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Encyclopedia > Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Motto "Science in the national interest"
Established 1952 by the University of California
Research Type National security and basic science
Budget $1.6 billion/year
Director George H. Miller
Staff 9,600
Location Livermore, CA
Campus 800 acres (3.2 km²)
Operating Agency Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC www.llnsllc.com
Website www.llnl.gov
Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW.
Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW.

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of California, BWX Technologies, Washington Group International, and Battelle Memorial Institute. The Texas A&M University System is also an affiliated member of LLNS. Until September 30, 2007 LLNL was directly managed and operated solely by the University of California. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Look up budget in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A director is the chief executive officer of a university or other educational institution. ... George H. Miller is the current director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Livermore is a city located in Alameda County, California. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Download high resolution version (975x675, 192 KB)Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - aerial view. ... Download high resolution version (975x675, 192 KB)Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - aerial view. ... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories are a system of research facilities and laboratories funded and controlled by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose advancing science and aiding in the economic and defensive national interests of the United States of America. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... BWX Technologies, Inc. ... Washington Group International provides integrated engineering, construction and management services to businesses and governments around the world. ... Headquarters in Columbus The Battelle Memorial Institute is a private not-for-profit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. ... The Texas A&M University System is one of the largest and most complex systems of higher education in the United States. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ...


Along with Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, LLNL is one of the two United States laboratories whose founding mission was the science and physics underlying the design of nuclear weapons. Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ...


LLNL is self-described as "a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security."[1] It is responsible for ensuring that the nation’s nuclear weapons remain "safe, secure, and reliable" through application of advances in science, engineering, and technology. The laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, and to bolstering homeland security. Those capabilities are also utilized in programs in non-defense areas such as basic science, energy, environmental science, and biosciences. The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... For the NBC TV Movie starring Tom Skeritt, see Homeland Security (film). ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


LLNL is home to many of the most powerful computer systems in the world, according to the TOP500 list, including Blue Gene/L, the world's fastest computer as of 2005. Since 1978 the laboratory has received a total of 113 prestigious R&D 100 Awards, including seven in 2006, the most for any institution.[2] The awards are given annually by the editors of R&D Magazine to the most innovative ideas of the year. A supercomputer is a computer that led the world (or was close to doing so) in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. ... The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ... This article is about the supercomputer. ... Established by the editors of R&D Magazine over 41 years ago, the prestigious R&D 100 Awards have been helping companies provide the important initial push a new product needs to compete successfully in the marketplace. ...


LLNL's main facility is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern outskirts of Livermore, California. Site 300, a 7,000-acre (28.3 km2) remote explosive/experiment testing site, is situated about 15 miles (24 km) to the southeast. Lawrence Livermore has an annual budget of about $1.6 billion and a staff of over 8,000 LLNS LLC employees, as well as 1,500 contract employees. Additionally, there are approximately 100 DOE employees stationed at the laboratory to provide federal oversight of LLNL's work for the DOE. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... “km” redirects here. ...

Contents

Origins

The main site, at the location of a former World War II Naval Training Station, was originally used to house projects of the University of California Radiation Laboratory which were too large for its location on the hills of Berkeley, California. In 1949, Edward Teller suggested to Ernest Lawrence, head of the Berkeley lab (now known as the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)), that a second weapons lab be created as "competition" with the lab which sprung up to create the first nuclear weapon, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Teller's advocacy for the lab was also in response to his frustrations with the low priority he felt his idea of a hydrogen bomb was getting at Los Alamos. In 1951, Teller formally appealed to the Atomic Energy Commission for the creation of the laboratory, and in September 1952 the lab was formally founded as the Livermore branch of the University of California Radiation Laboratory (Lawrence's lab in Berkeley). Despite Teller's original motivation, however, the hydrogen bomb was invented and designed at Los Alamos. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... Ernest O. Lawrence Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel Laureate best known for his invention, utilization, and improvement of the cyclotron beginning in 1929, and his later work in uranium-isotope separation in the Manhattan Project. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ...


