rico. ... Anthony Quayle Sir John Anthony Quayle (7 September 1913 – 20 October 1989) was an English actor and director. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ... Maurice Jarre (born in Lyon, France, September 13, 1924) is a French composer and conductor. ... Freddie Young (9th October, 1902 - 1st December, 1998), (sometimes credited as Frederick A. Young) was one of Britains most distinguished and influential cinematographers. ... Anne V. Coates (born 12 December 1925) is a Academy Award winning British film editor with a 40-year-plus career in film editing. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A directors cut is a specially edited version of a film, and less often TV series, music video, commercials or video games, that is supposed to represent the directors own approved edit. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... // Events Dr. No launches the James Bond film series, the longest-running motion picture franchise of all time, running more than 40 years. ... // T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... For other persons named Michael Wilson, see Michael Wilson (disambiguation). ... The Bridge on the River Kwai is an Academy Award-winning 1957 World War II war film based on the novel Le Pont de la Rivière Kwaï by French writer Pierre Boulle. ... A film being made in Warsaw, Bracka street Filmmaking is the process of making a film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting, shooting, editing and finally distribution to an audience. ... Maurice Jarre (born in Lyon, France, September 13, 1924) is a French composer and conductor. ... Super Panavision 70 was the marketing brand used to identify movies photographed with Panavision 65mm cameras and spherical optics between 1959 and 1970. ... Freddie Young (9th October, 1902 - 1st December, 1998), (sometimes credited as Frederick A. Young) was one of Britains most distinguished and influential cinematographers. ...


The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in Arabia during World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council. Its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with violence in war (especially the conflicts between Arabic tribes and the slaughter of the Turkish army), his personal identity ("Who are you?" is a recurring line throughout the film), and his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army, and his newfound comrades within the Arabian desert tribes. The film is unusual in having no women in speaking roles. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...

Contents

Plot

The film opens with Lawrence (O'Toole) as a civilian, riding his motorcycle down a narrow English country road, only to be killed when he tries to avoid a collision with a couple of bicyclists. His funeral is staged at St. Paul's Cathedral. Reporters try to gain insights into this remarkable, but enigmatic, man from people who knew him, but with little success. St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...

Peter O'Toole as Lawrence

The movie then flashes back to Cairo during World War I, where Lawrence is a misfit British lieutenant, notable only for his insolence and knowledge of the Bedouin. Over the objections of a sceptical General Murray (Donald Wolfit), he is sent by Mr. Dryden (Claude Rains) of the Arab Bureau to assess the prospects of Prince Feisal (Alec Guinness) in his revolt against the Turks, allies of the Germans. Image File history File links 3292006113525. ... Image File history File links 3292006113525. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... Sir Archibald James Murray (1860-1945) was a British military officer during World War I, most famous for his commanding the Egyptian Expeditionary Force from 1916-7. ... Donald Wolfit (1902-1968) was an English actor-manager, knighted in 1957 for his services to the theatre. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ... The Arab Bureau was a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department during the First World War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ...


On his journey, his Bedouin guide is killed by Sherif Ali (Omar Sharif) for drinking from his well without permission. Just outside Faisal's camp, he encounters his superior officer, Colonel Brighton (Anthony Quayle), who orders him to keep quiet, make his assessment and then leave. He promptly ignores these commands when he meets Feisal. His fine intellect and outspokenness piques the prince's interest. For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... Anthony Quayle Sir John Anthony Quayle (7 September 1913 – 20 October 1989) was an English actor and director. ...


Brighton advises the Arab leader to retreat after a major defeat, but Lawrence proposes an alternative, an attack on Aqaba. If taken, the town would provide a port from which the British could offload much-needed supplies for the rebellion, but it is too strongly guarded against a naval assault. However, Lawrence proposes an assault on the lightly-defended landward side. He convinces Faisal to provide fifty men on camels, led by Sherif Ali. As they prepare to leave, two teenage orphan boys, Daud (John Dimech) and Farraj (Michel Ray), attach themselves to Lawrence as his servants. They cross the Nefud Desert, considered impassable even by the Bedouins, travelling day and night on the last stage to reach water. Gasim (I. S. Johar) succumbs to fatigue and falls off his camel unnoticed during the night. The rest make it to an oasis, but Lawrence turns back for the lost man, risking his own life. When he successfully rescues Gasim, the Bedouins are convinced he enjoys the favor of Allah. Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... ... Inder Sen Johar (b. ...


Having crossed the desert, Lawrence meets with Auda abu Tayi (Anthony Quinn), the leader of the powerful local Howeitat tribe, and convinces him to turn against the Turks. Lawrence's plans are almost derailed when one of Ali's men kills one of Auda's because of a blood feud. Since no Howeitat can retaliate without angering Ali's followers, Lawrence declares that he will execute the murderer himself. He is stunned to discover that the culprit is Gasim, the man whose life he had saved, but he shoots him regardless. The intact alliance then sweeps into Aqaba and captures it in a surprise attack. Auda is less than pleased though, as the Turkish money captured there is all in paper form, not gold as Lawrence had claimed. Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ... Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 Chihuahua, Mexico – June 3, 2001 Boston, Massachusetts) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... Blood Feud is the last episode of the second season of The Simpsons. ...


Lawrence heads to Cairo, to inform Dryden and the new commanding general, General Allenby (Jack Hawkins), of his victory. Crossing the Sinai Desert, his servant Daud dies when he stumbles into quicksand. Lawrence is promoted two ranks to major and given arms and money to support the Arabs. He asks Allenby whether the Arabs' suspicions have any basis, that the British have designs on Arabia after the Turks are driven out; the general says at first that he's not a politician, then, when pressed, that they don't. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Edward Jack Hawkins (September 14, 1910 - July 18, 1973) was a British film actor of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Dry quicksand is loose sand whose bulk density is reduced by blowing air through it and which yields easily to weight or pressure. ...


Lawrence launches a guerrilla war, blowing up trains and harassing the Turks at every turn. American war correspondent Jackson Bentley (Arthur Kennedy) makes him world famous by publicizing his exploits. With winter approaching, many of the tribesmen go home for the year, leaving fewer and fewer die-hard supporters to continue fighting. On one raid, Farraj is badly injured when the detonator he is carrying blows up prematurely. Unwilling to leave him for the Turks to torture, Lawrence is forced to shoot him before fleeing. Arthur Kennedy (February 17, 1914 _ January 5, 1990) was an American actor. ...


