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Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system. Her blindfold symbolises equality under the law through impartiality towards its subjects, the weighing scales represent the balancing of people's interests under the law, and her sword denotes the law's force of reason.
Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system. Her blindfold symbolises equality under the law through impartiality towards its subjects, the weighing scales represent the balancing of people's interests under the law, and her sword denotes the law's force of reason.

Law[1] is a system of rules to be enforced through a set of institutions.[2] It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading swaptions on a derivatives market. Property law defines rights and obligations related to transfer and title of personal and real property, for instance, in mortgaging or renting a home. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, such as pension funds. Tort law allows claims for compensation when someone or their property is injured or harmed. If the harm is criminalised in a penal code, criminal law offers means by which the state prosecutes and punishes the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for creating laws, protecting people's human rights, and electing political representatives. Administrative law relates to the activities of administrative agencies of government. International law regulates affairs between sovereign nation-states in everything from trade to the environment to military action. "The rule of law", wrote the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle in 350 BC, "is better than the rule of any individual."[3] Law or laws can refer to any of several things: In human societies, law is a set of norms, which can be seen both in a sociological or in a philosophical or semantic sense. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (448x675, 123 KB) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 19:52, 12 October 2006 (UTC) . I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (448x675, 123 KB) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 19:52, 12 October 2006 (UTC) . I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Lady Justice Lady Justice (Iustitia, the Roman Goddess of Justice and sometimes, simply Justice) is an allegorical personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... In the metaphysical or conceptual sense, balance is used to mean a point between two opposite forces that is desirable over purely one state or the other, such as a balance between the metaphysical Law and Chaos — law by itself being overly controlling, chaos being overly unmanageable, balance being the... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Derivatives traders at the Chicago Board of Trade. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article is about the political process. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Legal systems around the world elaborate legal rights and responsibilities in different ways. A basic distinction is made between civil law jurisdictions and systems using common law. Some countries persist in basing their law on religious texts. Scholars investigate the nature of law through many perspectives, including legal history and philosophy, or social sciences such as economics and sociology. The study of law raises important questions about equality, fairness and justice, which are not always simple. "In its majestic equality", said the author Anatole France in 1894, "the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets and steal loaves of bread."[4] The most important institutions for law are the judiciary, the legislature, the executive, its bureaucracy, the military and police, the legal profession and civil society. This article is about the moral/legal concept. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Law and economics, or Economic analysis of law, is the term usually applied to an approach to legal theory that incorporates methods and ideas borrowed from the discipline of economics. ... Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...

Contents

Legal subjects

Though all legal systems must deal with similar issues, different countries often categorise and name legal subjects in different ways. Quite common is the distinction between "public law" subjects, which relate closely to the state (including constitutional, administrative and criminal law), and "private law" subjects (including contract, tort and property).[5] In civil law systems, contract and tort fall under a general law of obligations and trusts law is dealt with under statutory regimes or international conventions. International, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law, contract, tort, property law and trusts are regarded as the "traditional core subjects",[6] although there are many further disciplines which might be of greater practical importance. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world, with its origins in Roman law, and sets out a comprehensive system of rules, usually codified, that are applied and interpreted by judges. ... The Law of Obligations is one of the component private law elements of the civil law system of law (as well as of mixed legal systems, such as Scotland, South Africa, and Louisiana) and encompasses contractual obligations, quasi-contractual obligations such as enrichment without cause and extra-contractual obligations. ... The Hague Convention of the Law Applicable to Trusts and on their Recognition was signed on 1 July 1985 but came into force on 1 January 1992. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


International law

Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II.
Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II.

In a global economy, law is globalising too. International law can refer to three things: public international law, private international law or conflict of laws and the law of supranational organisations. International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (441x622, 73 KB)Poster created during World War II (1943), according to the Declaration of the United Nations of 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (441x622, 73 KB)Poster created during World War II (1943), according to the Declaration of the United Nations of 1942. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ...

  • Conflict of laws (or "private international law" in civil law countries) concerns which jurisdiction a legal dispute between private parties should be heard in and which jurisdiction's law should be applied. Today, businesses are increasingly capable of shifting capital and labour supply chains across borders, as well as trading with overseas businesses. This increases the number of disputes outside a unified legal framework. Increasing numbers of businesses opt for commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958.
  • European Union law is the first and thus far only example of a supranational legal framework. However, given increasing global economic integration, many regional agreements—especially the Union of South American Nations—are on track to follow the same model. In the EU, sovereign nations have pooled their authority through a system of courts and political institutions. They have the ability to enforce legal norms against and for member states and citizens, in a way that public international law does not.[8] As the European Court of Justice said in 1962, European Union law constitutes "a new legal order of international law" for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states.[9]

International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Sources of international law are the materials and processes out of which the rules and principles regulating the international community are developed. ... In law, custom can be described as the established patterns of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Original document. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... WTO redirects here. ... IMF redirects here. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (Also known as the New York Convention; the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards; and the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) was signed in 10 June... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...

Constitutional and administrative law

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value

Constitutional and administrative law govern the affairs of the state. Constitutional law concerns both the relationships between the executive, legislature and judiciary and the human rights or civil liberties of individuals against the state. Most jurisdictions, like the United States and France, have a single codified constitution, with a Bill of Rights. A few, like the United Kingdom, have no such document; in those jurisdictions the constitution is composed of statute, case law and convention. A case named Entick v. Carrington[10] illustrates a constitutional principle deriving from the common law. Mr Entick's house was searched and ransacked by Sheriff Carrington. When Mr Entick complained in court, Sheriff Carrington argued that a warrant from a Government minister, the Earl of Halifax, was valid authority. However, there was no written statutory provision or court authority. The leading judge, Lord Camden, stated that, The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... Download high resolution version (476x604, 46 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (476x604, 46 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... A bill of rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Case law (also known as decisional law) is that body of reported judicial opinions in countries that have common law legal systems that are published and thereby become precedent, i. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... Entick v. ... George Montague-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax (6 October 1716 - 8 June 1771) was a British statesman of the Georgian era. ... Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden (1714 – 18 April 1794), Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, was a leading proponent of civil liberties in eighteenth century England. ...

"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property. That right is preserved sacred and incommunicable in all instances, where it has not been taken away or abridged by some public law for the good of the whole… If no excuse can be found or produced, the silence of the books is an authority against the defendant, and the plaintiff must have judgment."

The fundamental constitutional principle, inspired by John Locke,[11] is that the individual can do anything but that which is forbidden by law, and the state may do nothing but that which is authorised by law. Administrative law is the chief method for people to hold state bodies to account. People can apply for judicial review of actions or decisions by local councils, public services or government ministries, to ensure that they comply with the law. The first specialist administrative court was the Conseil d'État set up in 1799, as Napoleon assumed power in France.[12] The Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, And His Followers, are Detected and Overthrown. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Criminal law

Main article: Criminal law
A depiction of a 1600s criminal trial, for witchcraft in Salem
A depiction of a 1600s criminal trial, for witchcraft in Salem

Criminal law is the body of law that defines criminal offences and the penalties for convicted offenders.[13] Apprehending, charging, and trying suspected offenders is regulated by the law of criminal procedure.[14] The paradigm case of a crime lies in the proof, beyond reasonable doubt, that a person is guilty of two things. First, the accused must commit an act which is deemed by society to be criminal, or actus reus (guilty act).[15] Second, the accused must have the requisite malicious intent to do a criminal act, or mens rea (guilty mind). However for so called "strict liability" crimes, which include cases like dangerous driving, proof of mens rea is not necessary. An actus reus is enough.[16] The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... public domain, Pioneers in the Settlement of America by William A. Crafts. ... public domain, Pioneers in the Settlement of America by William A. Crafts. ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Witch redirects here. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... In the common law, burden of proof is the obligation to prove allegations which are presented in a legal action. ... The actus reus — sometimes called the external element of a crime — is the Latin term for the guilty act which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, i. ... In the criminal law, intention is one of the three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional as opposed to strict liability crime. ... The mens rea is the Latin term for guilty mind used in the criminal law. ... In criminal law, strict liability is liability where mens rea (Latin for guilty mind) does not have to be proved in relation to one or more elements comprising the actus reus (Latin for guilty act) although intention, recklessness or knowledge may be required in relation to other elements of the... Reckless driving, in the United States, is a serious moving traffic violation. ...


Examples of different kinds of crime include murder, assault, fraud or theft. In exceptional circumstances, defences can exist to some crimes, such as killing in self defence, or pleading insanity. Another example is in the 19th century English case of R v. Dudley and Stephens,[17] which tested a defence of "necessity". The Mignotte, sailing from Southampton to Sydney, sank. Three crew members and a cabin boy were stranded on a raft. They were starving and the cabin boy was close to death. Driven to extreme hunger, the crew killed and ate the cabin boy. The crew survived and were rescued, but put on trial for murder. They argued it was necessary to kill the cabin boy to preserve their own lives. Lord Coleridge, expressing immense disapproval, ruled, "to preserve one's life is generally speaking a duty, but it may be the plainest and the highest duty to sacrifice it." The men were sentenced to hang, but public opinion, especially among seafarers, was outraged and overwhelmingly supportive of the crew's right to preserve their own lives. In the end, the Crown commuted their sentences to six months in jail. A young waif steals a pair of boots Stealing redirects here. ... This article and defense of property deal with the legal concept of excused (sometimes termed justified) acts that might otherwise be illegal. ... In criminal trials, the insanity defenses are possible defenses by excuse, by which defendants argue that they should not be held criminally liable for breaking the law, as they were legally insane at the time of the commission of alleged crimes. ... Regina v. ... This article is about the law definition of necessity. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... John Duke Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge (3 December 1820- 14 June 1894), Lord Chief Justice of England, was the eldest son of Sir John Taylor Coleridge. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ...


