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Encyclopedia > Lawn
A typical lawn
A typical lawn
A lawn sprinkler
A lawn sprinkler
A striped lawn
A striped lawn

A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at a low, even height. Picture I took of my deck garden This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Salasks. ... Picture I took of my deck garden This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Salasks. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 201 KB)Sprinkler Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Lawn Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Sprinkler Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/April-2005 User:Fir0002/FPCandidates/Archive 1 Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 201 KB)Sprinkler Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Lawn Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Sprinkler Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/April-2005 User:Fir0002/FPCandidates/Archive 1 Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2809x2051, 3511 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lawn Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2809x2051, 3511 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lawn Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Species See text Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trifolium Clover (Trifolium) is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the pea family Fabaceae. ...

Contents

Usage

Lawns are a standard feature of ornamental private and public gardens and landscapes in much of the world today. Lawns are created for aesthetic use in gardens, and for recreational use, including sports. They are typically planted near homes, often as part of gardens, and are also used in other ornamental landscapes and gardens. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Lawns are frequently a feature of public parks and other spaces. They form the playing surface for many outdoor sports, reducing erosion and dust as well as providing a cushion for players in sports such as football, cricket, baseball, golf, tennis, bocce and stake. In sports venues, the word lawn is often replaced by turf or green. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. ... This article is about the sport. ... Arthur Ashe Stadium at Flushing Meadows, New York Tennis is a game played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players (doubles). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many different species of grass are used, often depending on the intended use of the lawn, with vigorous, coarse grasses used where active sports are played, and much finer, softer grasses on ornamental lawns, and partly on climate, with different grasses adapted to oceanic climates with cool summers, and tropical and continental climates with hot summers. It is also not uncommon to mix grass seeds. A 50/50 mixture of grass types can, for example, form a stronger lawn when one grass type does better in the warmer seasons and the other is more resistant to colder weather. World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...


History

Before the invention of mowing machines in 1830, lawns were managed differently from today. Lawns belonging to wealthy people were sometimes maintained by the labour-intensive methods of scything and shearing. In most cases however, they were pasture land, maintained by grazing with sheep or other livestock. Areas of grass grazed regularly by rabbits, horses or sheep over a long period can form a very low, tight sward which is similar to a modern lawn. This was the original meaning of the word "lawn", and the term can still be found in place-names. Some forest areas where extensive grazing is practiced still have these semi-natural lawns. For example, in the New Forest, England, such grazed areas still occur commonly and are still called lawns, for example Balmer Lawn. A typical modern gasoline-powered mower. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Species See text. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae, found in many parts of the world. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...


Lawns became popular in Europe from the Middle Ages onward. The early lawns were not always distinguishable from pasture fields. It is thought that the associations with pasture and the biblical connotations of this word made them attractive culturally. By contrast, they are little known or used in this form in other traditions of gardening. In addition, the damp climate of maritime Western Europe made them easier to grow and manage than in other lands. Lawns were also used in medieval times within monasteries and in the courtyards of castles for the lords and ladies to take their daily constitutional and escape from the odors of the castle. World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


It was not until the Tudor and Elizabethan times that the garden and the lawn became a place to be loved and admired. Created as walkways and for play areas, the lawns were not as we envisage them today. They were made up of meadow plants, such as camomile, a particular favourite. In the early 1600s, the Jacobean epoch of gardening began. It was during this period that the closely cut "English" lawn was born. By the end of this period, the English lawn was the envy of even the French. It was also seen as a symbol of status by the gentry. In the early 1700s, gardening fashion went through a further change. William Kent and the age of Capability Brown were in progress, and the open "English" style of parkland was seen across Britain and Ireland. Lawns seemed to flow from the garden into the outer landscape. Capability Brown, by Nathaniel Dance, ca. ...