Down to twenty men, he scouts the enemy-held city of Daraa with Ali, but is taken, along with several Arabs, to the decadent Turkish Bey (Jose Ferrer). After striking the Bey after he is covetously eyed and prodded, he is severely beaten and then thrown out into the street. Though the matter is controversial, historians and biographers (including Lawrence's authorized biographer, Jeremy Wilson) say that the rape implied by Seven Pillars of Wisdom and other sources is also implied in the film.[1] Traumatized by the experience, he abandons the fight and makes a futile attempt to return to ordinary life. Daraa (fortress, compare Dura-Europos) (Arabic: درعا) is a city in southwestern Syria, near the border with Jordan. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintron, known as José Ferrer (January 8, 1912-January 26, 1992), was an actor and director, born in Santurce, Puerto Rico. ...

Lawrence and the Arab Council in Damascus. Auda abu Tayi is seated on the left, Sherif Ali on the right.

In Jerusalem, Allenby urges him to go back to the fighting to support his "big push" on Damascus, but Lawrence is a changed, tormented man and, at first, does not want to return. Lawrence relents and recruits known killers and cutthroats. Many in the army he gathers together are motivated by money, rather than the Arab cause. Now reveling in the killing, he orders "No prisoners!", resulting in the slaughter of the retreating Turkish soldiers at Tafas. Lawrence's men then take Damascus before Allenby. Image File history File links Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...


The Arabs set up a council to administer the city, but they are tribesmen, not a nation. Unable to maintain the electricity, telephones and waterworks, and clashing constantly with each other, they soon abandon most of Damascus to the British. Lawrence is promoted to colonel and then immediately deactivated and sent home, his usefulness at an end. The negotiations are left to Faisal and the British and French diplomats. A morose, dejected Lawrence rides in a staff car on his way back to England.


Historical Accuracy

The historical accuracy of the film, and particularly its portrayal of Lawrence himself, has been called into question by numerous scholars.[2] Most of the film's characters are either real or based on real characters to varying degrees. The events depicted in the film are largely based on accepted historical fact and Lawrence's own writing about events, though they have various degrees of romanticization.


Some scenes (such as the attack on Aqaba) were heavily fictionalized, while those dealing with the Arab Council were inaccurate, in as much as the council remained more or less in power in Syria until France deposed Faisal in 1920. The theme (in the second half of the film) that Lawrence's Arab army deserted almost to a man as he moved further north was completely fictional. The film's timeline of the Arab Revolt and World War I, and the geography of the Hedjaz region, are frequently questionable (for instance, Bentley interviews Faisal in late 1917, after the fall of Aqaba, saying the United States has not yet entered the war; yet America had been in the war for several months by that point in time), and Lawrence's involvement in the Revolt prior to the attack on Aqaba (such as his involvement in the seizures of Yenbo and Wejh) is completely excised. Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... NASA photograph of Yanbu al Bahr Yanbu al Bahr (arabic: ينبع البحر spring by the sea), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo, or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. ... Al Wajh is a coastal town in northwestern Saudi Arabia, on the coast of the Red Sea. ...


Representation of Lawrence

Many complaints about the film's accuracy, however, center on the characterization of Lawrence himself.

The real Lawrence of Arabia in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca.

The perceived problems with the portrayal of Lawrence begin with the differences in his physical appearance: 6 foot 2 inch Peter O'Toole was almost nine inches taller than the real Lawrence. His behavior, however, has caused much more debate. Image File history File links Thomas_Edward_Lawrence-Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Edward_Lawrence-Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... // T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... A Sharif is a traditional Arab tribal title given to those to serve as the protector of the tribe and all tribal assets, property, land, wells etc. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ...


The screenwriters depict Lawrence as an egotist. Lawrence actually shunned the limelight, as evidenced by his attempts after the war to hide under various assumed names. Even during the war, Lowell Thomas wrote in With Lawrence in Arabia that he could only take pictures of him by tricking him (though he did later agree to pose for several pictures for Thomas's stage show). Thomas's famous comment that Lawrence "had a genius for backing into the limelight" referred to the fact that his extraordinary actions prevented him from being as private as he would have liked. Others disagree, pointing to Lawrence's own writings in Seven Pillars of Wisdom to support the argument that he was egotistical. In philosophy, two different theories are labeled egoism: psychological egoism is the view that one is always motivated to act in ones own best interests, while ethical egoism is the view that one ought to always act that way. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel...


A controversial choice is the portrayal of Lawrence as being repulsed by violence while also enjoying it. The real Lawrence was far from a pacifist before the war; indeed, he was a crack shot with a pistol (his preferred weapon being a Colt .45 Peacemaker) and enjoyed practising at shooting ranges when he could. There is no record of his feeling any particular remorse over the Tafas massacre in his writings or other correspondence (it was, after all, retaliation by the Bedouin for the Turks' sack of the village). Lawrence was remorseful to some extent over the number of Turks (and Arabs) killed in his campaigns (as is clear throughout Seven Pillars and other writings of his), but the depiction of him as a sadist who enjoyed violence is based on no historical evidence. Modern copy of the Colt Single Action Army handgun Also known as the Colt Peacemaker or Single Action Army, the most exotic of which being the Black Powder model, the Colt Single Action Army handgun is a single action revolver holding 6 rounds of ammunition, that was designed for the... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western...


It should be pointed out that Lawrence was aware of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, contrary to the film, but he hoped that the Arabs' contribution to the Allied victory would convince the Allies to grant the Arabs their independence. Lawrence was, as the film suggests, torn between loyalty to the British and his promises to the Arabs; but by omitting his knowledge of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the film removes the catalyst for this conflict. Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then...