Criminal law offences are viewed as offences against not just individual victims, but the community as well.[13] The state, usually with the help of police, takes the lead in prosecution, which is why in common law countries cases are cited as "The People v. …" or "R. (for Rex or Regina) v. …" Also, lay juries are often used to determine the guilt of defendants on points of fact: juries cannot change legal rules. Some developed countries still condone capital punishment for criminal activity, but the normal punishment for a crime will be imprisonment, fines, state supervision (such as probation), or community service. Modern criminal law has been affected considerably by the social sciences, especially with respect to sentencing, legal research, legislation, and rehabilitation.[13] On the international field, 105 countries have signed the enabling treaty for the International Criminal Court, which was established to try people for crimes against humanity.[18] Look up rex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article is about the institution. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... Community service refers to service that a person performs for the benefit of his or her local community. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... This theory of punishment is based on the notion that punishment is to be inflicted on a offender so as to reform him, or rehabilitate him so as to make his re-integration into society easier. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


Contract law

Main article: Contract
The Carbolic Smoke Ball offer, which bankrupted the Co. because it could not fulfill the terms it advertised
The Carbolic Smoke Ball offer, which bankrupted the Co. because it could not fulfill the terms it advertised

The concept of a "contract" is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (agreements must be kept).[19] Contracts can be simple everyday buying and selling or complex multi-party agreements. They can be made orally (e.g. buying a newspaper) or in writing (e.g. signing a contract of employment). Sometimes formalities, such as writing the contract down or having it witnessed, are required for the contract to take effect (e.g. when buying a house).[20] A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Newspaper Ad for the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Newspaper Ad for the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for pacts must be respected) is a Brocard, a basic principle of civil law and of international law. ... The statute of frauds refers to the requirement that certain kinds of contracts be made in writing and signed. ... This article is about witnesses in law courts. ...


In common law jurisdictions, there are three key elements to the creation of a contract. These are offer and acceptance, consideration and an intention to create legal relations. For example, in Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Company[21] a medical firm advertised that its new wonder drug, the smokeball, would cure people's flu, and if it did not, the buyers would get £100. Many people sued for their £100 when the drug did not work. Fearing bankruptcy, Carbolic argued the advert was not to be taken as a serious, legally binding offer. It was an invitation to treat, mere puff, a gimmick. But the court of appeal held that to a reasonable man Carbolic had made a serious offer. People had given good consideration for it by going to the "distinct inconvenience" of using a faulty product. "Read the advertisement how you will, and twist it about as you will", said Lord Justice Lindley, "here is a distinct promise expressed in language which is perfectly unmistakable".[21] Offer and acceptance analysis is a traditional approach in contract law used to determine whether an agreement exists between two parties. ... Consideration is something that is done or promised in return for a contractual promise. ... Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement Carlill v. ... Flu redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... In contract law, an invitation to treat (invitation to bargain in the US) is an action by one party which may appear to be a contractual offer but which is actually inviting others to make an offer of their own. ... The reasonable man or reasonable person standard is a legal fiction that originated in the development of the common law. ... Consideration is something that is done or promised in return for a contractual promise. ... Nathaniel Lindley, Baron Lindley (November 29, 1828 – December 9, 1921), English judge, son of John Lindley, was born at Acton Green, London. ...


"Consideration" means all parties to a contract must exchange something of value to be able to enforce it. Some common law systems, like Australia, are moving away from consideration as a requirement for a contract. The concept of estoppel or culpa in contrahendo can be used to create obligations during pre-contractual negotiations.[22] In civil law jurisdictions, consideration is not a requirement for a contract at all.[23] In France, an ordinary contract is said to form simply on the basis of a "meeting of the minds" or a "concurrence of wills". Germany has a special approach to contracts, which ties into property law. Their 'abstraction principle' (Abstraktionsprinzip) means that the personal obligation of contract forms separately from the title of property being conferred. When contracts are invalidated for some reason (e.g. a car buyer is so drunk that he lacks legal capacity to contract)[24] the contractual obligation to pay can be invalidated separately from the proprietary title of the car. Unjust enrichment law, rather than contract law, is then used to restore title to the rightful owner.[25] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Estoppel (English law). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... The abstraction principle or Abstraktionsprinzip is a legal term in German law relating to the law of obligations (Schuldrecht) and property law (Eigentumsrecht). ... The following analysis is based on English law. ...


Tort law

Main article: Tort
The "McLibel" two were involved in the longest running case in UK history for publishing a pamphlet criticising McDonald's restaurants

Torts, sometimes called delicts, are civil wrongs. To have acted tortiously, one must have breached a duty to another person, or infringed some pre-existing legal right. A simple example might be accidentally hitting someone with a cricket ball.[26] Under negligence law, the most common form of tort, the injured party could potentially claim compensation for his injuries from the party responsible. The principles of negligence are illustrated by Donoghue v. Stevenson.[27] A friend of Mrs Donoghue ordered an opaque bottle of ginger beer (intended for the consumption of Mrs Donoghue) in a café in Paisley. Having consumed half of it, Mrs Donoghue poured the remainder into a tumbler. The decomposing remains of a snail floated out. She claimed to have suffered from shock, fell ill with gastroenteritis and sued the manufacturer for carelessly allowing the drink to be contaminated. The House of Lords decided that the manufacturer was liable for Mrs Donoghue's illness. The case was furtherly complicated in that, the contract of the purchase was between Mrs Donoghue's friend, as the buyer of the ginger beer, rather than Mrs Donoghue herself. Lord Atkin took a distinctly moral approach, and said, Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... Helen Steel and David Morris, Photo credit:Spanner Films[1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Helen Steel and David Morris, Photo credit:Spanner Films[1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Helen Steel and David Morris, the defendants in the McLibel case, at the launch of McSpotlight. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Delict is a concept of civil law which is used to some degree in many civil law legal systems. ... Bolton v. ... Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for injuries (not accidents). ... Donoghue (or McAlister) v. ... Ginger beer is a type of carbonated beverage, flavored primarily with ginger, lemon and sugar. ... For other uses, see Paisley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... James Richard Atkin, Baron Atkin (November 28, 1867 - June 25, 1944) was an English jurist. ...

"The liability for negligence… is no doubt based upon a general public sentiment of moral wrongdoing for which the offender must pay… The rule that you are to love your neighbour becomes in law, you must not injure your neighbour; and the lawyer's question, Who is my neighbour? receives a restricted reply. You must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour."[28]

This became the basis for the four principles of negligence; (1) Mr Stevenson owed Mrs Donoghue a duty of care to provide safe drinks (2) he breached his duty of care (3) the harm would not have occurred but for his breach and (4) his act was the proximate cause, or not too remote a consequence, of her harm.[27] Another example of tort might be a neighbour making excessively loud noises with machinery on his property.[29] Under a nuisance claim the noise could be stopped. Torts can also involve intentional acts, such as assault, battery or trespass. A better known tort is defamation, which occurs, for example, when a newspaper makes unsupportable allegations that damage a politician's reputation.[30] More infamous are economic torts, which form the basis of labour law in some countries by making trade unions liable for strikes,[31] when statute does not provide immunity.[32] In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. ... In tort, there can be no liability in negligence unless the claimant establishes both that he or she was owed a duty of care by the defendant, and that there has been a breach of that duty. ... Causation is the bringing about of a result, and in law it is an element in various tests for legal liability. ... In the law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to a legally recognizable injury to be held the cause of that injury. ... In the English law of negligence, the test of causation not only requires that the defendant was the cause in fact, but also requires that the loss or damage sustained by the claimant was not too remote. ... Nuisance is a common law tort. ... At common law, battery is the tort of intentionally (or, in Australia, negligently) and volitionally bringing about an unconsented harmful or offensive contact with a person or to something closely associated with them (i. ... “Unlawful entry” redirects here. ... “Libel” redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Property law

Main article: Property law
A painting of the South Sea Bubble, one of the world's first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading
A painting of the South Sea Bubble, one of the world's first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading

Property law governs everything that people call 'theirs'. Real property, sometimes called 'real estate' refers to ownership of land and things attached to it.[33] Personal property, refers to everything else; movable objects, such as computers, cars, jewelry, and sandwiches, or intangible rights, such as stocks and shares. A right in rem is a right to a specific piece of property, contrasting to a right in personam which allows compensation for a loss, but not a particular thing back. Land law forms the basis for most kinds of property law, and is the most complex. It concerns mortgages, rental agreements, licences, covenants, easements and the statutory systems for land registration. Regulations on the use of personal property fall under intellectual property, company law, trusts and commercial law. An example of a basic case of most property law is Armory v. Delamirie.[34] A chimney sweep's boy found a jewel encrusted with precious stones. He took it to a goldsmith to have it valued. The goldsmith's apprentice looked at it, sneakily removed the stones, told the boy it was worth three halfpence and that he would buy it. The boy said he would prefer the jewel back, so the apprentice gave it to him, but without the stones. The boy sued the goldsmith for his apprentice's attempt to cheat him. Lord Chief Justice Pratt ruled that even though the boy could not be said to own the jewel, he should be considered the rightful keeper until the original owner is found. In fact the apprentice and the boy both had a right of possession in the jewel (a technical concept, meaning evidence that something could belong to someone), but the boy's possessory interest was considered better, because it could be shown to be first in time. Physical possession is nine tenths of the law, but not all. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by EM Ward, Tate Gallery File links The following pages link to this file: The South Sea Company Edward Matthew Ward Categories: Public domain art ... Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by EM Ward, Tate Gallery File links The following pages link to this file: The South Sea Company Edward Matthew Ward Categories: Public domain art ... Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... In financial markets, a share is a unit of account for various financial instruments including stocks, mutual funds, limited partnerships, and REITs. ... Sometimes a court may exercise jurisdiction over property located within the perimeter of its powers without regard to personal jurisdiction over the litigants; this is called jurisdiction in rem. ... In personam (in purr-soh-nam) from Latin for directed toward a particular person. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... A leasehold estate is an ownership interest in land in which a lessee or a tenant holds real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... A covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn promise to do or not do something specified. ... An easement is the right to do something or the right to prevent something over the real property of another. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of law which governs business and commerce. ... Armory v. ... Chimney sweep in the 1850s A chimney sweep, or a climbing boy, is a person who cleans chimneys for a living. ... This article is about the pre-decimalisation halfpenny coin. ... Finders Keepers was a childrens game show that aired on the Nickelodeon network in America from November 2, 1987 to June 30, 1990. ...


This case is used to support the view of property in common law jurisdictions, that the person who can show the best claim to a piece of property, against any contesting party, is the owner.[35] By contrast, the classic civil law approach to property, propounded by Friedrich Carl von Savigny, is that it is a right good against the world. Obligations, like contracts and torts are conceptualised as rights good between individuals.[36] The idea of property raises many further philosophical and political issues. The English philosopher John Locke argued that our "lives, liberties and estates" are our property because we own our bodies and mix our labour with our surroundings.[37] The idea of privately owned property has been contentious in the view of a number of thinkers. Pierre Proudhon, an anarchist thinker, argued in 1840 that "property is theft".[38] Friedrich Carl von Savigny Friedrich Carl von Savigny (February 21, 1779 - 25 October 1861) was one of the most respected and influential 19th-century jurists. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... The labor theory of property is a natural law theory that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [] in BrE, [] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was the first proclaimed anarchist of the 19th century. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Property is theft! is a slogan coined by the French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his book What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right of Government. ...


Equity and Trusts

Main articles: Equity (law) and Trust law
The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century
The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century

Equity is a body of rules that developed in England separately from the "common law". The common law was administered by judges. The Lord Chancellor on the other hand, as the King's keeper of conscience, could overrule the judge made law if he thought it equitable to do so.[39] This meant equity came to operate more through principles than rigid rules. For instance, whereas neither the common law nor civil law systems allow people to split the ownership from the control of one piece of property, equity allows this through an arrangement known as a 'trust'. 'Trustees' control property, whereas the 'beneficial' (or 'equitable') ownership of trust property is held by people known as 'beneficiaries'. Trustees owe duties to their beneficiaries to take good care of the entrusted property.[40] In the early case of Keech v. Sandford[41] a child had inherited the lease on a market in Romford, London. Mr Sandford was entrusted to look after this property until the child matured. But before then, the lease expired. The landlord had (apparently) told Mr Sandford that he did not want the child to have the renewed lease. Yet the landlord was happy (apparently) to give Mr Sandford the opportunity of the lease instead. Mr Sandford took it. When the child (now Mr Keech) grew up, he sued Mr Sandford for the profit that he had been making by getting the market's lease. Mr Sandford was meant to be trusted, but he put himself in a position of conflict of interest. The Lord Chancellor, Lord King, agreed and ordered Mr Sandford should disgorge his profits. He wrote, The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (841x631, 118 KB) Summary The Court of Chancery as drawn by Augustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (841x631, 118 KB) Summary The Court of Chancery as drawn by Augustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... One of the courts of equity in England and Wales. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section should include material from Tenancy agreement A lease is a contract conveying from one person (the lessor) to another person (the lessee) the right to use and control some article of property for a specified period of time (the term), without conveying ownership, in exchange for... Romford Market is a large open market with 270 stalls located in Romford in the London Borough of Havering, East London. ... , Romford is a large suburban town in Greater London, England and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Havering. ... A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust, such as a lawyer, a politician, or an executive or director of a corporation, has competing professional or personal interests. ... The title of Earl of Lovelace was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1838. ...

"I very well see, if a trustee, on the refusal to renew, might have a lease to himself few trust-estates would be renewed… This may seem very hard, that the trustee is the only person of all mankind who might not have the lease; but it is very proper that the rule should be strictly pursued and not at all relaxed."[42]

Of course, Lord King LC was worried that trustees might exploit opportunities to use trust property for themselves instead of looking after it. Business speculators using trusts had just recently caused a stock market crash. Strict duties for trustees made their way into company law and were applied to directors and chief executive officers. Another example of a trustee's duty might be to invest property wisely or sell it.[43] This is especially the case for pension funds, the most important form of trust, where investors are trustees for people's savings until retirement. But trusts can also be set up for charitable purposes, famous examples being the British Museum or the Rockefeller Foundation. Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ... Chief Executive redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... A charitable trust is a trust established for charitable purposes. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


Further disciplines

Law spreads far beyond the core subjects into virtually every area of life. Three categories are presented for convenience, though the subjects intertwine and flow into one another.

Law and society
A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike
A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike
Law and commerce
The New York Stock Exchange trading floor
The New York Stock Exchange trading floor
Law and regulation
The New York Stock Exchange trading floor after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, before tougher banking regulation was introduced

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 655 KB) Summary A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike (industrial action), 2006-03-28. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 655 KB) Summary A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike (industrial action), 2006-03-28. ... For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Human rights law is a system of laws, both domestic and international which is intended to promote human rights. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Citizen redirects here. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... It has been suggested that Stateless person be merged into this article or section. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... The date of this image, (obtained from the file name of the source image) appears to be 6 April 2001. ... The date of this image, (obtained from the file name of the source image) appears to be 6 April 2001. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of law which governs business and commerce. ... Agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual tripartite set of relationships when an Agent is authorized to act on behalf of another <No it is not. ... Insurance law is the name given to practices of law surrounding insurance, including insurance policies and claims. ... A negotiable instrument is a specialised type of contract for the payment of money which is unconditional and capable of transfer by negotiation. ... Insolvency is a financial condition experienced by a person or business entity when their assets no longer exceed their liabilities (commonly referred to as balance-sheet insolvency) or when the person or entity can no longer meet its debt obligations when they come due (commonly referred to as cash-flow... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ... The Law Merchant is a legal system used by merchants in 13th century England. ... The Sale of Goods Act 1979 is a British Act of Parliament (1979, ch 54) which regulates contracts in which goods are sold and bought. ... The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC or the Code) is one of a number of uniform acts that have been promulgated in conjunction with efforts to harmonize the law of sales and other commercial transactions in 49 states (all except Louisiana) within the United States of America. ... Company law refers to the law of a separate legal entities known as the company and governs the most prevalent legal models for firms, for instance limited companies (Ltd or Pty Ltd), publicly limited companies (plc) or incorporated businesses (Inc. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... Limited liability (LL) is liability that is limited to a partner or investors investment. ... A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... In law, damages refers to the money paid or awarded to a claimant (as it is known in the UK) or plaintiff (in the US) following their successful claim in a civil action. ... The following analysis is based on English law. ... Image File history File links 1930-67B.gif Summary 1930-67B: The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. ... Image File history File links 1930-67B.gif Summary 1930-67B: The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... In days leading up to Black Thursday the market was unstable. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... Tax law is the codified system of laws that describes government levies on economic transactions, commonly called taxes. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic... Corporate tax refers to a direct tax levied by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... Financial supervision is government supervision of financial institutions by regulators. ... In days leading up to Black Thursday the market was unstable. ... Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... Water laws are regulated individually by sovereign states. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), working for the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority (GEMA), is the government regulator for the electricity and downstream natural gas markets in the United Kingdom. ... The policy behind telecommunications is directed by decision makers in the Municipal, State, federal and International arenas; as well as the Legislative, Executive, Judicial branches of government and the Regulatory Commissions like the FCC. The governing principles behind telecom policy are: Economic Regulation of Natural Monopoly Antitrust Management of Government... Water laws are regulated individually by sovereign states. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Antitrust redirects here. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price. ... At present, the law will not enforce certain types of contracts on the ground of illegality. ... The Sherman Antitrust Act was the first government action to limit trusts (A combination of firms or corporations who agree not to lower prices below a certain rate for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices throughout a business or an industry). ... In the United States, the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 was enacted to remedy perceived deficiencies in antitrust law created under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution consequences associated with it. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... A contractual term is [a]ny provision forming part of a contract[1] Each term gives rise to a contractual obligation, breach of which will can give rise to litigation. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...