During Victorian times, as more plants were introduced into Britain, and the influence of France and Italy became prevalent, lawns became smaller as borders were created and filled with plants, statues, sculptures, terraces and water features, which started eating into the area covered by the lawn. In the United States, it was not until after the Civil War that lawns began to appear in middle class residences. Most people did not have the hired labor needed to cut a field of grass with scythes. Average home owners either raised vegetables in their yards or left them alone. If weeds sprouted that was fine. Toward the end of the 19th century, suburbs appeared on the American scene, along with the sprinkler, greatly improved lawn mowers, new ideas about landscaping and a shorter work week.


Lawns do not have to be, and have not always been of grass. Other possible plants for fine lawns in the right conditions, are camomile and thyme. Some lawns, if grown in difficult conditions for grasses, become dominated by whatever weeds can survive there; these include clovers in dry conditions, and moss in damp shady conditions. In more recent times, especially in suburban residential areas, a lawn may refer to an area surrounding a home where some or all of the natural grass or sod has been removed and replaced with artificial turf, stones, mulch or some other material determined by the homeowner to reduce maintenance and/or water consumption. Cut grass growing on in the Hudson River Park Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae. ... The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus...


Criticisms

The area on the right was not mowed since the previous Autumn
The area on the right was not mowed since the previous Autumn

A number of criticisms of lawns are based on environmental grounds: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ...

  • Many lawns are composed of a single species of plant, or of very few species, which reduces biodiversity, especially if the lawn covers a large area. In addition, they may be composed primarily of plants not local to the area, which can further decrease local biodiversity.
  • Lawns are sometimes cared for by using pesticides and other chemicals, which can be harmful to the environment if misused.
  • Maintaining a green lawn sometimes requires large amounts of water. This was not a problem in temperate England where the concept of the lawn originated, as natural rainfall was sufficient to maintain a lawn's health. However the exporting of the lawn ideal to more arid regions of the world, such as the U.S. Southwest, has crimped already scarce water resources in such areas, requiring larger, more environmentally invasive water supply systems. Grass typically goes dormant during cold, winter months, and turns brown during hot, dry summer months, thereby reducing its demand for water. Many property owners consider this "dead" appearance unacceptable and therefore increase watering during the summer months. Grass can also recover quite well from a drought.
  • In the United States lawn heights are generally maintained by gasoline-powered lawnmowers, which contribute to urban smog during the summer months. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency found that in some urban areas, up to 5% of smog was due to pre-1997 small gasoline engines such as are typically used on lawnmowers. Since 1997, the EPA has mandated emissions controls on newer engines in an effort to reduce smog. [1]


However, using ecological techniques, the impact of lawns can sometimes be reduced. Such methods include the use of local grasses, proper mowing techniques, leaving grass clippings in place, integrated pest management, organic fertilizers, and introducing a variety of plants to the lawn. Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Sweet clover (), introduced and naturalized to the U.S. from Eurasia as a forage and cover crop. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... A lawn mower (often spelled as one word—lawnmower) is a machine (electric or mechnical) used to cut grass to an even length. ... Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or pea-soupers, a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama. ... EPA redirects here. ... IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ...


In addition to the environmental criticisms, some gardeners question the aesthetic value of lawns.


One positive benefit of a healthy lawn is that of a filter for contaminants and to prevent run-off and erosion of bare dirt. Highway construction projects in the United States now routinely include replanting grasses on disturbed soils for this purpose, although they are not maintained as lawns.


Popularity in the United States

In a recent NASA-sponsored study, researcher Christina Milesi estimated the area covered by lawns in the United States to be about 128,000 square kilometers (nearly 32 million acres) making it that nation's largest irrigated crop by area. [2] Lawn care is thus a major business in the United States. Maintenance, construction and management of lawns of various kinds are the focus of much of the modern horticulture industry. Estimates of the amount spent on professional lawn care services vary, but a Harris Survey put the total at $28.9 billion in 2002, approximately $1,200 per household using such services. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) is classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...

Lawn Grass Zones of the U.S.
Lawn Grass Zones of the U.S.

Virginia Scott Jenkins, in her book The Lawn: A History of an American Obsession (1994), traces the desire to kill weeds historically. She notes that the current rage for a chemically-dependent lawn emerged after World War II, and argues that "American front lawns are a symbol of man's control of, or superiority over, his environment." Image File history File links LawnGrassMap. ... Image File history File links LawnGrassMap. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ...