Representation of other characters

Jack Hawkins as General Allenby

The film's portrayal of General Allenby as a cynical, manipulative superior is not entirely accurate either. Allenby and Lawrence respected and liked each other; Lawrence once said of Allenby that he was "an admiration of mine"[3], and later that "[he was] physically large and confident, and morally so great that the comprehension of our littleness came slow to him".[4] Allenby, for his part, remarked upon Lawrence's death that "I have lost a good friend and a valued comrade. Lawrence was under my command, but, after acquainting him with my strategical plan, I gave him a free hand. His co-operation was marked by the utmost loyalty, and I never had anything but praise for his work which, indeed, was invaluable throughout the campaign,"[5] (in contrast to the fictional Allenby's words at Lawrence's funeral in the film) and spoke highly of him on numerous other occasions. It seems likely that this characterization of Allenby is in large part due to the screenwriters' anti-war sentiments. While Allenby admittedly did manipulate Lawrence during the war, their relationship lasted for years after its end, indicating that, in real-life, they were friendly, if not terribly close. Similarly, General Murray, though initially skeptical of the Arab Revolt's potential, thought highly of Lawrence's abilities as an intelligence officer; the intense dislike shown towards Lawrence in the film is in fact the opposite of Murray's real feelings. Image File history File links Allenby. ... Image File history File links Allenby. ... John Edward Jack Hawkins (September 14, 1910 - July 18, 1973) was a British film actor of the 1950s and 1960s. ...


The depiction of Auda abu Tayi as a man only interested in loot and money is also at odds with the historical record. While Auda did at first join the Arab Revolt for monetary reasons, he quickly became a steadfast supporter of Arab independence and only abandoned the cause after the collapse of the Arab government in Damascus. He was present with Lawrence from the beginning of the Aqaba expedition, and in fact helped plan it along with Faisal I of Iraq. Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Faisal, far from being the middle-aged man depicted, was in reality in his early thirties at the time of the revolt.[6] While Faisal was considered by Lawrence to be a wise and insightful man, he also had a nasty sense of humor (often involving practical jokes) which is not evident in the film. He also did not speak English, whereas in the film he is quite fluent.


A particularly telling fact of the film's inaccuracies are the reaction of those who knew Lawrence and the other characters. The most vehement critic of the film's inaccuracy was Professor A.W. Lawrence, T.E.'s younger brother and literary executor who had given the rights to Seven Pillars to Sam Spiegel for ƒ25,000. Lawrence went on a campaign in the US and Britain denouncing the film, famously saying that "I should not have recognized my own brother". Lowell Thomas was also critical of the portrayal of Lawrence and most of the film's characters, feeling that the train attack scenes were the only reasonably accurate aspect of the film.


The criticisms weren't restricted to Lawrence. The Allenby family lodged a formal complaint against Columbia about the portrayal of their ancestor. Descendants of Auda abu Tayi and the real Sherif Ali (despite the fact that the film's Ali was fictional) went further, actively suing Columbia due to the portrayal of their ancestors. The Auda case went on for almost ten years before it was finally dropped. (Adrian Turner, Robert Bolt: Scenes From Two Lives, 201-206)


Production

Pre-production

Previous films about T. E. Lawrence had been planned but had not been made. In the 1940s, Alexander Korda was interested in filming The Seven Pillars of Wisdom with Laurence Olivier as Lawrence, but had to pull out due to financial difficulties. Besides previous attempts, Terrence Rattigan was developing his play Ross, centered primarily on Lawrence's alleged homosexuality simultaneous to pre-production to this film, with Sam Spiegel growing furious and unsuccessfully attempting to have the play suppressed. (Ironically, the furor surrounding the play helped gain publicity for the film.) [citation needed] When Lawrence of Arabia was first announced, Lawrence's biographer Lowell Thomas offered producer Spiegel and screenwriters Bolt and Wilson a large amount of research material he had produced on Lawrence during and after his time with him in the Arab Revolt. Spiegel rejected the offer. Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Terence Mervyn Rattigan (June 10, 1911-November 30, 1977) was one of Britains most important dramatists. ... Ross is a 1960 play by British playwright Terence Rattigan. ... Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ...


Michael Wilson wrote the original draft of the screenplay. However, David Lean was dissatisfied with Wilson's work, primarily because his treatment focused primarily on the historical and political aspects of the Arab Revolt. Lean hired Robert Bolt to re-write the script in order to make it a character study of Lawrence himself. While many (if not most) of the characters and scenes are Wilson's invention, virtually all of the dialogue in the finished film was written by Bolt. [7] For other persons named Michael Wilson, see Michael Wilson (disambiguation). ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ...


Lean reportedly watched John Ford's film The Searchers (1956) to help him develop ideas as to how to shoot the film.[citation needed] For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... The Searchers may refer to: The Searchers – a 1956 epic Western movie The Searchers – a 1960s British rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Filming

The film was made by Horizon Pictures and Columbia Pictures. Shooting began on May 15, 1961 and ended on October 20, 1962. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The desert scenes were shot in Jordan and Morocco, as well as Almería and Doñana in Spain. The film was originally to be filmed entirely in Jordan: the government of King Hussein was extremely helpful in providing logistical assistance, location scouting, transportation, and extras. During the production of the film, in fact, Hussein met and married Toni Gardner, who was working as a switchboard operator in Aqaba. One of the film's technical advisors/horse wranglers in Jordan was a descendant of Auda abu Tayi.[citation needed] The only tension occurred when local Jordanian officials learned that English actor Henry Oscar, who did not speak Arabic, would be filmed reciting the Qur'an; permission was granted only on condition that an imam be present to ensure that there were no misquotes. Almería province Almería is a province of southern Spain, in the eastern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. ... Doñana National Park (Parque Nacional de Doñana), also called Coto de Doñana, is a national park and wildlife refuge in southwestern Spain. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... Princess Muna al-Hussein, born Antoinette Toni Avril Gardiner (Photo at time of marriage) (born in Chelmondiston, near Ipswich, England, on April 25, 1941) was the second wife of King Hussein, the late King of Jordan and is the mother of the current King of Jordan, King Abdullah II of... Henry Oscar, born Henry Wale on 14 July 1891 in London, England, died 28 December 1969, was an English actor on stage and film. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Jordan, Lean planned to film in, among other places, the real Aqaba and the archaeological site at Petra, which the real Lawrence had been fond of as a place of study. However, the production had to be moved to Spain, much to Lean's regret, due to cost and outbreaks of illness among the cast and crew before these scenes could be shot. The attack on Aqaba (one of the more stirring and memorable scenes in the movie with a spectacular pan shot of dust rising up from behind the charging Arabs while Turkish cannons are aimed harmlessly out to sea) was reconstructed in a dried river bed in southern Spain; it consisted of over 300 buildings and was meticulously based on the town's appearance in 1917. The city of Seville was also used to represent Cairo and Jerusalem, with the appearance of the Alcázar of Seville and the Plaza de España. Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... King Pedros Palace in the Alcázar from the Patio de la Monteria The Alcázar of Seville (Spanish Reales Alcázares de Sevilla or Royal Alcázars of Seville) is a royal palace in Seville, Spain. ... 1929 Exposition Building, the Plaza de España The Plaza de España is one of Sevilles most easily recognised buildings and the epitome of the Moorish Revival in Spanish architecture. ...