Thirty-two-year-old Herbert York was appointed the first director of the Lab. York set out to develop the Lab's program and created four main elements: Project Sherwood (the Magnetic Fusion Program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for Los Alamos and Livermore), the design of thermonuclear weapons, and a basic physics program. The first two facilities were a building to house the latest electronic computer, a UNIVAC I, and a technology building with a large central bay for lifting heavy equipment. It its early years, Livermore attempted to distinguish itself by investigating radical weapons designs that had not been proven; as a result, its first three nuclear tests were unsuccessful fizzles, much to the amusement of their new "rivals" at Los Alamos. Herbert F. York (Born in Rochester, NY, November 24, 1921) is an accomplished American nuclear physicist who has held numerous scientific and administrative positions within the United States government and various educational institutes. ... Project Sherwood was the name given to the US program in controlled nuclear fusion funded under the Atoms for Peace initiative during the Eisenhower Administration. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... UNIVAC I Central Complex, containing the central processor and main memory unit. ...


In 1958, after the death of Ernest O. Lawrence, the lab was renamed Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. It would later be renamed to its current name of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1979. Throughout the Cold War, Lawrence Livermore competed with Los Alamos to design the nation's nuclear arsenal, as well as perform other science and technology related tasks (some classified, some not). Warheads designed at Livermore include the Mk 27, the W38, the W45, the W56, the W62, the W70, the B83, and the W84, and the W87. Of these, four are currently in the U.S. "enduring stockpile".[3] In the early 1990s their weapons work shifted into stockpile stewardship. In March 2007, a Livermore weapons design was chosen for the Reliable Replacement Warhead.[4] Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 - August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate best known for his invention of the cyclotron. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Mark 27 nuclear bomb and closely related W27 warhead were two American nuclear weapon designs from the late 1950s. ... It has been suggested that W38 warhead be merged into this article or section. ... Internal components of the Medium Atomic Demolition Munition setup. ... The W56 is an American thermonuclear warhead produced starting in 1963 which saw service until 1993, on the Minuteman I and II ICBMs. ... The W62 is an American thermonuclear warhead designed in the late 1960s and manufactured from 1970 to 1976, used on some Minuteman III ICBMs and still in service as of early 2006. ... Hurricane111 17:00, 27 December 2005 (UTC) . Category: ... Missing image The B83 nuclear gravity bomb The B83 nuclear weapon is variable_yield gravity bomb developed by the United States. ... The W84 is an American thermonuclear warhead designed for use on the BGM-109G Gryphon Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM). ... The Mk21 Re-entry Vehicles shown here for the LGM-118A Peacekeeper contain W87 warheads. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... The Reliable Replacement Warhead also known as RRW is a controversial new design American nuclear warhead and bomb family that its supporters claim will be simple and reliable and provide a long lasting, low maintenance future nuclear force for the United States. ...


Historically the two national laboratories in Berkeley and Livermore named after Ernest O. Lawrence, have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. In fact, LLNL was not officially severed administratively from LBNL until the early 1970s. To this day, in official planning documents and records, LBNL is designated as "Site 100", LLNL as "Site 200", and LLNL's experimental testing area located near Tracy, California as "Site 300". Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... 11th Street and Central Avenue, Tracy Tracy is a city in San Joaquin County, California, in the United States. ...


Non-weapons projects

A current project is the "small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor" or "SSTAR". It is designed to be a "world" nuclear reactor, that can give countries with smaller or less-well-developed electricity grids a self-contained reactor that would operate for 30 years without refueling and then be retrieved - thus preventing the host nation from accessing any plutonium created as a by-product of the nuclear reaction. A possible design for SSTAR. SSTAR is an acronym for the small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor - being primarily researched and developed in the US by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles. ...


Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a partner in the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) located in Walnut Creek, California. JGI was founded in 1997 to unite the expertise and resources in genome mapping, DNA sequencing, technology development, and information sciences pioneered at the three genome centers at UC's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Joint Genome Institute Production Genomics Facility is located in Walnut Creek, California. ... Walnut Creek is a largely affluent suburb several miles east of Oakland in Contra Costa County, California, USA, in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus). ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ...


Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has worked out several energy technologies in the field of coal gasification, oil shale retorting, geothermal energy, advanced battery research, solar energy, and fusion energy. Main oil shale processing technologies worked out by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are LLNL HRS (hot-recycled-solid), LLNL RISE and LLNL radiofrequency technologies. ... Oil shale extraction refers to the process that converts kerogen, an immature form of hydrocarbon trapped in the oil shale, into a useable hydrocarbons in form of a petroleum-like shale oil—a form of non-conventional oil—and combustible shale gas. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ...


