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Encyclopedia > Law of the United States
The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States
The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States

The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. However, the supreme law of the land is the United States Constitution and, under the Constitution's Supremacy Clause, laws enacted by Congress and treaties to which the U.S. is a party. These form the basis for federal laws under the federal constitution in the United States, circumscribing the boundaries of the jurisdiction of federal law and the laws in the fifty U.S. states and territories. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 495 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3629 × 4392 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 495 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3629 × 4392 pixel, file size: 1. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 178 KB) Several volumes of the United States Reports, the official reporter (law) of the Supreme Court of the United States, at a public law library in San Jose, California. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 178 KB) Several volumes of the United States Reports, the official reporter (law) of the Supreme Court of the United States, at a public law library in San Jose, California. ... Volumes of the United States Reports on the shelf at a law library The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, orders, case tables, and other proceeding of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution is known as the Supremacy Clause: The Supremacy Clause establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as the supreme law of the land. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a nation. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...

Contents

General overview

=Sources of law

In the United States, the law is derived from four sources. These four sources are constitutional law, administrative law, statutory law, and the common law (which includes case law). The most important source of law is the United States Constitution. All other law falls under, and is subordinate to, that document. No law may contradict the United States Constitution. For example, if Congress passes a statute that conflicts with the Constitution, the Supreme Court may find that law unconstitutional. In the United States, constitutional law generally refers to the provisions of the United States Constitution, as interpreted by the United States Supreme Court. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... Case law (also known as decisional law) is that body of reported judicial opinions in countries that have common law legal systems that are published and thereby become precedent, i. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into constitutionality. ...


Notably, a statute does not disappear automatically merely because it has been found unconstitutional; it must be deleted by a subsequent statute. Many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. However, under the principle of stare decisis, no sensible lower court will enforce an unconstitutional statute, and any court that does so will be reversed by the Supreme Court. Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ...


American common law

The United States and most Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law legal tradition of English law; for example, U.S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. A small number of important British statutes in effect at the time of the Revolution have been independently enacted in nearly identical form by U.S. states. Two examples that many lawyers will recognize are the Statute of Frauds and the Statute of 13 Elizabeth. Such English statutes are still regularly cited in contemporary legal writings about their modern American descendants. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ... The statute of frauds refers to the requirement that certain kinds of contracts be made in writing and signed. ...


Although the courts of the various Commonwealth nations are often influenced by each other's rulings, American courts rarely follow post-Revolution Commonwealth rulings unless there is no American ruling on point, the facts and law at issue are nearly identical, and the reasoning is strongly persuasive. The earliest American cases, even after the Revolution, often did cite contemporary British cases, but such citations gradually disappeared during the 19th century as American courts developed their own principles to resolve the legal problems of the American people.[1] Today, the vast majority of American legal citations are to domestic cases. Sometimes, courts, and casebook editors, do make exceptions for opinions on issues of first impression by brilliant British jurists, like William Blackstone or Lord Denning. A casebook is a type of textbook used primarily by students in law schools. ... William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. ... Alfred Thompson Denning, Baron Denning (23 January 1899–6 March 1999) was a British barrister from Hampshire who became Master of the Rolls (the senior civil judge in the Court of Appeal of England and Wales) and was generally well liked, both within the legal profession and outside it. ...


Some adherents of originalism and strict constructionism such as Justice Antonin Scalia of the United States Supreme Court argue that American courts should never look for guidance to post-Revolution cases from legal systems outside of the United States, regardless of whether the reasoning is persuasive, with the sole exception of cases interpreting international treaties to which the United States is a signatory. This position follows inevitably from the philosophy of originalism, which posits not only that the Constitution is the ultimate source of judicial authority in the U.S., but that the only proper analysis of the document consists of discerning the document's original meaning at the time of its adoption. Therefore, discussion of British law that post-dated the Constitution is irrelevant as it sheds no light on the original meaning of the Constitution. Others, such as Justices Anthony Kennedy and Stephen Breyer, disagree, and cite foreign law from time to time, where they believe it is informative, persuasive, useful or helpful. However, foreign law has never been cited as binding precedent, but merely as a reflection of the values of larger Anglo-American civilization. (See Lawrence v. Texas--one U.K. court decision, Dudgeon v. United Kingdom, was cited by the Supreme Court majority as being informative of the shared values of Anglo-American civilization.) Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Strict constructionism is a philosophy of judicial interpretation and legal philosophy that limits judicial interpretation to the meanings of the actual words and phrases used in law, and not on other sources or inferences. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ... Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ... Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the privacy and liberty of adults, under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, to engage in private intimate conduct. ... Dudgeon v. ...


