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Encyclopedia > Lawrence Summers
Lawrence Summers


In office
July 2, 1999 – January 20, 2001
Preceded by Robert Rubin
Succeeded by Paul H. O'Neill

Born November 30, 1954 (1954-11-30) (age 53)
New Haven, Connecticut
Political party Democratic
Profession Academic, economist

Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. He is the 1993 recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal for his work in macroeconomics, was Secretary of the Treasury for the last year and a half of the Bill Clinton administration, and served as the 27th President of Harvard University from 2001 to 2006. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Edward Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is the Chairman of Citigroup. ... Paul H. ONeill Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury under President George W. Bush. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “New Haven” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... The biennial John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge. Named after the American Neoclassical economist John Bates Clark (1847-1938), it is considered... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 The Presidency of Bill Clinton, also known as the Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001 while Bill Clinton served as President of the United States. ... The President is the chief administrator of Harvard University. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


In three instances during his time as Harvard president, Summers made remarks that touched on political "hot-button" controversies. Environmentalists, affirmative action advocates, and many women and those concerned with women's issues took offense and brought increasing pressure on Harvard, contributing to his resignation. The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Summers left his position as President of Harvard on June 30, 2006, and was replaced by former University President Derek Bok as acting Interim President the next day. Summers has accepted an invitation to return to the University following a planned sabbatical for the 2006-07 academic year as one of Harvard's select University Professors. Separately, as announced on October 19, 2006, he became a part-time managing director of the investment and technology development firm D. E. Shaw & Co. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Derek Curtis Bok (born March 22, 1930) is an American lawyer and educator. ... D. E. Shaw & Co. ...

Contents

Early life

Born to a Jewish family in New Haven, Connecticut, on November 30, 1954, Summers is the son of two economists – both professors at the University of Pennsylvania – as well as the nephew of two Nobel laureates in economics: Paul Samuelson (sibling of father Robert Summers, who, following an older brother's example, changed the family name from Samuelson to Summers) and Kenneth Arrow (his mother Anita Summers's brother). He spent most of his childhood in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, where he attended Harriton High School. American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are American citizens who were born Jews or who have converted to Judaism. ... “New Haven” redirects here. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana) is an American neoclassical economist known for his contributions to many fields of economics, beginning with his general statement of the comparative statics method in his 1947 book Foundations of Economic Analysis. ... Robert Summers is an U.S. economist and and professor emeritus, University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1960. ... Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, and the youngest person ever to receive this award, at 51. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Located on the Main Line, it is a suburb of Philadelphia. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Harriton High School is a public secondary school located in Rosemont, a community in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania. ...


At age 16, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he originally intended to study physics but soon switched to economics (B.S., 1975). He was also an active member of the MIT debating team. He attended Harvard University as a graduate student (Ph.D., 1982), where he studied under economist Martin Feldstein. He has had stints teaching at both MIT and Harvard. In 1983, at age 28, Summers became one of the youngest tenured professors in Harvard's history. Recently, in December 2005, Summers married a Harvard English professor, Dr. Elisa New. Summers has three children by his first wife, Victoria Perry. “MIT” redirects here. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... B.S. redirects here. ... The American Parliamentary Debating Association (APDA) is the oldest intercollegiate parliamentary debating association in the United States, and one of two in the nation overall, the other being the National Parliamentary Debate Association (NPDA). ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Martin Stuart Feldstein (born November 25, 1939) is an American economist. ... Elisa New is a Professor of English at Harvard University. ...


Professional life

Academic economist

As a researcher, Summers has made important contributions in many areas of economics, primarily public finance, labor economics, financial economics, and macroeconomics. To a lesser extent, Summers has also worked in international economics, economic demography, economic history, and development economics. His work generally emphasizes the analysis of empirical economic data in order to answer well-defined questions (for example: Does saving respond to after-tax interest rates? Are the returns from stocks and stock portfolios predictable?, Are most of those who receive unemployment benefits only transitorily unemployed?, etc.) For his work he received the John Bates Clark Medal in 1993 from the American Economic Association. In 1987 he was the first social scientist to win the Alan T. Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation. Summers is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Financial economics is the branch of economics concerned with resource allocation over time. ... Circulation in macroeconomics Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of a national economy as a whole. ... Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The biennial John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge. Named after the American Neoclassical economist John Bates Clark (1847-1938), it is considered... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...