LLNL has been the leader in licensing and royalty income among the Department of Energy's national laboratories. During FY 2006 the Lab's Industrial Partnerships & Commercialization Office (IPAC) reported that LLNL received $6.4 million in licensing revenue, of which $6.1 million was from royalties. This was the highest among the DOE funded national laboratories. FY or fy can stand for: Fiscal year West Frisian language (ISO 639-1 alpha-2) Tajikistan, in ham radio Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of in the list of NATO country codes Feynmanium (137Fy) – a nickname for untriseptium (Uts), chemical element 137. ...


Also, during FY 2006, LLNL had 158 invention disclosures, filed 72 patent applications and received 72 patents.


Most licensing income comes from the sale of products based on Lab technologies and licensed by IPAC. LLNL's cumulative licensing revenue for 1996 to 2006 was $40 million - the most in the DOE sponsored national laboratory system. The bulk of the net proceeds were distributed back to the Lab's directorates, with most of the remainder going to the inventors and a smaller amount going to the institution covering some administrative costs, technology maturation and other technology transfer-related activities.


IPAC licenses LLNL technology to industry to enhance U.S. economic competitiveness in world markets, promote economic development both locally and throughout the United States, and to help improve the quality of life for all Americans.


Key facilities

  • National Ignition Facility (NIF): a football stadium-sized 192-beam laser facility currently under construction, providing a unique capability for investigating the physics of special nuclear materials, as well as ultimately achieve a controlled ignition and fusion burn in a laboratory setting. "Early light" was achieved at NIF in 2003, and four laser beams are now operational—meeting performance requirements for component systems and supporting experimental programs.
  • Secure and Open Computing Facilities: the ASCI White machine, at over 10 trillion operations per second (10 teraflops), supported stockpile stewardship until it was decommissioned in 2006, and ASC Purple (100-teraflops) and BlueGene/L arrived in 2005 and were installed in the Terascale Simulation Facility and currently support stockpile stewardship.
  • Contained Firing Facility: located at Site 300 it is a versatile hydrodynamic test facility, recently upgraded to environmentally contain explosion debris.
  • Superblock: one of the most heavily fortified and guarded set of buildings in California [5], these modern facilities are used for special nuclear materials research, engineering testing, and storage.
  • Alameda County Regional Emergency Communications Center (ACRECC): LLNL is home to the main fire and emergency medical service dispatch center for Alameda County. The state-of-the art emergency communication center is located inside a secure area of the Laboratory. ACRECC dispatches for over 41 fire stations in 6 agencies in the County. ACRECC handles more than 75 000 calls annually in the cities of Alameda, Castro Valley, Dublin, Fremont, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, Sunol, and Union City, the Parks Reserve Forces Training Area (United States Army), unincorporated areas, and both LBNL and LLNL. ACRECC also performs emergency medical dispatch and ambulance transport coordination, and coordinates Mutual Aid requests for the entire county. Funding for ACRECC is paid by each member agencies and is based on their individual usage rates. In 2003 the ACRECC dispatch center underwent a $1.2 million renovation, adding state-of-the-art computer-aided dispatch stations, lighting, computers, and radio systems. It is currently staffed by 25 dispatchers and supervisors.

A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Special nuclear material is a term used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States to classify fissile materials. ... For other uses, see Flop. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Special nuclear material is a term used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States to classify fissile materials. ... The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) is located at the University of Californias Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... Air pollution dispersion terminology describes the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to those who work in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Official website: http://www. ... Parks AFB, CA - 5 Oct 1954 Parks Reserve Forces Training Area (PRFTA) is a former United States Air Force Base located near Oakland, California. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...