Federal law

Federal law in the United States originates with the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to enact statutes for certain limited purposes like regulating commerce. Nearly all statutes have been codified in the United States Code. Many statutes give executive branch agencies the power to create regulations, which are published in the Federal Register and codified into the Code of Federal Regulations. Regulations generally also carry the force of law under the Chevron doctrine. Many lawsuits turn on the meaning of a federal statute or regulation, and judicial interpretations of such meaning carry legal force under the principle of stare decisis. The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Coming into force refers to the date on which a legislation, or part of legislation, becomes a law. ... Holding Courts must defer to administrative agency interpretations of the authority granted to them by Congress (1) where the grant of authority was ambiguous, and (2) where the interpretation was reasonable or permissible. ... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ...


State law

Volumes of the Thomson West annotated version of the California Penal Code, the codification of criminal law in the state of California
Volumes of the Thomson West annotated version of the California Penal Code, the codification of criminal law in the state of California

The fifty American states are separate sovereigns with their own state constitutions and state governments. They retain plenary power to make laws covering anything not preempted by the federal Constitution, federal statutes, or international treaties ratified by the federal Senate. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x871, 244 KB) Volumes of the Wests Annotated California Codes version of the California Penal Code at a public library in San Jose, California. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x871, 244 KB) Volumes of the Wests Annotated California Codes version of the California Penal Code at a public library in San Jose, California. ... Thomson West is the largest part of Thomson Legal & Regulatory, which is the largest market group of The Thomson Corporation. ... Volumes of the Thomson West annotated version of the California Penal Code; the other popular annotated version is Deerings, which is published by LexisNexis The California Penal Code forms the basis for the application of criminal law in the American state of California. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... In the context of the United States of America, a state constitution is the governing document of a U.S. state, comparable to the U.S. Constitution which is the governing document of the United States. ... A state government (provincial government in Canada) is the government of a subnational entity in states with federal forms of government, which shares political power with the federal government or national government. ...


Nearly all states started with the same British common law base, with the notable exception of Louisiana; Louisiana law has always been strongly influenced by the French Napoleonic Code. The passage of time has resulted in enormous diversity in the laws of the states. State courts have expanded the old common law rules in different directions (through their traditional power to make law under the doctrine of stare decisis), and state legislatures have passed various statutes expanding or overriding many judge-made laws. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ...


Unlike other common law jurisdictions, all American states have codified some or all of their statutory law into legal codes. Codification was an idea borrowed from the civil law through the efforts of American lawyer David Dudley Field. New York's codes are known as "Laws." California and Texas simply call them "Codes." Most other states use terms such as "Revised Statutes" or "Compiled Statutes" for their codes. California, New York, and Texas have separate subject-specific codes, while all other states and the federal government use a single code divided into numbered titles. A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... David Dudley Field (February 13, 1805 - April 13, 1894) was an American lawyer and law reformer. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


In some states, codification is often treated as a mere restatement of the common law. Judges are free to liberally interpret the codes unless and until their interpretations are specifically overridden by the legislature.[2] In other states, there is a tradition of strict adherence to the plain text of the codes. The American Law Institute (ALI) was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of American common law and its adaptation to changing social needs. ...


The advantage of codification is that once the state legislature becomes accustomed to writing new laws as amendments to an existing code, the code will usually reflect democratic sentiment as to what the current law is (though the entire state of the law must always be ascertained by reviewing case law to determine how judges have interpreted a particular codified statute). A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ...


