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Encyclopedia > Law French
Kelham's Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779) provided English translations of Law French terms from parliamentary and legal records
Kelham's Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779) provided English translations of Law French terms from parliamentary and legal records

Law French is an archaic language originally based on Old Norman and Anglo-Norman, but increasingly influenced by Parisian French and, later, English. It was used in the law courts of England, beginning with the Norman Conquest by William the Conqueror. Its use continued for several centuries in the courts of England. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1638 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1638 pixel, file size: 1. ... Old Norman was one of many langue doïl dialects. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system—England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130...


In its later years, Law French became increasingly artificial, and its vocabulary became increasingly English, as it was used solely by English lawyers and judges who often spoke no real French. A frequently quoted example of this mixed English-French language comes from one of Chief Justice Sir George Treby's marginal notes in an annotated edition of Dyer's Reports, published 1688: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Prior to 1880, the Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas was one of the highest judicial officials in England, behind only the Lord High Chancellor and the Lord Chief Justice of the Kings (or Queens) Bench. ... Sir James Dyer (1510-1582) was a judge and Speaker of the British House of Commons during the reign of Edward VI of England. ...

Richardson, C. J. de C. B. at Assizes at Salisbury in Summer 1631, fuit assault per Prisoner la condemne pur Felony; que puis son condemnation ject un Brickbat a le dit Justice, que narrowly mist. Et pur ceo immediately fuit Indictment drawn pur Noy envers le Prisoner, et son dexter manus ampute et fixe al Gibbet, sur que luy mesme immediatement hange in presence de Court.

("Richardson, C(hief) J(ustice) of C(ommon) B(ench). At Assizes at Salisbury in Summer 1631, there was an assault by a prisoner there condemned for felony; who, following his condemnation, threw a brickbat at the said Justice, which narrowly missed. And for this, an indictment for injury was immediately drawn against the prisoner, and his right hand was cut off and fastened to the gibbet, on which he himself was immediately hanged in the presence of the Court.")[1] Sir Thomas Richardson, born 3 July 1569 in Hardwick, Norfolk, was a Speaker of the House of Commons 1621-1622, and later became Chief Justice of Common Pleas 22 November 1626. ... Prior to 1880, the Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas was one of the highest judicial officials in England, behind only the Lord High Chancellor and the Lord Chief Justice of the Kings (or Queens) Bench. ... Postdlf 06:03, 2 May 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Courts of Assize, or Assizes, is the name of criminal courts in several countries. ... Salisbury (IPA: , or — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal charge of having committed a most serious criminal offense. ... Gibbet is a term applied to several different devices used in the capital punishment of criminals and/or the deterrence of potential criminals. ...


The inverted syntax of many legal noun phrases in English — attorney general, fee simple — is a heritage from Law French. Many of the terms of Law French have been converted into modern English in the 20th century to make the law more understandable in common law jurisdictions. However, some key terms remain from Law French, including the following: Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Fee simple, also known as fee simple absolute or allodial, is a term of art in common law. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

  • attorney, one appointed to act for another — now characterized as either:
  • autrefois acquit, previously acquitted of a crime.
  • bailiff, the marshal of the court, charged now chiefly with keeping order in the courtroom.
  • cestui que trust, sometimes shortened to cestui; the beneficiary of a trust.
  • cy-près doctrine, the power of a court to transfer the property of one charitable trust to another charitable trust when the first trust may no longer exist or be able to operate.
  • defendant, the party against whom a civil proceeding is brought.
  • escheat, reversion of unclaimed property to a feudal lord, or the state where the property is allodial.
  • estoppel, prevention of a party from contradicting a position previously taken.
  • feme covert and feme sole.
  • laches, loss of rights through failure to act.
  • mortgage, literally a "dead pledge"; a pledge by which the landowner remained in possession of the property he staked as security.
  • mortmain, a statute restricting the conveyance of land to the "dead hand" of a religious organization
  • oyez, often calqued as hear ye!, a traditional cry used to open court proceedings, still used in the Supreme Court of the United States.
  • plaintiff, the person who begins a lawsuit.
  • prochein ami, now usually called next friend; someone who files a lawsuit on behalf of another who is not capable of acting on his or her own behalf.
  • profit a prendre, also known as the right of common, where one has the right to take the "fruits" of the property of another, such as mining rights, growing rights, etc.
  • replevin, a suit to recover personal property unlawfully taken.
  • torts, meaning wrongs.
  • trove, as in treasure trove, is an adjective, not a noun, and means found. Thus treasure trove means not a treasure chest or hoard, but a treasure found by chance, as opposed to one stolen, inherited, bought, etc.
  • voir dire, literally truth to say; the questions a prospective juror or witness must answer to determine his or her qualification to serve, in the law of England a mini-trial held after a plea of guilty has been entered to determine the facts of the offence where they are in dispute. In a modern context thought of often as a mini-trial within a full trial to determine the admissibility of contested evidence. In a jury trial a voir dire is held before the judge but without a jury present. Voir dires may also be held in a trial by judge alone, but done, of course, in the presence of the judge.