Legal systems

In general, legal systems around the world can be split between civil law jurisdictions, on the one hand, and systems using common law and equity, on the other. The term civil law, referring to a legal system, should not be confused with civil law as a group of legal subjects, as distinguished from criminal law or public law. A third type of legal system — still accepted by some countries in part, or even in whole — is religious law, based on scriptures and interpretations thereof. The specific system that a country follows is often determined by its history, its connection with countries abroad, and its adherence to international standards. The sources that jurisdictions recognise as authoritatively binding are the defining features of legal systems. Yet classification of different systems is a matter of form rather than substance, since similar rules often prevail. World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... This article is about civil law within the common law legal system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Sources of law are the materials and processes out of which law is developed. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Civil law

First page of the 1804 edition of the Napoleonic Code
First page of the 1804 edition of the Napoleonic Code

Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation – especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government – and, secondarily, custom.[45] Codifications date back millennia, with one early example being the ancient Babylonian Codex Hammurabi, but modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the Roman Empire, whose texts were rediscovered in medieval Europe. Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily procedural, and there was no professional legal class.[46] Instead a lay person, iudex, was chosen to adjudicate. Precedents were not reported, so any case law that developed was disguised and almost unrecognised.[47] Each case was to be decided afresh from the laws of the state, which mirrors the (theoretical) unimportance of judges' decisions for future cases in civil law systems today. During the 6th century AD in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Emperor Justinian codified and consolidated the laws that had existed in Rome, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before.[48] This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis. As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before."[49] Western Europe, meanwhile, slowly slipped into the Dark Ages, and it was not until the 11th century that scholars in the University of Bologna rediscovered the texts and used them to interpret their own laws.[50] Civil law codifications based closely on Roman law, alongside some influences from religious laws such as Canon law and Islamic law,[51][52] continued to spread throughout Europe until the Enlightenment; then, in the 19th century, both France, with the Code Civil, and Germany, with the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, modernised their legal codes. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (e.g. Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions.[53] Today countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central and Latin America.[54] For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (636x762, 54 KB) Code Civil des Français, 1804, original edition Scanned image on Gallica File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleonic code ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (636x762, 54 KB) Code Civil des Français, 1804, original edition Scanned image on Gallica File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleonic code ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The law of South America is one of the most unified in the world. ...


Common law and equity

Main article: Common law
King John of England signs Magna Carta
King John of England signs Magna Carta

Common law and equity are systems of law whose special distinction is the doctrine of precedent, or stare decisis (Latin for "to stand by decisions"). Alongside this "judge-made law", common law systems always have governments who pass new laws and statutes. But these are not put into a codified form. Common law comes from England and was inherited by almost every country that once belonged to the British Empire, with the exceptions of Malta, Scotland, the U.S. state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. Common law had its beginnings in medieval England, influenced by the Norman conquest of England which introduced legal concepts and institutions from the Norman and Islamic laws.[52] Common law further developed when the English monarchy had been weakened by the enormous cost of fighting for control over large parts of France. King John had been forced by his barons to sign a document limiting his authority to pass laws. This "great charter" or Magna Carta of 1215 also required that the King's entourage of judges hold their courts and judgments at "a certain place" rather than dispensing autocratic justice in unpredictable places about the country.[55] A concentrated and elite group of judges acquired a dominant role in law-making under this system, and compared to its European counterparts the English judiciary became highly centralised. In 1297, for instance, while the highest court in France had fifty-one judges, the English Court of Common Pleas had five.[56] This powerful and tight-knit judiciary gave rise to a rigid and inflexible system of common law.[57] As a result, as time went on, increasing numbers of citizens petitioned the King to override the common law, and on the King's behalf the Lord Chancellor gave judgment to do what was equitable in a case. From the time of Sir Thomas More, the first lawyer to be appointed as Lord Chancellor, a systematic body of equity grew up alongside the rigid common law, and developed its own Court of Chancery. At first, equity was often criticised as erratic, that it "varies like the Chancellor's foot". But over time it developed solid principles, especially under Lord Eldon.[58] In the 19th century the two systems were fused into one another. In developing the common law and equity, academic authors have always played an important part. William Blackstone, from around 1760, was the first scholar to describe and teach it.[59] But merely in describing, scholars who sought explanations and underlying structures slowly changed the way the law actually worked.[60] This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Scots law (or Scottish law) is the law of Scotland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Quebec law is unique in Canada because Quebec is the only province in Canada to have a civil law system. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Norman law refers to the customary law of Normandy which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries following the establishment of the Vikings there and which survives today still through the legal system of the Channel Islands. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article is about the King of England. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... English common law courts before the Judicature Acts The Court of Common Pleas was a common law court in the English legal system before the reforms of the Judicature Act 1873. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... One of the courts of equity in England and Wales. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named John Scott, see John Scott (disambiguation). ... William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. ...


Religious law

Main article: Religious law
A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Mecelle

Religious law refers to the notion that the word of God is law. Examples include the Jewish Halakha and Islamic Sharia, both of which mean the "path to follow". Christian canon law also survives in some church communities. The implication of religion for law is unalterability, because the word of God cannot be amended or legislated against by judges or governments. However religion never provides a thorough and detailed legal system. For instance, the Quran has some law, and it acts merely as a source of further law through interpretation,[61] Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), Ijma (consensus) and precedent. This is mainly contained in a body of law and jurisprudence known as Sharia and Fiqh respectively, which had a fairly significant influence on the development of common law,[52] as well as some influence on civil law.[51] Another example is the Torah or Old Testament, in the Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses. This contains the basic code of Jewish law, which some Israeli communities choose to use. The Halakha is a code of Jewish law which summarises some of the Talmud's interpretations. Nevertheless, Israeli law allows litigants to use religious laws only if they choose. Canon law is only in use by members of the clergy in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion. In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... Image File history File links 1879-Ottoman_Court-from-NYL.png Summary Mid-Manhattan Library / Picture Collection NYPL Call Number: PC TRI-18 Captions: Under consular protection : orphans from Batak preparing rice for their dinner under the superintendence of the British Consuls Cavass; The trial of the Bashi-Bazouks : a... Image File history File links 1879-Ottoman_Court-from-NYL.png Summary Mid-Manhattan Library / Picture Collection NYPL Call Number: PC TRI-18 Captions: Under consular protection : orphans from Batak preparing rice for their dinner under the superintendence of the British Consuls Cavass; The trial of the Bashi-Bazouks : a... Ottoman civil codec. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... This article is about the legal term. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... The law of Israel is a mixed system of common law and civil law. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Law stubs | Legal terms ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...


Until the 18th century, Sharia law was practiced throughout the Muslim world in a non-codified form, with the Ottoman Empire's Mecelle code in the 19th century being first attempt at codifying elements of Sharia law. Since the mid-1940s, efforts have been made, in country after country, to bring Sharia law more into line with modern conditions and conceptions.[62] In modern times, Sharia is merely an optional supplement to the civil or common law of most countries, though Saudi Arabia and Iran's whole legal systems source their law on a codified form of Sharia. During the last few decades, one of the fundamental features of the movement of Islamic resurgence has been the call to restore the Sharia, which has generated a vast amount of literature and affected world politics.[63] Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Ottoman civil codec. ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... It has been suggested that World politics be merged into this article or section. ...


Jurisdictions

Though the legal traditions described have resulted in a number of common traits across jurisdictions, each sovereign entity can have unique aspects. The lists below link to articles on individual jurisdictions, organised by geography.

The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The law of Oceania refers to the different legal systems within the geographical area of Oceania. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1096x744, 47 KB)Australasia ecozone re-drawn from French wiki by MPF Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Copyright 2004 Affordable Solutions Pty Ltd Aust. ... Image File history File links Micronesia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Image File history File links Polynesia. ... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...

Legal theory

History of law

Main article: Legal history
King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash.
King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash.

The history of law is closely connected to the development of civilizations. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BCE, had a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.[64] Around 1760 BCE under King Hammurabi, ancient Babylonian law was codified and put in stone for the public to see in the marketplace; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi. However like Egyptian law, which is pieced together by historians from records of litigation, few sources remain and much has been lost over time. The influence of these earlier laws on later civilisations was small.[65] The Old Testament is probably the oldest body of law still relevant for modern legal systems, dating back to 1280 BCE. It takes the form of moral imperatives, as recommendations for a good society. Ancient Athens, the small Greek city-state, was the first society based on broad inclusion of the citizenry, excluding women and the slave class from about 8th century BCE. Athens had no legal science, and Ancient Greek has no word for "law" as an abstract concept.[66] Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy.[67] Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Central New York City. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... Slave redirects here. ... TRENT IS SOOOOOOOOO HOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ancient Greek law is a branch of comparative jurisprudence relating to the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece. ...


Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek teachings.[68] It forms the bridge to the modern legal world, over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire.[69] Roman law underwent major codification in the Corpus Juris Civilis of Emperor Justinian I. It was lost through the Dark Ages, but rediscovered around the 11th century. Mediæval legal scholars began researching the Roman codes and using their concepts. In mediæval England, the King's powerful judges began to develop a body of precedent, which became the common law. But also, a Europe-wide Lex Mercatoria was formed, so that merchants could trade using familiar standards, rather than the many splintered types of local law. The Lex Mercatoria, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom of contract and alienability of property.[70] As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, Lex Mercatoria was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes. The French Napoleonic Code and the German became the most influential. As opposed to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and for judges to apply. However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging. European Union law is codified in treaties, but develops through the precedent laid down by the European Court of Justice. Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The Law Merchant is a legal system used by merchants in 13th century England. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...