Official portrait as Secretary of the Treasury
Official portrait as Secretary of the Treasury
Summers' signature, as used on American currency
Summers' signature, as used on American currency

Image File history File linksMetadata Portrait_of_Lawrence_Summers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Portrait_of_Lawrence_Summers. ... Image File history File links Lawrence Summerss signature, used on American currency. ... Image File history File links Lawrence Summerss signature, used on American currency. ...

Public official and educational administrator

Summers left Harvard in 1991 and served as Chief Economist for the World Bank (1991–1993) and later in various posts in the United States Department of the Treasury under the Clinton administration. The position of World Bank Chief Economist is one of the most influential in economics. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


From 1999 to 2001 he served as Secretary of the Treasury, a position in which he succeeded his long-time political mentor Robert Rubin. In 2001, he left the Treasury and returned to Harvard as its President. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Robert Edward Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is the Chairman of Citigroup. ...


In 2006 he was a member of the Panel of Eminent Persons which reviewed the work of The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development or UNCTAD. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ...


Controversies

Summers is a zealous proponent of free trade and globalization, and frequently takes positions on a number of politically-charged subjects. This, along with his direct style of management, made him controversial as President of Harvard, particularly among his colleagues in the humanities and social sciences. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ...


World Bank Pollution Memo

Main article: Summers Memo

In December 1991, while at the World Bank, Summers signed a memo written by staff economist Lant Pritchett which argued among other things (according to its author; the full memo is not public) that free trade would not necessarily benefit the environment in developing countries. Pritchett also drafted what he referred to as an ironic aside to the memo which Summers also signed. The aside was leaked to the press and stated that, developed countries ought to export more pollution to developing countries because these countries would incur the lowest cost from the pollution in terms of lost wages of people made ill or killed by the pollution due to the fact that wages are so low in developing countries. The aside went on to state that "the economic logic behind dumping a load of toxic waste in the lowest wage country is impeccable and we should face up to that"[[7]] Public outcry ensued when the aside was leaked. The Summers memo was an excerpt of a 1991 memo signed by Lawrence Summers (though actually written by an aide, Lant Pritchett) who was, at the time, Chief Economist of the World Bank. ... The Summers memo was an excerpt of a 1991 memo signed by Lawrence Summers (though actually written by an aide, Lant Pritchett) who was, at the time, Chief Economist of the World Bank. ...


Cornel West

In the fall of 2001 the US national media focused their attention on a private meeting in which Summers criticized prominent African-American Studies professor Cornel West, for missing too many classes, contributing to grade inflation, and neglecting serious scholarship. West, who later called Summers both "uninformed" and "an unprincipled power player" in describing this encounter in his book Democracy Matters (2004), subsequently returned to Princeton University, where he taught prior to Harvard University. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Cornell West redirects here. ... Democracy Matters is a non-profit, non-partisan grassroots student political organization that is dedicated to deepening democracy by promoting Clean Elections as a replacement to campaign corruption, and campaign finance reform. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Anti-Israel attitude among academics

In 2002, Summers stated that a campaign by Harvard and MIT faculty to have their universities divest from companies with Israeli holdings was part of a larger trend among left-leaning academics that is "Anti-semitic in effect, if not in intent."[citation needed] In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset, for either financial or social goals. ...


Differences between the sexes

In January 2005, Summers suggested, at a Conference on Diversifying the Science & Engineering Workforce sponsored by the National Bureau of Economics Research, the possibility that many factors outside of socialization could explain why there were more men than women in high-end science and engineering positions. He suggested one such possible reason could be men's higher variance in relevant innate abilities or innate preference.[1][2] An attendee made Summers' remarks public, and an intense response followed in the national news media and on Harvard's campus. Sex and intelligence research investigates differences in the distributions of cognitive skills between men and women. ...


Summers' opposition and support at Harvard

On March 15, 2005, members of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which instructs graduate students in GSAS and undergraduates in Harvard College, passed 218-185 a motion of "lack of confidence" in the leadership of Summers, with 18 abstentions. A second motion that offered a milder censure of the president passed 253 to 137, also with 18 abstentions. [3] is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS) is the academic unit responsible for many post-baccalaureate degree programs offered through the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Legislature. ...


The lack of confidence measure is different from a "no-confidence" vote, which in the British parliamentary system causes the fall of a government, and it has no formal effect on the president's position. The members of the Harvard Corporation, the University's highest governing body, are in charge of the selection of the president and issued statements strongly supporting Summers. A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation) is the more fundamental of Harvard Universitys two governing boards. ...