In contrast, in jurisdictions with uncodified statutes, like the United Kingdom, determining what the law is can be a more difficult process. One has to trace back to the earliest relevant Act of Parliament, and then identify all later Acts which amended the earlier Act, or which directly overrode it. For example, when the UK decided to create a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, lawmakers had to identify every single Act referring to the House of Lords that was still good law, and then amend all of those laws to refer to the Supreme Court.[3] The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom will be created under the provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 to take over the judicial functions of the Law Lords in the House of Lords and from the Judicial committee of the Privy Council. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Criminal law

In the arena of criminal law, all states have somewhat similar laws in regard to "higher crimes" (or felonies), such as murder and rape, although penalties for these crimes may vary from state to state. The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ...


For public welfare offenses where the state is punishing merely risky (as opposed to injurious) behavior, there is significant diversity across the various states. For example, punishments for drunk driving varied greatly prior to 1990. State laws dealing with drug crimes still vary widely, with some states treating possession of small amounts of drugs as a misdemeanor offense or as a medical issue and others categorizing the same offense as a serious felony. Drunk driving (drink driving in the UK) or drinking and driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol (i. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Tort law

United States tort law varies widely across the states. For example, a few jurisdictions allow actions for negligent infliction of emotional distress even in the absence of physical injury to the plaintiff, but most do not. For any particular tort, states differ on the causes of action, types and scope of remedies, statutes of limitations, and the amount of specificity with which one must plead the cause. With practically any aspect of tort law, there is a "majority rule" adhered to by most states, and one or more "minority rules." Under United States tort law, torts are generally divided into two categories: intentional torts and non-intentional torts. ... The tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) is a controversial legal theory and is not accepted in many United States jurisdictions. ...


Attempts at "uniform" laws

Efforts by various organizations to create "uniform" state laws have been only partially successful. The two leading organizations are the American Law Institute (ALI) and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL). The most successful and influential uniform laws are the Uniform Commercial Code (a joint ALI-NCCUSL project) and the Model Penal Code (from ALI). The American Law Institute (ALI) was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of American common law and its adaptation to changing social needs. ... The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) is a non-profit unincorporated association in the United States that consists of commissioners appointed by each state and territory. ... The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC or the Code) is one of a number of uniform acts that have been promulgated in conjunction with efforts to harmonize the law of sales and other commercial transactions in 49 states (all except Louisiana) within the United States of America. ... The Model Penal Code (MPC) is a statutory text which was developed by the American Law Institute (ALI) in 1962. ...


Apart from model codes, the American Law Institute has also created Restatements of the Law which are widely used by lawyers and judges to simplify the task of summarizing the current status of the common law. Instead of listing long, tedious citations of old cases (in order to invoke the long-established principles contained in those cases), they can simply cite a Restatement section to refer to a particular common law principle. The American Law Institute (ALI) was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of American common law and its adaptation to changing social needs. ... The American Law Institute (ALI) was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of American common law and its adaptation to changing social needs. ...


Local law

Law affects every aspect of American life, including parking lots. Note the citations to statutes on the sign.
Law affects every aspect of American life, including parking lots. Note the citations to statutes on the sign.

States have delegated lawmaking powers to thousands of agencies, townships, counties, cities, and special districts. And all the state constitutions, statutes and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation like their federal counterparts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1087x1190, 326 KB) A large traffic sign posted at the entrance to a parking lot in Sunnyvale, California which reminds drivers of applicable laws and regulations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1087x1190, 326 KB) A large traffic sign posted at the entrance to a parking lot in Sunnyvale, California which reminds drivers of applicable laws and regulations. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... A special-purpose district, also known as a special district, is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc. ...


Thus, at any given time, the average American citizen is subject to the rules and regulations of several dozen different agencies at the federal, state, and local levels, depending upon one's current location and behavior.


Odd exceptions

As noted above, much of Louisiana law is derived from the Napoleonic Code; the adherence to French legal traditions stems from its time as a French colony. Puerto Rico is also a civil law jurisdiction of the United States. However, the criminal law of both jurisdictions has been necessarily modified by common law influences and the supremacy of the federal Constitution. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ...