The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.

Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and had historically independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (though containing some older material), and the Manusmriti(c. 100-300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, texts that were considered authoritative legal guidance.[71] Manu's central philosophy was tolerance and Pluralism, and was cited across Southeast Asia.[72] This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire.[73] Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Hong Kong also adopted the common law. The eastern Asia legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences.[74] Japan was the first country to begin modernising its legal system along western lines, by importing bits of the French, but mostly the German Civil Code.[75] This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Ch'ing dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law.[76] Today Taiwanese law retains the closest affinity to the codifications from that period, because of the split between Chiang Kai-shek's nationalists, who fled there, and Mao Zedong's communists who won control of the mainland in 1949. The current legal infrastructure in the People's Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights.[77] Today, however, because of rapid industrialisation China has been reforming, at least in terms of economic (if not social and political) rights. A new contract code in 1999 represented a turn away from administrative domination.[78] Furthermore, after negotiations lasting fifteen years, in 2001 China joined the World Trade Organisation.[79] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (485x640, 70 KB) Summary The Indian Constitution preamble Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (485x640, 70 KB) Summary The Indian Constitution preamble Source: http://www. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The legal system of Hong Kong is based on the rule of law and the independence of the Judiciary. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Mao redirects here. ... CCCP redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...


Philosophy of law

Main article: Jurisprudence
See also: Political philosophy
"But what, after all, is a law? […] When I say that the object of laws is always general, I mean that law considers subjects en masse and actions in the abstract, and never a particular person or action. […] On this view, we at once see that it can no longer be asked whose business it is to make laws, since they are acts of the general will; nor whether the prince is above the law, since he is a member of the State; nor whether the law can be unjust, since no one is unjust to himself; nor how we can be both free and subject to the laws, since they are but registers of our wills."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, II, 6.[80]

The philosophy of law is also known as jurisprudence. Normative jurisprudence is essentially political philosophy and asks "what should law be?". Analytic jurisprudence, on the other hand, is a distinctive field which asks "what is law?". An early famous philosopher of law was John Austin, a student of Jeremy Bentham and first chair of law at the new University of London from 1829. Austin's utilitarian answer was that law is "commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience".[81] This approach was long accepted, especially as an alternative to natural law theory. Natural lawyers, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, argue that human law reflects essentially moral and unchangeable laws of nature. Immanuel Kant, for instance, believed a moral imperative requires laws "be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature".[82] Austin and Bentham, following David Hume, thought this conflated what "is" and what "ought to be" the case. They believed in law's positivism, that real law is entirely separate from "morality".[83] Kant was also criticised by Friedrich Nietzsche, who believed that law emanates from The Will to Power and cannot be labelled as "moral" or "immoral".[84] Thus, Nietzsche criticised the principle of equality, and believed that law should be committed to freedom to engage in will to power.[85] For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... John Austin (1790 - 1859) was a noted British jurist. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Website http://www. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Kant redirects here. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... David Hume raised the is-ought problem in his Treatise of Human Nature. ... Legal positivism is a school of thought in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... The will to power (German: Der Wille zur Macht) is a concept prominent in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


In 1934, the Austrian philosopher Hans Kelsen continued the positivist tradition in his book the Pure Theory of Law.[86] Kelsen believed that though law is separate from morality, it is endowed with "normativity", meaning we ought to obey it. Whilst laws are positive "is" statements (e.g. the fine for reversing on a highway is 500), law tells us what we "should" do (i.e. not drive backwards). So every legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm (Grundnorm) telling us we should obey the law. Carl Schmitt, Kelsen's major intellectual opponent, rejected positivism, and the idea of the rule of law, because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions.[87] Therefore, Schmitt advocated a jurisprudence of the exception (state of emergency), which denied that legal norms could encompass of all political experience.[88] Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (Prague, October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian -American jurist of Jewish descent. ... Kelsens Pure theory of law is actually a misnomer. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Grundnorm is a German word meaning fundamental norm. ... Carl Schmitt (July 11, 1888 – April 7, 1985) was a German jurist, political theorist, and professor of law. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ...

Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century.

Later in the 20th century, H. L. A. Hart attacked Austin for his simplifications and Kelsen for his fictions in The Concept of Law.[89] As the chair of jurisprudence at Oxford University, Hart argued law is a "system of rules". Rules, said Hart, are divided into primary rules (rules of conduct) and secondary rules (rules addressed to officials to administer primary rules). Secondary rules are divided into rules of adjudication (to resolve legal disputes), rules of change (allowing laws to be varied) and the rule of recognition (allowing laws to be identified as valid). Two of Hart's students have continued the debate since. Ronald Dworkin was his successor in the Chair of Jurisprudence at Oxford and his greatest critic. In his book Law's Empire, Dworkin attacked Hart and the positivists for their refusal to treat law as a moral issue. Dworkin argues that law is an "interpretive concept",[90] that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. Joseph Raz, on the other hand, has defended the positivist outlook and even criticised Hart's 'soft social thesis' approach in The Authority of Law.[91] Raz argues that law is authority, identifiable purely through social sources, without reference to moral reasoning. Any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative dispute mediation is best left to sociology, rather than jurisprudence.[92] Jeremy Bentham, British philosopher, 1748-1832 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Jeremy Bentham, British philosopher, 1748-1832 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is widely regarded as the most important English-speaking legal philosopher of the twentieth century. ... The Concept of Law (ISBN 0-19-876122-8) is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L. A. Hart. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ... Interpretivism is a school of thought in contemporary jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. ... Joseph Raz (born 1939) is an influential legal, moral and political philosopher. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


Economic analysis of law

Main article: Law and economics
Richard Posner, one of the Chicago School, runs a blog with Bank of Sweden Prize winning economist Gary Becker.
Richard Posner, one of the Chicago School, runs a blog with Bank of Sweden Prize winning economist Gary Becker.[93]

Economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that incorporates and applies the methods and ideas of economics to law. The discipline arose partly out of a critique of trade unions and U.S. antitrust law. The most influential proponents, such as Richard Posner and Oliver Williamson and the so-called Chicago School of economists and lawyers including Milton Friedman and Gary Becker, are generally advocates of deregulation and privatisation, and are hostile to state regulation or what they see as restrictions on the operation of free markets.[94] Law and economics, or economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that applies methods of economics to law. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Richard Allen Posner (born January 11, 1939, in New York City) is currently a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. ... The Chicago school of economics is a school of thought favoring free-market economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago in the middle of the 20th century. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Swe. ... Gary Stanley Becker (born December 2, 1930) is an economist and a Nobel laureate. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... Richard Allen Posner (born January 11, 1939, in New York City) is currently a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. ... Oliver E. Williamson (born September 27, 1932) is a prominent author in the area of transaction cost economics, a student of Ronald Coase and Herbert Simon. ... The Chicago school of economics is a school of thought favoring free-market economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago in the middle of the 20th century. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Gary Stanley Becker (born December 2, 1930) is an economist and a Nobel laureate. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


The most prominent economic analyst of law is 1991 Nobel Prize winner Ronald Coase. His first major article, The Nature of the Firm (1937), argued that the reason for the existence of firms (companies, partnerships, etc.) is the existence of transaction costs.[95] Rational individuals trade through bilateral contracts on open markets until the costs of transactions mean that using corporations to produce things is more cost-effective. His second major article, The Problem of Social Cost (1960), argued that if we lived in a world without transaction costs, people would bargain with one another to create the same allocation of resources, regardless of the way a court might rule in property disputes.[96] Coase used the example of a nuisance case named Sturges v. Bridgman, where a noisy sweetmaker and a quiet doctor were neighbours and went to court to see who should have to move.[97] Coase said that regardless of whether the judge ruled that the sweetmaker had to stop using his machinery, or that the doctor had to put up with it, they could strike a mutually beneficial bargain about who moves house that reaches the same outcome of resource distribution. Only the existence of transaction costs may prevent this.[98] So the law ought to pre-empt what would happen, and be guided by the most efficient solution. The idea is that law and regulation are not as important or effective at helping people as lawyers and government planners believe.[99] Coase and others like him wanted a change of approach, to put the burden of proof for positive effects on a government that was intervening in the market, by analysing the costs of action.[100] The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... Ronald Harry Coase (b. ... Ronald Coase (born December 29, 1910) is a British economist. ... Company law refers to the law of a separate legal entities known as the company and governs the most prevalent legal models for firms, for instance limited companies (Ltd or Pty Ltd), publicly limited companies (plc) or incorporated businesses (Inc. ... In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost incurred in making an economic exchange. ... Homo economicus, or Economic man, is the concept in some economic theories of man (that is, a human) as a rational and self-interested actor who desires wealth, avoids unnecessary labor, and has the ability to make judgments towards those ends. ... Nuisance is a common law tort. ... Bargain could mean some of the following: The process whereby buyer and seller agree the price of goods or services. ... In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost incurred in making an economic exchange. ... Economic efficiency is a general term for the value assigned to a situation by some measure designed to capture the amount of waste or friction or other undesirable economic features present. ...