FAS faculty were not unanimous in their comments on Summers. Influential psychologist Steven Pinker defended the legitimacy of Summers' January remarks. When asked if Summers' remarks were "within the pale of legitimate academic discourse," Pinker responded "Good grief, shouldn’t everything be within the pale of legitimate academic discourse, as long as it is presented with some degree of rigor? That’s the difference between a university and a madrassa. [...] There is certainly enough evidence for the hypothesis to be taken seriously." [4] Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Summers had stronger support among Harvard College students than among the college faculty. One poll by the Harvard Crimson indicated that students opposed his resignation by a three-to-one margin, with 57% of responding students opposing his resignation and 19% supporting it. [5]


In July 2005, the only African-American board member of Harvard Corporation, Conrad K. Harper, resigned saying he was angered both by the university president's comments about women and by Summers being given a salary increase. (Some reports suggest Harper's support of Summers may have first started to erode earlier because of the Cornel West controversy.) The resignation letter to the president said, "I could not and cannot support a raise in your salary, ... I believe that Harvard's best interests require your resignation." [6] [7] Cornell West redirects here. ...


After the Harvard Corporation accepted Summers' resignation, hundreds of millions in pledged contributions were canceled by donors who were disappointed by the Harvard Corporation's failure to stand up to the college faculty [8]. Harvard college alumni, as well as students and faculty at Harvard University's professional schools (in particular Harvard Law School and Harvard Business School), and other large donors generally supported Summers. Summers' dismissal was viewed by many as an indicator that the humanities faculty at the College had power that was disproportionately large relative to their contributions to the University, and that they would seek to use their entrenched position as tenured faculty to block curricular reforms, championed by Summers, that would place greater emphasis on math and science.


The AIDS Drug Scandal with HSPH

In December 2003, the Bush administration formally commenced a program to combat the AIDS pandemic devastating much of the developing world. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR, committed $15 billion over five years to that task. Two Harvard University teams submitted grant applications—one from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and the other from Harvard Medical School (HMS). In February 2004, Harvard learned that the HSPH had been awarded one of four initial PEPFAR grants, and that the medical school's application had been rejected. Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... George W. Bush administration is the administration of the 43rd president of the United States of America, 2001-present George H. W. Bush administration is the administration of the 41st president of the United States of America, 1989-1993 This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (Pepfar) is a USA government fund to aid Africa combat AIDS by injecting 15 billion American dollars over a 5 year period. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


The HSPH grant was to be used to treat AIDS patients in Nigeria and Tanzania with life-prolonging drugs, and to train health workers in Botswana. Dr. Phyllis Kanki was the leader of the HSPH team. Summers was concerned about potential risks—lawsuits and the possibility of AIDS drugs hitting the black market—especially since he wasn't controlling the grant.


Summers decided to simply take control. Summers believed that despite Kanki's accomplishments and extensive experience with HIV/AIDS programs in Africa, Kanki was unfit to lead the mammoth grant because she is a veterinarian, not a medical doctor. Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Support of economist Andrei Shleifer

Harvard and Andrei Shleifer, a close friend and protege of Summers, settled a $26M lawsuit by the U.S. government over the conflict of interest Shleifer had while advising Russia's privatisation program. Summers' continued support for Shleifer strengthened Summers' unpopularity with other professors: Andrei Shleifer (born February 20, 1961) is a prominent academic economist. ...


"I’ve been a member of this Faculty for over 45 years, and I am no longer easily shocked," is how Frederick H. Abernathy, the McKay professor of mechanical engineering, began his biting comments about the Shleifer case at Tuesday’s fiery Faculty meeting. But, Abernathy continued, "I was deeply shocked and disappointed by the actions of this University" in the Shleifer affair.


In an 18,000-word article in Institutional Investor (January, 2006), the magazine detailed Shleifer’s alleged efforts to use his inside knowledge of and sway over the Russian economy in order to make lucrative personal investments, all while leading a Harvard group, advising the Russian government, that was under contract with the U.S. The article suggests that Summers shielded his fellow economist from disciplinary action by the University.[8] However, the case actually was filed in 2000, the year before Summers became Harvard's president. Summers' friendship with Shleifer was well known by the Corporation when it selected him to succeed Rudenstine and Summer recused himself from all proceedings with Shleifer, whose case was actually handled by an independent committee led by Derek Bok. Derek Curtis Bok (born March 22, 1930) is an American lawyer and educator. ...