Approximately 50-70 percent of American residential water is used for landscaping, most of it to water lawns.


Along with trees, lawns are a vital element in the fight against urban heat islanding. Lawns provide: An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings. ...

  • Oxygen conversion,
  • Filtering of air particulates,
  • Erosion control,
  • Air and surface cooling to offset asphalt, cement, and rooftops.

In comparison to bare dirt, a lawn may be 20 degrees cooler on a hot day, and up to 40 degrees cooler than cement surfaces.[citation needed] Terraces, conservation tillage, and conservation buffers save soil and improve water quality on this Iowa farm. ...


Maintenance

Closeup of droplets of water on blades of grass
Closeup of droplets of water on blades of grass

Maintaining a rough lawn requires only occasional cutting with a suitable machine, or grazing by animals. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 346 KB) Photographer: Staffan Enbom from Finland Title: Water drops Taken on: 2004-07-10 16:38:30 Original source: Flickr. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 346 KB) Photographer: Staffan Enbom from Finland Title: Water drops Taken on: 2004-07-10 16:38:30 Original source: Flickr. ...


Maintaining higher quality lawns may require special maintenance procedures:

  • Mowing regularly with a sharp blade at an even height.
  • Not mowing when lawn is wet.
  • Not removing more than 30% to 40% of the plant tissue.
  • Alternating the direction of cut from previous mowing.
  • Scarifying and raking, to remove dead grass and prevent tufting.
  • Rolling, (to encourage tillering (branching of grass plants) and to level the ground).
  • Top dressing with sand, soil or other material.
  • Spiking or aeration (to relieve compaction of the soil).
  • Additional watering.
  • Fertilizing application.
  • Pesticide application.

In journalism, spiking is the practice of deliberately choosing not to publish a news story, or otherwise suppressing newsworthy information, which does not fit the preconceived slant of a news topic. ... Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid (usually water) or substance (such as soil). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...

Seasonal lawn maintenance

Seasonal lawn care will vary to some extent depending on the climate zone and type of grass that is grown, whether cool season or warm season varieties. In general, however, there are recognized steps in lawn care that should be observed in any of these areas.


Spring or early summer is the time to seed, sod, or sprig a yard, when the ground is warmer. For a new lawn, adding a fresh load of topsoil to the ground is beneficial. Seeding the lawn is the least expensive way to plant, but it takes longer for the lawn to grow and usually needs daily watering, or the freshly-sprouted grass will die. Sodding is more expensive, but it will provide an almost instant lawn that can be planted in most climate zones in any season. Hydroseeding is a relatively quick and inexpensive method of planting. A nitrogen-based, slow-release fertilizer should be applied, as well as a weed killer and a product for lawn pest removal.


Summer lawn care requires raising the lawn mower for cool season grass, and lowering it for warm season lawns. Lawns will require longer and more frequent watering, best done in early morning to encourage a stronger root system. This is also the time to apply an all-purpose fertilizer. During the hot summer months, lawns may be susceptible to fungus disease. It’s advisable to take a sod sample to a local landscape expert for testing and treating the yard, if necessary.


In the fall, lawns can be mowed at a lower height and thatch buildup that occurs in warm season grasses should be removed, although lawn experts are divided in their opinions on this. This is also a good time to add a sandy loam and apply fertilizer, one that contains some type of wetting agent. Cool season lawns can be planted in autumn if there is adequate rainfall.


Lawn care in the winter is minimal, requiring only light feedings of organic material, such as green-waste compost, and minerals to encourage earthworms and beneficial microbes.


Types of lawngrass

There are thousands of varieties of lawngrass, each adapted to specific conditions of precipitation, temperature, and sun/shade tolerance. Breeders are constantly creating new and improved varieties of the base list of lawngrass species. The two basic categories are cool season grasses and warm season grasses.