Sociology of law

Main article: Sociology of law
Max Weber in 1917 - Weber who began as a lawyer is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law
Max Weber in 1917 - Weber who began as a lawyer is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law

Sociology of law is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of law with society. Sociology of law overlaps with jurisprudence, economic analysis of law and more specialised subjects such as criminology.[101] The institutions of law and the social construction of legal issues and systems are relevant areas of inquiry. Initially, legal theorists were suspicious of the discipline. Kelsen attacked one of its founders, Eugen Ehrlich, who wanted to emphasise the difference between positive law, which lawyers learn and apply, and other forms of 'law' or social norms that regulate everyday life, generally preventing conflicts from reaching lawyers and courts.[102] Around 1900 Max Weber defined his "scientific" approach to law, identifying the "legal rational form" as a type of domination, not attributable to people but to abstract norms.[103] Legal rationalism was his term for a body of coherent and calculable law which formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism.[104] Another sociologist, Émile Durkheim, wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions.[105] Other notable early legal sociologists included Hugo Sinzheimer, Theodor Geiger, Georges Gurvitch and Leon Petrażycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the U.S.[106] Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Max_Weber_1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Max_Weber_1917. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Eugen Ehrlich (1862 - 1922) was an Austrian legal scholar. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim (IPA: ; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist whose contributions were instrumental in the formation of sociology and anthropology. ... Hugo Sinzheimer (* 12 April 1875 in Worms, Germany; † 16 September 1945 in Bloemendaal-Overveen, the Netherlands) was a German legal scholar. ... Theodor Julius Geiger (9 November 1891 in Munich, Germany - 16 June 1952 at sea in Atlantic Ocean) was a German socialist lawyer and sociologist. ... Georges Gurvitch (or Jorge Gurvitch, born Georgij Davydovič Gurvič, November 11, 1894, Novorossiysk - December 12, 1965, Paris) was the Russian born French sociologist, jurist. ... Leon Petrażycki (13 April 1867 - 15 May 1931) was a philosopher, legal scholar and sociologist. ... William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) was the leading American advocate of a free-trade industrial society, which is what he believed the socialists meant by capitalism. ...


Legal institutions

"It is a real unity of them all in one and the same person, made by covenant of every man with every man, in such manner as if every man should say to every man: I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou givest up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner.
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, XVII

The main institutions of law in industrialised countries are independent courts, representative parliaments, an accountable executive, the military and police, bureaucratic organisation, the legal profession and civil society itself. John Locke in Two Treatises On Civil Government, and Baron de Montesquieu after him in The Spirit of the Laws, advocated a separation of powers between the institutions that wield political influence, namely the judiciary, legislature and executive.[107] Their principle was that no person should be able to usurp all powers of the state, in contrast to the absolutist theory of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan.[108] More recently, Max Weber and many others reshaped thinking about the extensions of the state that come under the control of the executive. Modern military, policing and bureaucratic power over ordinary citizens' daily lives pose special problems for accountability that earlier writers like Locke and Montesquieu could not have foreseen. The custom and practice of the legal profession is an important part of people's access to justice, whilst civil society is a term used to refer to the social institutions, communities and partnerships that form law's political basis. This article is about courts of law. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... The Spirit of Laws (French: De lesprit des lois) is a book on political theory by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, published in 1748. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ...


Judiciary

Main article: Judiciary

A judiciary is a group of judges who mediate people's disputes and determine the outcome. Most countries have a system of appeals courts, up to a supreme authority. In the U.S.A., this is the Supreme Court;[109] in Australia, the High Court; in the UK, the House of Lords;[110] in Germany, the Bundesverfassungsgericht; in France, the Cour de Cassation.[111] However, for most European countries the European Court of Justice[112] in Luxembourg may overrule national law, where EU law is relevant. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg allows citizens of the Council of Europe member states to bring cases to it concerning human rights issues. In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x800, 320 KB) Summary From International Court of Justice 60th Anniversary Press Pack. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x800, 320 KB) Summary From International Court of Justice 60th Anniversary Press Pack. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Hague redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht) is a special court established by the German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...


Some countries allow their highest judicial authority to strike down legislation determined to be unconstitutional. For instance, the United States Supreme Court struck down a Texan law forbidding assistance to women in abortion, in Roe v. Wade.[113] The constitution's fourteenth amendment was interpreted to give Americans a right to privacy, hence a woman's right to choose abortion. The judiciary is theoretically bound by the constitution, much as legislative bodies are. In most countries judges may only interpret the constitution and all other laws. But in common law countries, where matters are not constitutional, the judiciary may also create law under the doctrine of precedent. On the other hand, the UK, Finland and New Zealand still assert the ideal of parliamentary sovereignty, whereby the unelected judiciary may not overturn law passed by a democratic legislature. Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Interpretivism is a school of thought in contemporary jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. ... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ... Parliamentary sovereignty, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in constitutional law that applies to some parliamentary democracies. ...


Legislature

Main article: Legislature
The debating chamber of the European Parliament
The debating chamber of the European Parliament

Prominent examples of legislatures are the Houses of Parliament in London, the Congress in Washington D.C., the Bundestag in Berlin, the Duma in Moscow and the Assemblée nationale in Paris. By the principle of representative government people vote for politicians to carry out their wishes. Although countries like Israel, Greece, Sweden and China are unicameral, most countries are bicameral, meaning they have two separately appointed legislative houses. In the 'lower house' politicians are elected to represent smaller constituencies. The 'upper house' is usually elected to represent states in a federal system (as in Australia, Germany or the U.S.A.) or different voting configuration in a unitary system (as in France). In the United Kingdom the upper house is appointed by the government as a house of review. One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a house of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action.[114] A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3884 KB) [edit] Summary The inside of the European Pariament in Brussels in January 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3884 KB) [edit] Summary The inside of the European Pariament in Brussels in January 2006. ... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... This may refer to the: British Houses of Parliament. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


To pass legislation, a majority of Members of Parliament must vote for a bill (proposed law) in each house. Normally there will be several readings and amendments proposed by the different political factions. If a country has an entrenched constitution, a special majority for changes to the constitution will be required, making changes to the law more difficult. A government usually leads the process, which can be formed from Members of Parliament (e.g. the UK or Germany). But in a presidential system, an executive appoints a cabinet to govern from his or her political allies whether or not they are elected (e.g. the U.S.A. or Brazil), and the legislature's role is reduced to either ratification or veto. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article is about the political process. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Executive

Main articles: Executive (government) and Head of State
The G8 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch
The G8 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch

The "executive" in a legal system refers to the government's centre of political authority. In most democratic countries, like the UK, Italy, Germany, India and Japan, it is elected into and drawn from the legislature and is often called the cabinet. Alongside this is usually the head of state, who lacks formal political power but symbolically enacts laws. The head of state is sometimes appointed (the Bundespräsident in Germany), sometimes hereditary (British monarch) and sometimes elected by popular vote (the President of Austria). The other important model is found in countries like France, the U.S. or Russia. Under these presidential systems, the executive branch is separate from the legislature, and is not accountable to it.[115] In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna: home to the offices of the Federal President. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ...


The executive's role may vary from country to country. Usually it will initiate or propose the majority of legislation and handle a country's foreign relations. The military and police often fall under executive control, as well as the bureaucracy. Ministers, or secretaries of state of the government head a country's public offices, such as the health department or the Department of Justice. The election of a different executive is therefore capable of revolutionising an entire country's approach to government. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... A health department is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry. ... This article is about the political process. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Military and police

Main articles: Military and Police

The military and police are sometimes referred to as "the long and strong arm of the law".[116] While military organizations have existed as long as governments themselves, a standing police force is relatively modern. Mediæval England's system of traveling criminal courts, or assizes used show trials and public executions to instill communities with fear and keep them under control.[117] The first modern police were probably those in 17th century Paris, in the court of Louis XIV,[118] although the Paris Prefecture of Police claim they were the world's first uniformed policemen.[119] In 1829, after the French Revolution and Napoleon's dictatorship, a government decree created the first uniformed policemen in Paris and all other French cities, known as sergents de ville ("city sergeants"). In Britain, the Metropolitan Police Act 1829 was passed by Parliament under Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, founding the London Metropolitan Police. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2618x1925, 1390 KB) U.S. Customs and Border Protection counterterrorism officers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2618x1925, 1390 KB) U.S. Customs and Border Protection counterterrorism officers. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... For the band, see The Police. ... Mediæval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th centurys withdrawal of Roman forces and Germanic invasions until the 16th century Reformations in Scotland and England. ... Criminal justice system flowchart Criminal justice refers to the system used by government to maintain social control, prevent crime, enforce laws, and administer justice. ... The Courts of Assize, or Assizes, is the name of criminal courts in several countries. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... There were various Metropolitan Police Acts Metropolitan Police Act 1829 Metropolitan Police Act 1839 Metropolitan Police Act 1856 Metropolitan Police Act 1860 Metropolitan Police Act 1864 Metropolitan Police Act 1886 Metropolitan Police Act 1887 Metropolitan Police Act 1899 And several Acts with related names: Metropolitan Police (Receiver) Act 1861 Metropolitan... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ...


Sociologist Max Weber famously argued that the state is that which controls the legitimate monopoly of the means of violence.[120] The military and police carry out enforcement at the request of the government or the courts. The term failed state is used where the police and military no longer control security and order and society moves into anarchy, the absence of government. Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about the economic term. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... For Noam Chomskys 2006 book, see Failed States (book). ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ...


Bureaucracy

Main article: Bureaucracy
The United Nations' New York headquarters houses civil servants that serve its 192 member states.
The United Nations' New York headquarters houses civil servants that serve its 192 member states.