Sponsors

LLNL's funding comes from the DOE Office of Defense Programs for nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship activities. Funds to support LLNL's national security and homeland security work also comes from the DOE Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, the Department of Homeland Security, various Department of Defense sponsors, and other federal agencies. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program is a Department of Energy program to ensure that the nuclear capabilities of the United States are not eroded as nuclear weapons age. ... “DHS” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


LLNL also receives funding to perform work for other DOE programs, principally the Offices of Science, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and Nuclear Energy. Non-DOE sponsors include NASA, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), National Institutes of Health, and United States Environmental Protection Agency, State of California agencies, and private industry. This article is about the American space agency. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... EPA redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Computers

The first computer the laboratory possessed was a UNIVAC I, ordered in July through September 1952 and delivered in April 1953. The June 2006 release of the 27th TOP500 list of the 500 most powerful computer systems in the world, has LLNL computers in the #1 (BlueGene/L) and #3 (ASC Purple) spots. A total of 12 LLNL computer systems appeared in the June 2006 TOP500 list, tying the number at Sandia National Laboratories for the most at any one site. This article is about the machine. ... UNIVAC I Central Complex, containing the central processor and main memory unit. ... The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ... Blue Gene/L Blue Gene is computer architecture project designed to produce several next generation super computers, operating in the PFLOPS range. ... ASC Purple is a supercomputer that is installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. The computer is a collaboration between IBM Corporation and Lawrence Livermore Lab. ... The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ...


On June 22, 2006, University of California researchers at LLNL announced that they had devised the world's most powerful software — a scientific application that sustained 207.3 trillion operations per second. This was the equivalent of an online game capable of handling 300 million simultaneous players. The record performance was made at LLNL on the IBM Corp's BlueGene/L, the world's fastest supercomputer, which has 131,072 processors. The record was a milestone in the evolution of predictive science, a field in which researchers use supercomputers to answer questions about such subjects as; materials science simulations, global warming, and reactions to natural disasters. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Flop. ... A supercomputer is a computer that led the world (or was close to doing so) in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e. ...


Over the years other computers were installed, including:

The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952, and was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer. ... An IBM 704 mainframe (image courtesy of LLNL) The IBM 704,[1] the first mass-produced computer with floating point arithmetic hardware, was introduced by IBM in April, 1954. ... The IBM 709 was an early computer system introduced by IBM in August, 1958. ... IBM 7090 console The IBM 7090 was a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers and was designed for large-scale scientific and technological applications. The 7090 was the third member of the IBM 700/7000 series scientific computers. ... UNIVAC serves as the catch-all name for the American manufacturers of the lines of mainframe computers by that name, which through mergers and acquisitions underwent numerous name changes. ... The UNIVAC LARC (Livermore Advanced Research Computer) was Remington Rands first attempt at building a supercomputer. ... The IBM 7094 the fourth member of the most popular family of IBMs large second-generation transistorized mainframe computers and was designed for large-scale scientific and technological applications. The first 7094 installation was in September 1962. ... The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBMs first attempt at building a supercomputer. ... CDC 1604 a 48-bit transistorized version of Control Data Corporations 1103 model first built in 1959. ... The CDC 6600 was a mainframe computer from Control Data Corporation, first manufactured in 1965. ... The CDC 7600 was the Seymour Cray-designed successor to the CDC 6600, extending Control Datas dominance of the supercomputer field into the 1970s. ... CRAY-1 at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... The Cray X-MP was a supercomputer designed, built and sold by Cray Research. ... The Cray-2 is in the left foreground. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Meiko CS-2 was a massively parallel supercomputer produced by Meiko Scientific. ... Categories: Stub ... ASCI Blue Pacific is a supercomputer that is installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. The computer was a colloboration between IBM Corporation and Lawerence Livermore Lab. ... IBM ASCI White is a supercomputer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. ... ASC Purple is a supercomputer that is installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. The computer is a collaboration between IBM Corporation and Lawrence Livermore Lab. ... This article is about the supercomputer. ... The Peloton Super Computer purchase is a program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory intended to provide tera-flop computing capability using commidity Scalable Units (SUs). ...

Computer software

A great deal of software has been written by LLNL personnel to operate, monitor, and manage the computer systems at LLNL, including operating system extension such as CHAOS (Linux Clustering), resource management packages such as SLURM, and others[6] The requirement for lab programmers to write the software is due to the unique, one-of-a-kind nature of the systems — this had prevented commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software from being available. It wasn't until the Peloton[7] systems procurements in late 2006 that a commercial resource management package, Moab, was to be used to manage the clusters purchased under the RFP. The Clustered High Availability Operating System is an extension to the RedHat Enterprise Linux distribution that operates many of the supercomputers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, such as Blue Gene/L, ASC Purple, and approximately a dozen others. ... Moab Cluster Suiteâ„¢ is a professional cluster workload management solution based on the open source [Maui Cluster Scheduler]. It integrates the scheduling, managing, monitoring and reporting of cluster workloads. ...