Other factors in the opposition to Summers

While many in the media have focused upon the controversial statements made by Summers or his political disagreement with left-leaning members of the faculty, it is also possible that these factors merely provided a pretext for members of the faculty to express their dissatisfaction with other aspects of Summers' presidency. Besides the aforementioned controversies, which undoubtedly provided the proximate cause for Summers' resignation, other factors have been proposed as contributing to his critical loss of support among the majority of faculty members. The first is Summers' reputed leadership style, described by many as arrogant, blunt, and intolerant of dissenting opinions. Many faculty members claimed they felt intimidated into remaining silent when they disagreed with Summers. Along the same vein, several prominent administrators abruptly left (or were forced to leave) their positions during Summers' tenure: Dean of the College Harry R. Lewis, Associate Dean of the College David P. Illingworth, Dean of Freshmen Elizabeth Studley Nathans, and finally Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences William C. Kirby. Another factor that has been proposed is a supposed substantive disagreement about the structure and philosophy of the undergraduate curriculum, amidst an intensive curricular review initiated during Summers' term. Summers proposed that more emphasis be put on undergraduate education and requested that professors take greater responsibility in teaching their undergraduate classes, as opposed to delegating to teaching fellows. Summers also encouraged Harvard to expand its international programs and connections, hoping that more students would have and use the opportunity to study abroad.[9] William C. Kirby is Geisinger professor of history and a scholar of Chinese history and culture at Harvard University and is currently its Dean of the Faculty. ...


Resignation as Harvard President

On February 21, 2006, Summers announced his intention to step down at the end of the school year effective June 30, 2006. Former University President Derek Bok has acted as Interim President while the University conducted a search for a replacement which ended with the naming of Drew Gilpin Faust on February 11, 2007. Summers has been invited and agreed to return to the University following a planned sabbatical for the 2006-07 academic year as Charles W. Eliot University Professor, one of twenty select University-wide professorships, with offices in the Kennedy School of Government and the Harvard Business School.[10] In October 2006, the D. E. Shaw Group announced that Summers would serve as one of their part time managing directors.[11] Summers also has been authoring a column for the Financial Times.[[9]] is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Derek Curtis Bok (born March 22, 1930) is an American lawyer and educator. ... Catharine Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18, 1947[1]) is an American historian and academic administrator, currently dean of Harvards Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and president-elect of Harvard University. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... D. E. Shaw & Co is a New York-based investment and technology development firm whose activities center on various aspects of the intersection between technology and finance. ...


References

  1. ^ Summer's Remarks on Women Draw Fire, 2005 January 17
  2. ^ http://www.president.harvard.edu/speeches/2005/nber.html
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ [4]
  7. ^ [5]
  8. ^ [6]
  9. ^ Richard Bradley (2005). Harvard Rules: The Struggle for the Soul of the World's Most Powerful University. HarperCollins.  ISBN: 0471453242.
  10. ^ Schuker, Daniel J. T.. "Summers Named Eliot Univ. Prof", The Harvard Crimson, 7 July 2006. 
  11. ^ Burton, Katherine. "Summers, Former Treasury Secretary, Joins D.E. Shaw", Bloomberg, 19 Oct 2006. 
  • Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.
  • Finder, Alan and Kate Zernike (February 21, 2006). Harvard President Has Decided to Resign, Officials Say. New York Times
  • How Larry Got His Rep, The Harvard Crimson, 2005-03-03, a long background piece on how the press spun the controversies around Summers
  • ^ Larry V. Hedges; Amy Nowell (1995). "Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals". Science 269: 41-45. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Harvard Crimson, the breakfast daily of Harvard University, was founded in 1873. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Government offices
Preceded by
Stanley Fischer
World Bank Chief Economist
1991–1993
Succeeded by
Joseph Stiglitz
Preceded by
Robert Rubin
United States Secretary of the Treasury
1999–2001
Succeeded by
Paul O'Neill
Academic offices
Preceded by
Neil L. Rudenstine
President of Harvard University
2001—2006
Succeeded by
Derek Bok, acting

  Results from FactBites:
 
U.S. Treasury - Biography of Secretary Lawrence H. Summers (355 words)
Summers was awarded the John Bates Clark Medal given every two years to the outstanding American economist under the age of 40.
Summers served as Domestic Policy Economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisers during 1982-1983 and served on the MIT faculty from 1979 to 1982.
Summers was born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1954.
Lawrence Summers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1828 words)
Summers resigned as President of Harvard on June 30, 2006, and was replaced by former University President Derek Bok as acting Interim President the next day.
Summers left Harvard in 1991 and served as Chief Economist for the World Bank (1991–1993) and later in various posts in the United States Department of the Treasury under the Clinton administration.
Summers is a zealous proponent of free trade and globalization, and frequently takes positions on a number of politically-charged subjects outside his specialty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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