The Tafas massacre was filmed in Ouarzazate, Morocco, with Moroccan army troops substituting for the Turkish army; however, Lean was unable to film as much as he wanted because the soldiers were uncooperative and impatient.[citation needed] One of the second-unit directors for the Morocco scenes was Andre de Toth, who suggested a shot wherein bags of blood would be machine-gunned, spraying the screen with blood. Assistant director Nicholas Roeg approached Lean with this idea, but Lean found it disgusting. De Toth subsequently left the project. Ouarzazate (Arabic, ورزازات, Warzāzāt) (called The door of the desert), is a city in southern Morocco. ... Born Sasvrai Farkasfalvi Tothfalusi Toth Endre Anral Mihaly in Makó, Hungary, (then Austria-Hungary), André De Toth (May 15, 1912 - October 27, 2002) was a prolific director who mostly worked in the old Hollywood studio stystem. ... Nicolas Roeg, born Nicolas Jack Roeg on August 15, 1928 in London, is an internationally-known film director. ...


The film's production was frequently delayed because, unusually, the film started shooting without a finished script. After Wilson quit early in the production, Bolt took over, with playwright Beverley Cross working on the script in the interim (although none of his material made it to the final film). A further mishap occurred when Bolt was arrested for taking part in an anti-nuclear weapons demonstration, and Spiegel had to persuade Bolt to sign a recognisance of good behavior in order for him to be released from jail and continue working on the script. Beverley Cross (April 13, 1931 - March 20, 1998) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ...


Camels caused several problems on set. O'Toole was not used to riding camels and found the saddle to be uncomfortable. While in Amman during a break in filming, he bought a piece of foam rubber at a market and added it to his saddle. Many of the extras copied the idea and sheets of the foam can be seen on many of the horse and camel saddles. The Bedouins nicknamed O'Toole "Ab al Isfanjah"[Correct transliteration required] (أب الإسفنجة), meaning "Father of the Sponge"[8]. The idea spread and to this day, many Bedouins add foam rubber to their saddles. Later, during the filming of the Aqaba scene, O'Toole was nearly killed when he fell from his camel, but fortunately, it stood over him, preventing the horses of the extras from trampling him. (A very similar mishap befell the real Lawrence at the Battle of Abu El Lissal in 1917.) For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Ethylene-vinyl acetate is commonly known as acetate or EVA. It is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... Ethylene-vinyl acetate is commonly known as acetate or EVA. It is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. ... Combatants Arab Rebels/Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders T.E. Lawrence, Auda ibu Tayi, Sherif Nasir  ? Strength app. ...


In another mishap, O'Toole seriously injured his hand during filming by punching through the window of a caravan. A brace or bandage can be seen on his left thumb during the first train attack scene, presumably due to this incident.[citation needed]


Music

The score, composed by Maurice Jarre, was performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra. Although Sir Adrian Boult is credited as the conductor of the score in the film's credits, he was unable to conduct most of the score, due in part to his failure to adapt to the intricate timings of each cue. Maurice Jarre replaced him as the conductor, and is so credited on the original soundtrack recording, which was originally released on Colpix Records, the records division of Columbia Pictures, in 1962. A remastered edition appeared on Castle Music, a division of the Sanctuary Records Group, on August 28, 2006. A score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ... Maurice Jarre (born in Lyon, France, September 13, 1924) is a French composer and conductor. ... The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Adrian Cedric Boult CH (April 8, 1889 – February 22, 1983) was an English conductor. ... Colpix Records was the first recording company for Columbia Pictures/Screen Gems. ... Castle Communications is a British record label, subsidiary of Sanctuary Records, specialising in the back catalogue of folk and folk-rock artists. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kenneth Alford's march The Voice of the Guns (1917) is prominently featured on the soundtrack. One of Alford's other pieces, the Colonel Bogey March, was the theme song for Lean's previous film, Bridge on the River Kwai. Kenneth Joseph Alford was a composer, best known for his marches, of which the most famous is Colonel Bogey. ... The Voice of the Guns (1917) is a British military march composed by Kenneth Alford during World War I. It was written as a tribute to British artillerymen serving in the war, hence its name, though later became widely adopted by the entire British army. ... The Colonel Bogey March is one of the most successful marches ever published. ... The Bridge over the River Kwai taken in June 2004. ...


Releases

The film premiered in London on December 10, 1962, and was released in the USA on December 16, 1962. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The original release ran for 222 minutes (plus overture, intermission, and exit music). A later theatrical re-release ran for 202 minutes; an even shorter cut of 187 minutes briefly surfaced in the 1970s. The current "restored version", undertaken by Robert A. Harris and James C. Katz (under the supervision of director David Lean), was released in 1989 with a 216 minute length (plus overture, intermission, and exit music). Robert A. Harris is a film historian and preservationist who has restored and reconstructed a number of classic films. ... James C. Katz is a film historian and preservationist who has restored and reconstructed a number of classic films. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ...


Most of the cut scenes were dialogue sequences, particularly those involving General Allenby and his staff. Two whole scenes - Brighton's briefing of Allenby in Jerusalem prior to the Deraa scene and the British staff meeting in the field tent - were completely excised, and the former has still not been entirely restored. Much of the missing dialogue involves Lawrence's writing of poetry and verse, alluded to by Allenby in particular, saying "the last poetry general we had was Wellington." Lawrence's first meeting with Allenby in Cairo was significantly shorter, and the scene in Jerusalem where Allenby convinces Lawrence not to resign existed in only fragmented form. These scenes have been restored to the current edition; most of the still-missing footage is of minimal import. The actors still living at the time of the re-release dubbed their own dialogue, though Jack Hawkins's dialogue had to be dubbed by Charles Gray (who had already done Hawkins' voice for several films after the latter developed throat cancer in the late 1960s). Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... John Edward Jack Hawkins (September 14, 1910 - July 18, 1973) was a British film actor of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Charles Gray (August 29, 1928 - March 7, 2000) was an English actor, born Donald Marshall Gray in Bournemouth, Hampshire, (now Bournemouth, Dorset) Charles Gray as Ernst Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever Donald Gray attended Bournemouth School along side Benny Hill, whose school had been evacuated to the same buildings, during...