The word "bureaucracy" derives from the French for "office" (bureau) and Ancient Greek for "power" (kratos). Like the military and police, all of a legal system's government servants and bodies that make up the bureaucracy carry out the wishes of the executive. One of the earliest references to the concept was made by Baron de Grimm, a German author who lived in France. In 1765 he wrote, The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Friedrich Melchior, baron von Grimm Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (December 26, 1723 - December 19, 1807), author, the son of a German pastor, was born at Ratisbon. ...

"The real spirit of the laws in France is that bureaucracy of which the late Monsieur de Gournay used to complain so greatly; here the offices, clerks, secretaries, inspectors and intendants are not appointed to benefit the public interest, indeed the public interest appears to have been established so that offices might exist."[121]

Cynicism over "officialdom" is still common, and the workings of public servants is typically contrasted to private enterprise motivated by profit.[122] In fact private companies, especially large ones, also have bureaucracies.[123] Negative perceptions of "red tape" aside, public services such as schooling, health care, policing or public transport are a crucial state function making public bureaucratic action the locus of government power.[123] Writing in the early 20th century, Max Weber believed that a definitive feature of a developed state had come to be its bureaucratic support.[124] Weber wrote that the typical characteristics of modern bureaucracy are that officials define its mission, the scope of work is bound by rules, management is composed of career experts, who manage top down, communicating through writing and binding public servants' discretion with rules.[125] Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance... Maximization is an economics theory, that refers to individuals or societies gaining the maximum amount out of the resources they have available to them. ... Red tape (or sometimes paperwork) is a derisive term for excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. ... Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ...


Legal profession

Main article: Legal profession
An English barrister
An English barrister

Lawyers give their clients advice about their legal rights and duties, and represent them in court. As European Court of Human Rights has stated, the law should be adequately accessible to everyone and people should be able to foresee how the law affects them.[126] In order to maintain professionalism, the practice of law is typically overseen by either a government or independent regulating body such as a bar association, bar council or law society. An aspiring practitioner must be certified by the regulating body before undertaking his practice. This usually entails a two or three year programme at a university faculty of law or a law school, earning the student a Bachelor of Laws, a Bachelor of Civil Law or a Juris Doctor degree. This course of study is followed by an entrance examination (e.g. admission to the bar). Some countries require a further vocational qualification before a person is permitted to practice law. For those wishing to become a barrister a year's pupillage under the oversight of an experienced barrister. Beyond the requirements for legal practice higher academic degrees may be pursued. Examples include a Master of Laws, a Master of Legal Studies or a Doctor of Laws. A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (627x889, 50 KB) From: http://runeberg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (627x889, 50 KB) From: http://runeberg. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... In its most general sense, the practice of law involves giving legal advice to clients, drafting legal documents for clients, and representing clients in legal negotiations and court proceedings such as lawsuits, and is applied to the professional services of a lawyer or Attorney at Law, barrister, solicitor or civil... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A bar council in a Commonwealth country is a professional body that regulates the profession of barristers together with the Inns of Court. ... The Law Society of England and Wales is the professional association that regulates and represents the solicitors profession in England and Wales. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Faculty of law is another name for a law school or school of law, the terms commonly used in the United States. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in the majority of common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ... J.D. redirects here. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted to a lawyer to practice law. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The team qualification may refer to: Certification A process of deciding the running order in many auto racing events This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... A pupillage, in England and Wales, is the barristers equivalent of the training contract that a solicitor undertakes. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree, commonly abbreviated LL.M. (also LLM or LL.M) from its Latin name, Legum Magister. ... A M.S.L. is a masters degree offered by some law schools to students who wish to study the law but do not want to become attorneys. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ...


Once accredited, a lawyer will often work in a law firm, in a chambers as a sole practitioner, in a government post or in a private corporation as an internal counsel. In addition a lawyer may become a legal researcher who provides on-demand legal research through a commercial service or through freelance work. Many people trained in law put their skills to use outside the legal field entirely. Significant to the practice of law in the common law tradition is the legal research to determine the current state of the law. This usually entails exploring case-law reports, legal periodicals and legislation. Law practice also involves drafting documents such as court pleadings, persuasive briefs, contracts, or wills and trusts. Negotiation and dispute resolution skills are also important to legal practice, depending on the field. A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law. ... A judges chambers - often just called Chambers - is the office of a judge. ... Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the concept. ... This article is about the concept. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... // Legal research is the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal decision-making. ... The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Law reports or reporters are series of books which contain judicial opinions from a selection of cases that have been decided by the courts. ... Legal periodicals are issued in number at stated intervals that contains matters on a variety of legal topics distributed in the same way as in the case of general periodicals in to contributed articles, editorial materials, book reviews etc. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... In the law, a pleading is one of the papers filed with a court in a civil action, such as a complaint, a demurrer, or an answer. ... Brief redirects here. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Adjudication be merged into this article or section. ...


Civil society

Main article: Civil society
A march in Washington D.C. during the U.S. Civil Rights Movement in 1963
A march in Washington D.C. during the U.S. Civil Rights Movement in 1963

The term "civil society" dates back to British philosopher John Locke. He saw civil society as people who have "a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them."[127] German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel also distinguished the "state" from "civil society" (Zivilgesellschaft) in Elements of the Philosophy of Right.[128] Hegel believed that civil society and the state were polar opposites, within the scheme of his dialectic theory of history.[129] Civil society is necessarily a source of law, by being the basis from which people form opinions and lobby for what they believe law should be. As Australian barrister and author Geoffrey Robertson QC wrote of international law, The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Image File history File links 1963_march_on_washington. ... Image File history File links 1963_march_on_washington. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Hegels Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) was published in 1820, though the books original title page dates it to 1821. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Geoffrey Ronald Robertson QC (born September 30, 1946 in Sydney, New South Wales) is an Australian human rights lawyer, academic, author and broadcaster. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

"one of its primary modern sources is found in the responses of ordinary men and women, and of the non-governmental organizations which many of them support, to the human rights abuses they see on the television screen in their living rooms."[130] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Freedom of speech, freedom of association and many other individual rights allow people to meet together, discuss, criticise and hold to account their governments, from which the basis of a deliberative democracy is formed. The more people are involved with, concerned by and capable of changing how political power is exercised over their lives, the more acceptable and legitimate the law becomes to the people. Developed political parties, debating clubs, trade unions, impartial media, business and charities are all part of a healthy civil society. This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The word legitimacy is often interpreted in a normative or a positive way. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Cogers Society is a free speech gathering, established in 1755 in the City of London. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


See also

Law Portal 
Main lists: List of basic law topics and List of legal topics

Image File history File links Portal. ... Please see the legal disclaimer if you are looking for legal advice. ... This page aims to list terms relating to law, including the titles of all Wikipedia articles on the subject. ... The following is a list of major areas of legal practice and important legal subject-matters. ... This list consists of lists of case law. ... The following lists are of prominent jurists, including judges, listed in alphabetical order by jurisdiction. ... c. ...