Cool season grasses start growth at 5 °C, and grows at their fastest rate when temperatures are between 10-25 °C (Huxley 1992), in climates that have relatively mild/cool summers, with two periods of rapid growth in the spring and fall. They retain their color well in extreme cold and typically grow very dense, carpetlike lawns with relatively little thatch.

Warm season grasses only start growth at temperatures above 10 °C, and grow fastest when temperatures are between 25 °C and 35 °C, with one long growth period over the spring and summer (Huxley 1992). They often go dormant in cooler months, turning shades of tan or brown. Many warm season grasses are quite drought tolerant, and can handle very high summer temperatures, although temperatures below -15 °C can kill most warm season grasses. Species About 500 species, including: Poa abbreviata - Short Bluegrass Poa alpigena - Northern Meadow-grass Poa alpina - Alpine Meadow-grass Poa alsodes - Grove Bluegrass Poa angustifolia - Narrow-leaved Meadow-grass Poa annua - Annual Meadow-grass Poa arachnifera - Texas Bluegrass Poa arctica - Arctic Meadow-grass Poa badensis Poa bulbosa - Bulbous Meadow-grass... Species Bentgrass or bent (Agrostis) is a large genus with over 100 species belonging to the Poaceae family. ... Ryegrass (Lolium) is a small genus of tufted grasses, belonging to the Grass family Poaceae. ... Species See text Fescue (Festuca) is a genus of about 300 species of tufted grasses, belonging to the grass family Poaceae. ... Bouteloua is a genus of the grass family, Poaceae. ...

Species There are 5 species: Zoysia emerald - Emerald Zoysia Zoysia japonica Korean Zoysia Zoysia matrella Manila Grass Zoysia tenuifolia Mascarene Grass Zoysia is a genus of creeping grass native to Southeast Asia, China and Japan. ... Species Eight species, including: Cynodon aethiopicus Cynodon arcuatus Cynodon dactylon Cynodon transvaalensis Cynodon (Greek Dog-tooth) is a genus of eight species of grasses in the family Poaceae, found in many parts of the world. ... A plug of St. ... Species See text. ... Buffalo grass Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) is found on the North American prairies, a valuable fodder. ...

See also

Look up Lawn in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Organic lawn management is the practice of establishing and caring for a garden lawn without the use of chemical inputs such as pesticides or artificial fertilisers. ... A typical modern gasoline-powered mower. ... A tree lawn, also called a nature strip or devils strip in some areas, is a small area, often planted with trees and grass, between a street and the sidewalk of that street. ... Hydroseeding being carried out at the Isle of Grain, Kent, UK Hydroseeding (or hydromulching, hydraulic mulch seeding, hydraseeding) is a planting process which utilizes a slurry of seed and mulch. ... No dig gardening is an approach to cultivation favoured by many organic gardeners. ... Artificial Lawn is a synthetic, man-made surface used in residential, commercial or public landscaping to resemble natural grass or sod. ... Grasscycling refers to leaving grass clippings on the lawn when mowing. ...

References

  • Looking for Lawns - a general interest article about the NASA study
  • Huxley, A., ed. (1992). Lawns. In New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 3: 26-33. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  • Jenkins, V. S. (1994). The Lawn: A History of an American Obsession. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-56098-406-6
  • Steinberg, T. (2006). American Green, The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Lawn. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-06084-5
  • Small Engine Emission Standards: FAQ for Dealers and Distributors - U.S. EPA (PDF format)
  1. ^ [1]

EPA redirects here. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lawn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1692 words)
Lawns were also used in medieval times within monasteries and in the courtyards of castles for the lords and ladies to take their daily constitutional and escape from the odours of the castle.
Lawns do not have to be, and have not always been of grass.
Lawns are sometimes cared for by using pesticides and other chemicals, which can be harmful to the environment if misused.
Lawn (1204 words)
Lawn grasses are sold as mixtures since all areas of a lawn are not precisely the same.
A grass lawn is one element in a landscape.
Lawns have thatch; undecomposed clippings and stems that accumulate on the grass.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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