A full list of cuts can be found at the Internet Movie Database.[9] Reasons for the cuts of various scenes can be found in Lean's notes to Sam Spiegel, Robert Bolt, and Anne V. Coates.[10] The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... Anne V. Coates (born 12 December 1925) is a Academy Award winning British film editor with a 40-year-plus career in film editing. ...


The film runs 216 minutes in the most recent Director's Cut available on DVD. A directors cut is a specially edited version of a film, and less often TV series, music video, commercials or video games, that is supposed to represent the directors own approved edit. ...


Response

Upon its original release, Lawrence was a huge critical and financial success, and it remains very popular with the public and critics alike to this day. It is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential films ever made. Its visual style has influenced many directors, including Steven Spielberg, who described the film as "a miracle", George Lucas, Sam Peckinpah, and Martin Scorsese. Its influence upon filmmaking and popular culture has been called "undeniable". Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... David Samuel Sam Peckinpah (February 21, 1925 – December 28, 1984) was an American film director who achieved iconic status following the release of his 1969 Western epic The Wild Bunch. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, writer and producer and founder of the World Cinema Foundation. ...


It is today regarded as a masterpiece of world cinema and is often featured highly on critical lists of best films. It was rated the fifth greatest American film of all time by the American Film Institute in 1997; and in its 2007 Tenth Anniversary Edition list, the film was moved to seventh. In 1991, this film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1999 it came 3rd in a BFI poll of British films, while in 2004 the magazine Total Film named it the 8th greatest British film of all time. In the recent Sight and Sound poll, it came in the top ten Best Films of all time as voted by directors. O'Toole's performance has also often been considered one of the greatest of all time, topping lists made by both Entertainment Weekly and Premiere. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with AFIs 100 Years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... In 1999 the British Film Institute surveyed 1000 people from the world of UK film and television to produce the BFI 100 list of the greatest British films of the 20th century. ... Total Film, published by Future Publishing, is the United Kingdoms second best-selling film magazine, after the longer-established Empire from Emap. ... Sight and Sound is a British monthly magazine about film. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Cast

  • Peter O'Toole as T. E. Lawrence. Albert Finney - at the time a virtual unknown - was Lean's first choice to play Lawrence, but Finney wasn't sure the film would be a success and turned it down. Marlon Brando was also offered the part. Alec Guinness had previously played Lawrence in the play Ross, and was briefly considered for the part, but David Lean and Sam Spiegel thought him too old.
  • Alec Guinness as Prince Feisal. Feisal was originally to be portrayed by Laurence Olivier; Guinness got the part when Olivier dropped out. Guinness was made up to look as much like the real Feisal as possible; he recorded in his diaries that, while shooting in Jordan, he met several people who had known Feisal who actually mistook him for the late prince. Guinness said in interviews that he developed his Arab accent from a conversation he had with Omar Sharif.
  • Anthony Quinn as Auda abu Tayi. Quinn got very much into his role; he spent hours applying his own makeup, using a photograph of the real Auda to make himself look as much like him as he could. One anecdote has Quinn arriving on-set for the first time in full costume, whereupon Lean, mistaking him for a native, asked his assistant to ring Quinn and notify him that they were replacing him with the new arrival.
  • Jack Hawkins as General Allenby. Sam Spiegel pushed Lean to cast Cary Grant. Lean, however, convinced him to choose Hawkins due to his work for them on The Bridge on the River Kwai. Hawkins shaved his head for the role and reportedly clashed with David Lean several times during filming. Alec Guinness recounts a specific instance where he was reprimanded by Lean for celebrating the end of a day's filming with an impromptu dance.
  • Omar Sharif as Sherif Ali ibn el Kharish. The role was offered to many actors before Omar Sharif was cast. Horst Buchholz was the first choice, but had already signed on for the film One, Two, Three. Alain Delon had a successful screen test, but ultimately declined due to the brown contact lenses he would have had to wear. Maurice Ronet and Dilip Kumar were also considered.
  • José Ferrer as the Turkish Bey. Ferrer considered this his best film performance, saying an interview: "If I was to be judged by any one film performance, it would be my five minutes in Lawrence." Peter O'Toole once said that he learned more about screen acting from Ferrer than he could learn in any acting class.
  • Anthony Quayle as Colonel Harry Brighton. Quayle and Lean argued over how to portray the character, with Lean feeling Brighton to be an honorable character, while Quayle thought him an idiot.
  • Claude Rains as Mr. Dryden. Rains had previously worked with Lean on The Passionate Friends. Lean considered Rains one of his favorite actors and was happy to work with him again.
  • Arthur Kennedy as Jackson Bentley. The part was meant for Edmond O'Brien, who filmed the Jerusalem scene, but he became ill and had to be replaced at the last moment by Kennedy.
  • Donald Wolfit as General Murray.
  • Michel Ray as Farraj.
  • I.S. Johar as Gasim.
  • Zia Mohyeddin as Tafas.
  • Gamil Ratib as Majid.
  • John Dimech as Daud.
  • Hugh Miller as the RAMC colonel.
  • Fernando Sancho as the Turkish sergeant. A well-known Spanish actor, Sancho became close friends with Lean during filming.
  • Stuart Saunders as the regimental sergeant major.
  • Jack Gwillim as the club secretary.
  • Kenneth Fortescue as Allenby's aide.
  • Harry Fowler as Corporal Potter.
  • Howard Marion-Crawford as the medical officer. Marion-Crawford was cast at the last possible minute, during filming of the "Damascus" scenes in Seville.
  • John Ruddock as Elder Harith.
  • Norman Rossington as Corporal Jenkins.
  • Jack Hedley as a reporter.
  • Henry Oscar as Silliam, Feisal's servant.

Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... // T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... Albert Finney (born May 9, 1936 in Salford, Lancashire, England) is a five-time Academy Award-nominated English actor of Irish descent. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Ross is a 1960 play by British playwright Terence Rattigan. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Faisal can refer to: Faisal Bin Turki Faisal I of Iraq - leader during the Arab Revolt Faisal II of Iraq Faisal of Saudi Arabia - Third King of Saudi Arabia Faisal Nazamuddin of Malaysia Faisal Faisal, Iraqi skeleton slider Faisal Deshmukh Category: ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 Chihuahua, Mexico – June 3, 2001 Boston, Massachusetts) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ... John Edward Jack Hawkins (September 14, 1910 - July 18, 1973) was a British film actor of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... This article is about the British actor. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... Horst Werner Buchholz (December 4, 1933 – March 3, 2003) was a German actor, best remembered for his part in The Magnificent Seven. ... This article is about the movie. ... Alain Delon (born 8 November 1935) is a French-born actor, one of the best known outside his native country. ... Maurice Ronet, born Maurice Robinet, (13 April 1927 - 14 March 1983) was a French film actor. ... Yusuf Khan (Hindi: यूसुफ़ ख़ान ; Urdu: یوسف خان ; IPA: ) (born December 11, 1922), also commonly known as Dilip Kumar (Hindi: दिलीप कुमार ; Urdu: دِلِیپ کُمار) is an Indian Bollywood film actor and a former Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha). ... José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintrón (January 8, 1909 – January 26, 1992), was an Academy Award-winning Puerto Rican actor and film director, born in the Santurce district of San Juan, Puerto Rico. ... Anthony Quayle Sir John Anthony Quayle (7 September 1913 – 20 October 1989) was an English actor and director. ... Colonel Harry Brighton was a fictional British military officer in the film Lawrence of Arabia (1962). ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ... The Passionate Friends is a 1949 film by David Lean. ... Arthur Kennedy in Champion. ... Jackson Bentley was a fictional American journalist who appeared in the film Lawrence of Arabia (1962); he is portrayed by Arthur Kennedy. ... Edmond OBrien (September 10, 1915–May 9, 1985) was an American film actor who is perhaps best remembered for his role in D.O.A.. Born in New York, New York, OBrien made his film debut in 1938, and gradually built a career as a highly regarded supporting... Donald Wolfit (1902-1968) was an English actor-manager, knighted in 1957 for his services to the theatre. ... Inder Sen Johar (b. ... Zia Mohyeddin (born June 20, 1933) is an Pakistani actor famed for his voice. ... Fernando Sancho Fernando Sancho (born January 7, 1916; died July 31, 1990) was a Spanish actor. ... Jack Gwillim (15 December 1909 - 2 July 2001) was a prolific British character actor. ... Howard Marion-Crawford (left) as Dr. Watson opposite Ronald Howards Sherlock Holmes Howard Marion-Crawford (17 January 1914 – 24 November 1969), the son of writer F. Marion Crawford, was a British character actor, best known for his portrayal of Dr. Watson in the 1954 television adaptation of Sherlock Holmes. ... Norman Rossington (24 December 1928 – 21 May 1999) was an English actor best remembered for his roles in The Army Game and the Carry On films. ... Jack Hedley is a British actor, best known for his performances on television. ... Henry Oscar, born Henry Wale on 14 July 1891 in London, England, died 28 December 1969, was an English actor on stage and film. ...

Real characters

// T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Archibald James Murray (1860-1945) was a British military officer during World War I, most famous for his commanding the Egyptian Expeditionary Force from 1916-7. ...

Fictional/Fictionalized characters

Sherif Ali - A combination of numerous Arab leaders, particularly Sherif Nassir, Faisal's cousin who led the Harith forces involved in the attack on Aqaba. The character was created largely because Lawrence did not serve with any one Arab leader (aside from Auda) throughout the majority of the war; most such leaders were amalgamated in Ali's character. He was, however, almost certainly named after Sherif Ali ibn Hussein, a young leader in the Harith tribe, though that Ali played a very small part in the Revolt. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Harith or Hareth is a common Arabic name, meaning ploughman, and may refer to: Harith al-Dhari (born 1941), Sunni Arab cleric, and chairman of the Association of Muslim Scholars Harith Gassani, contemporary of Muhammad, and Governor of Syria Harith Ibn Hilliza Ul-Yashkuri, 5th century pre-Islamic Arabian poet... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ...


Mr. Dryden - The cynical Arab Bureau official, was based loosely on numerous figures, including Ronald Storrs, who was head of the Arab Bureau and later the governor of Palestine (it was largely his doing that Lawrence first met Feisal and became involved with the Revolt), and Lawrence's archaeologist friend, D.G. Hogarth - as well as Mark Sykes and Henry McMahon, who historically fulfilled Dryden's role as a political liaison. He was created by the screenwriters to "represent the civilian and political wing of British interests, to balance Allenby's military objectives." The Arab Bureau was a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department during the First World War. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927 in Oxford) was an English archaeologist and scholar, associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. ... Sir Mark Sykes, 6th Baronet (16 March 1879 - 16 February 1919) was an English traveller and diplomatic advisor, particularly about matters respecting the Middle East at the time of World War One. ... Sir Henry McMahon was the British High Commissioner in Egypt best known for the Hussein-McMahon_Correspondence. ...


Colonel Brighton - In essence a composite of all of the British officers who served in the Middle East with Lawrence, most notably Lt. Col. Stewart F. Newcombe. Newcombe played much the same role as Brighton does in the film, being Lawrence's predecessor as liaison to the Arab Revolt; he and many of his men were forced to surrender to the Turks in 1916, though he later escaped. Also, like Brighton, Newcombe was not well-liked by the Arabs, though he remained friends with Lawrence. (It should be noted that in Michael Wilson's original script, he was Colonel Newcombe, while the character's name was changed by Robert Bolt.) Brighton was apparently created to represent how ordinary British soldiers would feel about a man like Lawrence: impressed by his accomplishments but repulsed by his affected manner. (Lean argued that Brighton was "the only honorable character" in the film, whereas Anthony Quayle referred to his character as an "idiot".) Anthony Quayle Sir John Anthony Quayle (7 September 1913 – 20 October 1989) was an English actor and director. ...