Many states in the southwest that were originally Mexican territory have inherited several unique features from the civil law that governed when they were part of Mexico. These states include Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas. For example, these states all have a community property system for the property of married persons (Idaho, Washington, and Wisconsin have also adopted community property systems, but they did not inherit them from a previous civil law system that governed the state). Another example of civil law influence in these states can be seen in the California Civil Code, where the law of contracts is treated as part of the law of obligations (though the rules actually codified are clearly derived from the common law). Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Community property is a marital property regime that originated in civil law jurisdictions, and is now also found in some common law jurisdictions. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... The Law of Obligations is one of the component private law elements of the civil law system of law (as well as of mixed legal systems, such as Scotland, South Africa, and Louisiana) and encompasses contractual obligations, quasi-contractual obligations such as enrichment without cause and extra-contractual obligations. ...


Many of the western states, including California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming use a system of allocating water rights known as the prior appropriation doctrine, which is derived from Spanish civil law. It should be noted that each state has modified the doctrine to suit its own internal conditions and needs. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Water Rights refers to a legal system for allocating water from a water source to water users. ... Prior appropriation water rights, sometimes known as the Colorado Doctrine, is a system of allocating water from a water source that is markedly different from Riparian water rights. ...


Innovations

Several legal innovations first arose in the United States, and some of those innovations have been adopted by other countries.


The most broadly influential innovation of 20th century American law was the rule of strict liability for defective products, which originated with judicial glosses on the law of warranty. In 1963, Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California threw away legal fictions based on warranties and imposed strict liability for defective products as a matter of public policy in the landmark case of Greenman v. Yuba Power Products.[4]. The American Law Institute subsequently adopted the Greenman rule in Section 402A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts, which was published in 1965 and was very influential throughout the United States.[5] Outside the U.S., the rule was adopted by the European Economic Community in the Product Liability Directive of July 1985,[6] and by Japan in June 1994.[7] Strict liability is a legal doctrine in tort law that makes a person responsible for the damages caused by their actions regardless of culpability (fault) or mens rea. ... Products liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. ... In commercial and consumer transactions, a warranty is an obligation that an article or service sold is as factually stated or legally implied by the seller, and that often provides for a specific remedy such as repair or replacement in the event the article or service fails to meet the... Roger John Traynor (February 12, 1900 – May 14, 1983) served as the 23rd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California from 1964 to 1970, and as an Associate Justice from 1940 to 1964. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ... In the common law tradition, legal fictions are suppositions of fact taken to be true by the courts of law, but which are not necessarily true. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... The American Law Institute (ALI) was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of American common law and its adaptation to changing social needs. ...


By the 1990s, the avalanche of American cases resulting from Greenman and Section 402A had become so complicated that another restatement was needed, which occurred with the 1997 publication of the Restatement (Third) of Torts: Product Liability.


See also

World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th edition Blacks Law Dictionary is the definitive law dictionary for the law of the United States. ...

Lists

This list contains links to various sources of law used in the United States: // Statute law Constitution of the United States List of United States federal legislation List of United States federal executive orders Court-made law List of United States Supreme Court cases List of United States Supreme Court... This is a chronological list of notable cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. ... In the US, a Uniform Act is an act proposed by the Uniform Law Commissioners, more formally known as the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, a body of lawyers and other professionals who work for the standardisation of U.S. state laws in the United States of... This is a partial list of notable United States federal legislation, in chronological order. ...

References

  1. ^ Elizabeth Gaspar Brown, "Frontier Justice: Wayne County 1796-1836," in Essays in Nineteenth-Century American Legal History, ed. Wythe Holt, 676-703 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976): 686. Between 1808 and 1828, the briefs filed in court cases in the Territory of Michigan changed from a complete reliance on English sources of law to an increasing reliance on citations to American sources.
  2. ^ California is the supreme example of this position. Li v. Yellow Cab, 13 Cal. 3d 804 (1975).
  3. ^ Constitutional Reform Act 2005, via Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI.Gov.uk)
  4. ^ Mark A. Kinzie & Christine F. Hart, Product Liability Litigation (Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2002), 100-101. See also Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, Inc., 59 Cal. 2d 57 (1963).
  5. ^ Kinzie & Hart, 101.
  6. ^ Norbert Reich, Understanding EU Law: Objectives, Principles and Methods of Community Law (Antwerp: Intersentia, 2005), 337.
  7. ^ Patricia L. Maclachan, Consumer Politics in Postwar Japan (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 226.

From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

External links


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