Plutonium research and storage

According to published reports the lab has about 880 pounds of plutonium and is allowed to have up to about 3,080 pounds. However, it is not allowed to have actual nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices at its sites. Plutonium at the lab is stored in a fortified research facility guarded by a large force of heavily armed and specially trained security police officers. These officers are equipped with vehicle mounted and fixed location M134 Gatling guns that fire 7.62mm bullets from six barrels at up to 4,000 rounds per minute, powerful enough to take down an enemy aircraft or helicopter. General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions. ... Security police are those persons, usually employed by a governmental agency, who provide police and security services to their properties. ...


At Livermore and at two facilities in Nevada, the lab uses plutonium for nuclear weapons research. It conducts experiments to learn how plutonium performs as it ages; how it behaves under high pressure, such as with the impact of high explosives; and how to dismantle nuclear weapons safely, without causing contamination. This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ...


In early 2006 the United States Department of Energy announced plans to move all the plutonium from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory by 2014, though transfers of the material could start sooner. By 2022, all U.S. work involving plutonium would be consolidated at a single new facility whose location has not been determined. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Directors

The LLNL Director is appointed by the Board of Governors of Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC and reports to the Board. Supporting the LLNL Director is a Deputy Director, a Chief of Staff, and the Laboratory Executive Officer. The current Director is also the President of LLNS LLC.


Also reporting to the Director are several key functional managers - Safeguards & Security, Environment, Safety, Health & Quality, Contract Assurance, Chief Financial Officer, and Laboratory Counsel. “CFO” redirects here. ...

Herbert F. York (Born in Rochester, NY, November 24, 1921) is an accomplished American nuclear physicist who has held numerous scientific and administrative positions within the United States government and various educational institutes. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... Harold Brown (born September 19, 1927), American scientist, was U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter. ... Dr. C. Bruce Tarter was director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory from 1994 to 2002. ... Michael R. Anastasio is the director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and president of the Los Alamos National Security LLC, the company that operates the laboratory. ... George H. Miller is the current director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ...

Organization

Key LLNS Personnel at LLNL

  • Director
  • Deputy Director
  • Security Director
  • Environment, Safety, Health & Quality Director
  • Laboratory Legal Counsel
  • Contract Assurance Officer
  • Chief Financial Officer
  • Principal Associate Director for Science & Technology
    • Chemistry, Materials, Earth and Life Science Directorate
    • Computation and Simulations Directorate
    • Engineering Directorate
    • Physical Sciences Directorate
  • Principal Associate Director for Global Security
    • Non-proliferation Program
    • Domestic Security Program
    • Defense Program
    • Intelligence Program
    • Energy & Environmental Security Program
  • Principal Associate Director for Weapons & Complex Integration
    • Primary Nuclear Design Program
    • Secondary Nuclear Design Program
    • Nuclear Weapon Engineering Program
    • Advanced Simulations & Computation Program
  • Principal Associate Director for NIF & Photon Science
    • Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Program
    • National Ignition Facility Program
    • Target Experimental Systems Program
    • Photon Science and Applications Program
  • Principal Associate Director for Operations & Business
    • Strategic Human Capital Management Directorate
    • Business Directorate
    • Facilities & Infrastructure Directorate
    • Nuclear Operations Directorate

World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ From LLNL's Official website "Missions & Programs" LLNL's Mission
  2. ^ As noted in the Official LLNL Press Release of 10 Jul 2006 R&D 100 at LLNL
  3. ^ Complete List of All U.S. Nuclear Weapons, U.S. Nuclear Weapon Enduring Stockpile, Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Stewardship
  4. ^ Bush administration picks Lawrence Livermore warhead design
  5. ^ From article by Keay Davidson, San Francisco Chronicle, 2/3/06 "Potent Firepower for Weapons Lab - Modern Gatling Guns to Defend Against Land, Air Terrorist Attack at Livermore National Laboratory" Potent Firepower for Weapons Lab
  6. ^ Linux at Livermore. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  7. ^ Peloton Capability Cluster. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Nuclear Rites: A Weapons Laboratory at the End of the Cold War, by Hugh Gusterson, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1996 (ISBN 0-520-21373-4)

University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ...

External links and sources

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