Turkish Bey - The Turkish Bey who captures and rapes Lawrence in Deraa was, according to Lawrence himself, General Hajim Bey (in Turkish, Hacim Muhiddin Bey), though he is not named in the film. Though the incident was mentioned in Lawrence's autobiography Seven Pillars of Wisdom, a few historians have conjectured that this event never happened. This is not the view of Jeremy Wilson, The Authorised Biography of T. E. Lawrence (ISBN 0-689-11934-8) or the author of the Pulitzer Prize winning biography A Prince of Our Disorder, John E. Mack. (ISBN 0-316-54232-6.) Dara (fortress, compare Dura-Europos) was a Byzantine fort in Syria. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel...


Jackson Bentley - Based on famed American journalist Lowell Thomas, who did help make Lawrence famous with accounts of his bravery. However, Thomas was at the time a young man who spent only a few days (or weeks at most) with Lawrence in the field, unlike Bentley, who is depicted as a cynical middle-aged man who is present during the whole of Lawrence's later campaigns. Bentley was the narrator in Michael Wilson's original script, but Robert Bolt reduced his role significantly for the final script. It should also be stated that Thomas did not start reporting on Lawrence until after the end of World War I, and genuinely held Lawrence in high regard, unlike Bentley, who seems to hold him in contempt. Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ... For other persons named Michael Wilson, see Michael Wilson (disambiguation). ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ...


Awards and nominations

The film was nominated for ten Academy Awards in 1963, and won seven, including Best Picture. In 1998, the American Film Institute ranked it #5 on its "100 Greatest Movies" list. In 1991, this film was been deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1999 it came 3rd in a BFI poll of British films, while in 2004 the magazine Total Film named it the 8th greatest British film of all time. In the recent Sight and Sound poll, it came in the top ten Best Films of all time as voted by directors. O'Toole's performance has also often been considered one of the greatest of all time, topping lists made by both Entertainment Weekly and Premiere. Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... // The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Academy Awards, awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which are voted on by others within the industry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with AFIs 100 Years. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... In 1999 the British Film Institute surveyed 1000 people from the world of UK film and television to produce the BFI 100 list of the greatest British films of the 20th century. ... Total Film, published by Future Publishing, is the United Kingdoms second best-selling film magazine, after the longer-established Empire from Emap. ... Sight and Sound is a British monthly magazine about film. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Academy Awards

Award Person
Best Director David Lean
Best Art Direction John Box
John Stoll
Dario Simoni
Best Cinematography Freddie Young
Best Picture Sam Spiegel
Best Film Editing Anne V. Coates
Best Music Maurice Jarre
Best Sound John Cox
Nominated:
Best Actor Peter O'Toole
Best Supporting Actor Omar Sharif
Best Adapted Screenplay Robert Bolt
Michael Wilson

The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to directors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... The Academy Awards are the oldest awards ceremony for achievements in motion pictures. ... John Allan Hyatt Box OBE, ( January 27, 1920– March 7, 2005), was a British film production designer and art director. ... Charles Rosher the first recipient in 1928 The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is awarded each year to a cinematographer for his work in one particular motion picture. ... Freddie Young (9th October, 1902 - 1st December, 1998), (sometimes credited as Frederick A. Young) was one of Britains most distinguished and influential cinematographers. ... // The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Academy Awards, awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which are voted on by others within the industry. ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934. ... Anne V. Coates (born 12 December 1925) is a Academy Award winning British film editor with a 40-year-plus career in film editing. ... The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ... Maurice Jarre (born in Lyon, France, September 13, 1924) is a French composer and conductor. ... The Academy Award for Sound Mixing is an Academy Award that recognizes the finest or most aesthetic sound mixing or recording, and is generally awarded to the production sound mixers and re-recording mixers of the winning film. ... John Cox is: a player in the National Basketball Association, and uncle of Kobe Bryant the birth name of American actor John Howard a British bird artist an Australian ornithologist, after whom the shorebird Coxs Sandpiper was named ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor is one of the awards given to male actors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... For other persons named Michael Wilson, see Michael Wilson (disambiguation). ...

BAFTA Awards

Award Person
Best British Film David Lean
Sam Spiegel
Best Film from any Source David Lean
Sam Spiegel
Best Actor Peter O'Toole
Best British Screenplay Robert Bolt
Nominated:
Best Foreign Actor Anthony Quinn

This page lists the winners and nominees for the BAFTA Award for Best Film, BAFTA Award for Best Film not in the English Language and Alexander Korda Award for Best British Film for each year, in addition to the retired earlier versions of those awards. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... This page lists the winners and nominees for the BAFTA Award for Best Film, BAFTA Award for Best Film not in the English Language and Alexander Korda Award for Best British Film for each year, in addition to the retired earlier versions of those awards. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role has been presented to its winners since 1952 and actors of all nationalities are eligible to receive the award. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 Chihuahua, Mexico – June 3, 2001 Boston, Massachusetts) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ...

Golden Globe Awards

Award Person
Best Motion Picture - Drama David Lean
Sam Spiegel
Best Director David Lean
Best Cinematography (Colour) Freddie Young
Best Supporting Actor Omar Sharif
Most Promising Newcomer Omar Sharif
Nominated:
Most Promising Newcomer Peter O'Toole

Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Freddie Young (9th October, 1902 - 1st December, 1998), (sometimes credited as Frederick A. Young) was one of Britains most distinguished and influential cinematographers. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ...

Other Awards

Directors Guild of America
David di Donatello Awards
  • Best Foreign Film - Sam Spiegel
British Society of Cinematographers
  • Best Cinematography Award - Freddie Young
Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists
  • Best Director Foreign Film - David Lean
Kinema Junpo Awards
  • Best Foreign Language Film - David Lean
National Board of Review
  • Best Director - David Lean
Writers' Guild of Great Britain

The Directors Guild of America Awards are issued annually by the Directors Guild of America. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures was founded in 1909 in New York City, just 13 years after the birth of cinema, to protest New York City Mayor George B. McClellan, Jr. ... The Writers Guild of Great Britain, established in 1959, is a trade union for professional writers, affiliated with the Trades Union Congress (TUC). ...