A lawyer, according to Blacks Law Dictionary, is a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person licensed to practice law. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, but not the United States (in the United States the word has a quite different meaning—see below). ... // Artists impression of an English barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys Civil law notaries are trained jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists — those with a legal education who become litigators such as barristers in England and Wales and Northern Ireland or avocats in France... A power of attorney or letter of attorney in common law systems or mandate in civil law systems is an authorization to act on someone elses behalf in a legal or business matter. ... In the common law legal system, a plea of autrefois acquit (French for previously acquitted) means the defendant claims to have been previously acquitted of the same offence, on substantially the same evidence, and that hence he or she cannot be tried again. ... Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... CESTUI, CESTUY, an Anglo-French word, meaning that a person, which appears in the legal phrases cestui que trust, use, or vie. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... Escheat is an obstruction of the course of descent and the consequent reversion of property to the original grantor. ... Allodial land, or allodium, is literally land which has no lord. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Estoppel (English law). ... A feme covert was considered a married woman, versus a feme sole, an unmarried woman. ... Laches is an equitable defense, or doctrine, in an action at law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Statute of Mortmain was an enactment by King Edward I of England aimed at preserving the kingdoms revenues by preventing land from passing into the possession of the Church. ... Oyez (IPA pronunciation: /óyeyz/°(t)s/; OI-yay) is an interjection said three times in succession to introduce the opening of a court of law. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ... Next friend, in British law, the phrase used for a person who represents in an action another person who is under disability to maintain a suit on their own behalf. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Replevin is an Anglo-French law term (derived from repletir, to replevy). ... Tort is a legal term that means a civil wrong, as opposed to a criminal wrong, that is recognized by law as grounds for a lawsuit. ... ... The phrase voir dire derives from Middle French; in modern English it is interpreted to mean speak the truth and generally refers to the process by which prospective jurors are questioned about their backgrounds and potential biases before being invited to sit on a jury. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130...

See also

Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ... This official stone which marks the inauguration of a municipal office in 1999 bears the names of the Connétable and the Procureurs du Bien Public of Saint Helier. ... Franglais (slang), a portmanteau combining the words français (French) and anglais (English), also called Frenglish, is a slang term for types of speech, although the word has different overtones in French and English. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Source: http://books.google.com/books?vid=0psGKvbTizsSdhDQ&id=fD0BAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage#PRA2-PA361,M1. The macaronic nature of this production can be more easily seen if it is reproduced in a modernized form, with the French elements in italics, Latin in bold, and the rest in English: "Richardson, C. J. de C. B. at Assizes at Salisbury in Summer 1631, fut assault par prisoner condemné pour felony; que puis son condemnation jeta un brickbat au dit Justice, que narrowly missed. Et pour ce immediately fut indictment drawn pour ennui envers le prisoner, et son dexter manus amputée et fixée au gibbet, sur que lui-même immédiatement hangé in presence de Court." Admittedly, many of the English words (assault, prisoner, condemn, gibbet, presence, Court) could be interpreted as misspellings (or alternative spellings) of French words, while Justice is the same in French as in English; but even under the most favorable of constructions, the note is bad French, bad English, and bad Latin, all at the same time.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Law French - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (670 words)
Law French is an archaic language based on Norman and Anglo-Norman.
It was used in the law courts of England, beginning with the Norman Conquest by William the Conqueror.
In its later years, Law French became increasingly artificial, and its vocabulary became increasingly English, as it was used solely by English lawyers and judges who often spoke no real French.
French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5096 words)
The law is an amendment to the French Code of Education that expands principles founded in existing French law, especially the constitutional requirement of laïcité: the separation of state and religious activities.
The law does not mention any particular symbol, though it is considered by many to specifically target the wearing of headscarves (a khimar, considered by some to be required as part of hijab ["modesty"]) by Muslim schoolgirls.
The law itself may not be challenged before French courts (since this would have warranted action before the Constitutional Council before the signing of the law); however, the courts may significantly curtail its application — especially given the inherent margin of appreciation of what is ostentatious or not.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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