Influence

The use of the locations in Almería, Spain for the train sequences and others made that region popular with international film makers. Most famously, it became the setting of virtually all of the Spaghetti Westerns of the '60s and '70s, specifically those of Sergio Leone. (The oasis set from Lawrence briefly appears in Leone's For a Few Dollars More (1965).)[citation needed] Many of the sets used or built in the film later resurfaced in later movies, including John Milius's The Wind and the Lion (1975), which used several of the same palaces in Seville and the Aqaba set as the setting for its climactic battle, while the Plaza de Espana appears in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002), as the Theed Palace. “Almeria” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sergio Leone (January 3, 1929 – April 30, 1989) was an Italian film director. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... For a Few Dollars More (Italian: Per qualche dollaro in più) is a 1965 spaghetti western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef and Gian Maria Volonté. German actor Klaus Kinski also plays a supporting role as a secondary villain. ... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... The Wind and the Lion is a 1975 adventure film. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ...


Jordanian attempts to promote tourism with a 'Lawrence Special' train running on the Hejaz railway from Aqaba to Wadi Rum were spectacularly derailed in September 2006. An overenthusiastic driver managed to run a freight train off the tracks near one of Lawrence's demolition points, achieving a similar result.[citation needed] al Hejaz Station in Damascus, starting point of the railroad The 1050mm gauge Hejaz Railway (also Hedjaz, etc. ...


Lawrence of Arabia is mentioned in Billy Joel's history themed song "We Didn't Start the Fire". William Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American singer, pianist, songwriter, composer and musician. ... We Didnt Start the Fire is a song by Billy Joel that chronicles 120 well-known events, people, things, and places widely noted during his lifetime, from March 1949 to 1989, when the song was released on his album Storm Front. ...


The chorus in the main music theme is identical to the one used in the 2004 film Troy in which Peter O'Toole also appears. Troy is an Oscar-nominated movie released on May 14, 2004 about the Trojan War, as described in Homers Iliad, Virgils Aeneid, and other Greek myths. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ...


The main musical title of the film was used in the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me (1977) in the scene where Roger Moore and Barbara Bach's characters wander through the desert after their car breaks down. This was done as a joke by one of the editors who liked to play music from the film during the daily rushes. “007” redirects here. ... The Spy Who Loved Me is the 10th film in the James Bond series and the third to star Roger Moore as MI6 agent James Bond. ... For other persons named Roger Moore, see Roger Moore (disambiguation). ... Bach in The Spy Who Loved Me, 1977 Barbara Bach (born August 27, 1947) is an American model and actress, known as the Bond girl from the James Bond movie The Spy Who Loved Me. ...


Film director Steven Spielberg considers this his favorite movie of all time, and the one which convinced him to become a film maker (see the DVD documentary, A Conversation with Steven Spielberg). Screenwriter William Monahan, who scripted Kingdom of Heaven and The Departed, among others, is a fan of Robert Bolt and has stated on numerous occasions that viewing Lawrence is what inspired him to be a screenwriter. Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... William Monahan (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (born November 3, 1960) is an American novelist and screenwriter. ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... The Departed is a 2006 crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Leonardo DiCaprio (in his third movie with Scorsese), Matt Damon, Jack Nicholson and Mark Wahlberg. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ...


Many other movies and TV shows - including The Critic, The Simpsons, Rugrats, American Dad, and others - have referenced or parodied this film. Larry Thomas also based his portrayal of Seinfeld's infamous "Soup Nazi" on Omar Sharif's performance. For the play by Sheridan, see The Critic (play). ... Simpsons redirects here. ... A rugrat may also be a pejorative term for a toddler. ... The Smiths, from left to right: Roger, Francine, Stan, Klaus, Hayley, and Steve. ... Larry Thomas as the Soup Nazi Larry Thomas, best known for his role as the Soup Nazi on Seinfeld, has appeared in a number of films, TV shows, and commercials, and appears at autograph-signing shows across the country. ... Seinfeld can refer to: Seinfeld - a popular TV series that ran 1989-1998. ... The Soup Nazi is the title of the 116th episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld, which was the 6th episode of the 7th season. ...


Sequel

In 1990, a made-for-television film, A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia, was produced as a sequel to the film. It featured Ralph Fiennes as Lawrence and Alexander Siddig as Prince Feisal. The movie dealt primarily with the attempts of Lawrence and Feisal to secure independence for Arabia during the 1919 Versailles Conference following the end of World War I. The movie was generally well-received and deals more with the political ramifications of Lawrence's efforts in the Middle East. Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ... Alexander Siddig (Arabic: ألكسندر صدّيق) (born 21 November 1965) is a British actor, also known as Siddig El Fadil. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


References

Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Ŝ “Late Show” redirects here. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Lawrence of Arabia (film)


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ...

David Lean
1940s In Which We Serve (with Noel Coward) | This Happy Breed | Blithe Spirit | Brief Encounter | Great Expectations | Oliver Twist | The Passionate Friends
1950s Madeleine | The Sound Barrier | Hobson's Choice | Summertime | The Bridge on the River Kwai
1960s Lawrence of Arabia | Doctor Zhivago
1970s Ryan's Daughter
1980s A Passage to India
Television Lost and Found: The Story of Cook's Anchor (1979)
Preceded by
Ballad of a Soldier
tied with The Hustler
BAFTA Award for Best Film from any Source
1963
Succeeded by
Tom Jones
Preceded by
A Taste of Honey
BAFTA Award for Best British Film
1963
Succeeded by
Tom Jones

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lawrence Of Arabia (1962) (2663 words)
Lawrence of Arabia (1962) is the filmic retelling of Britishman T. Lawrence's heroic, autobiographical account of his own Arabian adventure, published in "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" (originally published with the title Revolt in the Desert).
Lawrence is enthusiastic about his arduous mission to Arabia: "Of course I'm the man for the job," he tells Dryden.
Lawrence remains with the soft-spoken Feisal after Brighton and Sherif Ali leave the tent, and as they speak about the Arab destiny in the face of Western warfare, the masts of the tent creak as the wind blows.
Analysis: the "Lawrence of Arabia" film (1280 words)
The film suggests that Lawrence was an oddball, cynically exploited for their secret political ends both by the British and by Feisal.
Although the film does not show it (focusing instead on the relationship with Ali) Lawrence was a key adviser to Feisal, both during the Revolt and afterwards at the Paris Peace Conference.
If a film purports to be about real historical events and places, and a wealth of information about those events and places is available, it is no defence at all to argue that Shakespeare, with far smaller resources, also made historical mistakes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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