Notes

  1. ^ From Old English lagu "something laid down or fixed"; legal comes from Latin legalis, from lex "law", "statute" (Law, Online Etymology Dictionary; Legal, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary)
  2. ^ Robertson, Crimes against humanity, 90; see jurisprudence for extensive debate on what law is; H.L.A Hart argued law is a "system of rules" in his work The Concept of Law (Campbell, The Contribution of Legal Studies, 184); John Austin said law was "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction" (Bix, John Austin); Ronald Dworkin describes law as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice (Dworkin, Law's Empire, 410); and Joseph Raz argues law is an "authority" to mediate people's interests (Raz, The Authority of Law, 3–36).
  3. ^ n.b. this translation reads, "it is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens" (Aristotle, Politics 3.16).
  4. ^ The original French is: "la loi, dans un grand souci d'égalité, interdit aux riches comme aux pauvres de coucher sous les ponts, de mendier dans les rues et de voler du pain" (France, The Red Lilly, Chapter VII).
  5. ^ Although some scholars argue that "the boundaries between public and private law are becoming blurred," and that this distinction has become mere "folklore" (Bergkamp, Liability and Environment, 1–2).
  6. ^ E.g. in England these seven subjects, with EU law substituted for international law, make up a "qualifying law degree". For criticism, see Peter Birks' poignant comments attached to a previous version of the Notice to Law Schools.
  7. ^ The prevailing manner of enforcing international law is still essentially "self help"; that is the reaction by states to alleged breaches of international obligations by other states (Robertson, Crimes against Humanity, 90; Schermers-Blokker, International Institutional Law, 900–901).
  8. ^ Schermers-Blokker, International Institutional Law, 943
  9. ^ C-26/62 Van Gend en Loos v. Nederlanse Administratie Der Belastingen, Eur-Lex
  10. ^ Entick v. Carrington (1765) 19 Howell's State Trials 1030
  11. ^ Locke, The Second Treatise, Chapter 9, section 124
  12. ^ Auby, Administrative Law in France, 75
  13. ^ a b c "Criminal law". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  14. ^ "Procedural law". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  15. ^ Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660 (1962).
  16. ^ e.g. Powell v. Texas, 392 U.S. 514 (1968).
  17. ^ Regina v. Dudley and Stephens ([1884] 14 QBD 273 DC)
  18. ^ The States Parties to the Rome Statute, International Criminal Court
  19. ^ Wenberg, Pacta Sunt Servanda, 775
  20. ^ e.g. In England, s.52 Law of Property Act 1925
  21. ^ a b Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 1 QB 256. See a full law report from Justis
  22. ^ Austotel v. Franklins (1989) 16 NSWLR 582
  23. ^ e.g. In Germany, § 311 Abs. II BGB
  24. ^ § 105 Abs. II BGB
  25. ^ Smith, The Structure of Unjust Enrichment Law, 1037
  26. ^ Bolton v. Stone [1951] A.C. 850
  27. ^ a b Donoghue v. Stevenson ([1932] A.C. 532, 1932 S.C. (H.L.) 31, [1932] All ER Rep 1). See the original text of the case in UK Law Online.
  28. ^ Donoghue v. Stevenson [1932] A.C. 532, 580
  29. ^ Sturges v. Bridgman (1879) 11 Ch D 852
  30. ^ e.g. concerning a British politician and the Iraq War, Galloway v. Telegraph Group Ltd [2004] EWHC 2786
  31. ^ Taff Vale Railway Co. v. Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants [1901] AC 426
  32. ^ In the UK, Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992; c.f. in the U.S., National Labor Relations Act
  33. ^ Hunter v. Canary Wharf Ltd. (1997) 2 AllER 426.
  34. ^ Armory v. Delamirie (1722) 93 ER 664, 1 Strange 505
  35. ^ P. Matthews, The Man of Property, 251–274
  36. ^ Savigny. Das Recht des Besitzes, 25
  37. ^ Locke, Second Treatise on Civil Government, Chapter 9, section 123.
  38. ^ Proudhon, What is Property?, Chapter I (Method Pursued in this Book – The Idea of a Revolution)
  39. ^ McGhee, Snell's Equity, 7
  40. ^ c.f. Bristol and West Building Society v. Mothew [1998] Ch 1
  41. ^ Keech v. Sandford (1726) Sel Cas. Ch.61
  42. ^ Keech v. Sandford (1726) Sel Cas. Ch.61
  43. ^ Nestle v. National Westminster Bank plc [1993] 1 WLR 1260
  44. ^ Berle, Modern Corporation and Private Property
  45. ^ Civil law jurisdictions recognise custom as "the other source of law"; hence, scholars tend to divide the civil law into the broad categories of "written law" (ius scriptum) or legislation, and "unwritten law" (ius non scriptum) or custom. Yet they tend to dismiss custom as being of slight importance compared to legislation (Georgiadis, General Principles of Civil Law, 19; Washofsky, Taking Precedent Seriously, 7).
  46. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 18
  47. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 21
  48. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History, 32
  49. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History, 35
  50. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History, 43
  51. ^ a b Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring, 1978), "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems", The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 [Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24-25, 1977]): 187-198 [196-8]
  52. ^ a b c Makdisi, John A. (June 1999), "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law", North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635-1739
  53. ^ Hatzis, The Short-Lived Influence of the Napoleonic Civil Code in Greece, 253–263
    * Demirgüç-Kunt -Levine, Financial Structures and Economic Growth, 204
  54. ^ The World Factbook — Field Listing – Legal system, CIA
  55. ^ Magna Carta, Fordham University
  56. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 4
  57. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 3
  58. ^ Gee v. Pritchard (1818) 2 Swans. 402, 414
  59. ^ Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book the First – Chapter the First
  60. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 17
  61. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 159
  62. ^ Anderson, Law Reform in the Middle East, 43
    * Giannoulatos, Islam, 274–275
  63. ^ Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law, 1
  64. ^ Théodoridés "law". Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt.  
    * VerSteeg, Law in ancient Egypt
  65. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 86
  66. ^ Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, 5–6
  67. ^ Ober, The Nature of Athenian Democracy, 121
  68. ^ Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, 39
  69. ^ As a legal system, Roman law has affected the development of law in most of Western civilisation as well as in parts of the Eastern world. It also forms the basis for the law codes of most countries of continental Europe ( "Roman law". Encyclopaedia Britannica. ).
  70. ^ Sealey-Hooley, Commercial Law, 14
  71. ^ For discussion of the composition and dating of these sources, see Olivelle, Manu's Code of Law (Oxford, 2005), 18-25.
  72. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 276
  73. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 273
  74. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 287
  75. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 304
  76. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 305
  77. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 307
  78. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 309
  79. ^ Farah, Five Years of China WTO Membership, 263–304
  80. ^ Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book II: Chapter 6 (Law)
  81. ^ Bix, John Austin
  82. ^ Kant, Immanuel, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 42 (par. 434)
  83. ^ Green, Legal Positivism
  84. ^ Kazantzakis, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Philosophy of Law, 97–98
    * Linarelli, Nietzsche in Law's Cathedral, 23–26
  85. ^ Nietzsche, Zur Genealogie der Moral, Second Essay, 11
  86. ^ Marmor, The Pure Theory of Law
  87. ^ Bielefeldt, Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberalism, 25–26
  88. ^ Finn, Constitutions in Crisis, 170–171
  89. ^ Bayles, Hart's Legal Philosophy, 21
  90. ^ Dworkin, Law's Empire, 410
  91. ^ Raz, The Authority of Law, 3–36
  92. ^ Raz, The Authority of Law, 37 etc.
  93. ^ The Becker-Posner Blog. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  94. ^ S.M. Jakoby, Economic Ideas and the Labour Market, 53
  95. ^ Coase, The Nature of the Firm, 386–405
  96. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Coast, 1–44
  97. ^ Sturges v. Bridgman (1879) 11 Ch D 852
  98. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, IV, 7
  99. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, V, 9
  100. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, VIII, 23
  101. ^ Jary, Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 636
  102. ^ Rottleuthner, La Sociologie du Droit en Allemagne, 109
    * Rottleuthner, Rechtstheoritische Probleme der Sociologie des Rechts, 521
  103. ^ Rheinstein, Max Weber on Law and Economy in Society, 336
  104. ^ Jary, Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 636
  105. ^ Johnson, The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, 156
  106. ^ Gurvitch, Sociology of Law, 142
    * Papachristou, Sociology of Law, 81–82
  107. ^ Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, Book XI: Of the Laws Which Establish Political Liberty, with Regard to the Constitution, Chapters 6–7
  108. ^ Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, XVII
  109. ^ A Brief Overview of the Supreme Court, Supreme Court of the United States
  110. ^ House of Lords Judgements, House of Lords
  111. ^ Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, Bundesverfassungsgericht
    * Jurisprudence, publications, documentation, Cour de cassation
  112. ^ European Court of Justice. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  113. ^ Roe v. Wade (1973) 410 U.S. 113 Retrieved 2007-01-26
  114. ^ Riker, The Justification of Bicameralism, 101
  115. ^ Haggard, Presidents, Parliaments and Policy, 71
    * Olson, The New Parliaments of Central and Eastern Europe, 7
  116. ^ Dickens, The Old Curiosity Shop, Chapter 73
  117. ^ See, e.g. Tuberville v. Savage (1669), 1 Mod. Rep. 3, 86 Eng. Rep. 684, where a knight said in a threatening tone to a layman, "If it were not assize time, I would not take such language from you."
  118. ^ History of Police Forces, History.com Encyclopedia
  119. ^ Des Sergents de Ville et Gardiens de la Paix à la Police de Proximité, La Préfecture de Police
  120. ^ Weber, Politics as a Vocation
    * Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation, 154
  121. ^ Albrow, Bureaucracy, 16
  122. ^ Mises, Bureaucracy, II, Bureaucratic Management
  123. ^ a b Kettl, Public Bureaucracies, 367
  124. ^ Weber, Economy and Society, I, 393
  125. ^ Kettl, Public Bureaucracies, 371
  126. ^ The Sunday Times v. The United Kingdom [1979] ECHR 1 at 49 Case no. 6538/74
  127. ^ Locke, Second Treatise, Chapter 7, section 87
  128. ^ Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, 3, II, 182
  129. ^ Pelczynski, The State and Civil Society, 1–13
  130. ^ Robertson, Crimes Against Humanity, 98–99

Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The translation of law to other European languages faces several difficulties. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is widely regarded as the most important legal philosopher of the twentieth century. ... The Concept of Law (ISBN 0-19-876122-8) is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L. A. Hart. ... There have been several notable people named John Austin: A philosopher of language; see J. L. Austin (1911 - 1960) An 18th century legal and political theorist who wrote An Essay on Sovereignty, considered the standard for discussions about sovereignty; see John Austin (legal philosophy) A warrant officer in the United... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Joseph Raz (born 1939) is an influential legal, moral and political philosopher. ... Peter Birks (3 October 1941- 6 July 2004) was the Regius Professor of Civil Law at the University of Oxford from 1989 until his death and a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. ... Entick v. ... Holding Punishing a person for a medical condition is a violation of the Eighth Amendment ban on cruel and unusual punishment. ... Holding The Texas law making it a crime of public intoxication did not constitute cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment. ... Regina v. ... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past court cases, either in special series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral form which will... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... Bolton v. ... Donoghue (or McAlister) v. ... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past court cases, either in special series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral form which will... Donoghue (or McAlister) v. ... George Galloway (born 16 August 1954 in Dundee) is a Scottish politician and author noted for his left-wing views, confrontational style, and rhetorical skill. ... Taff Vale Railway Co. ... The Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 is a UK Act of Parliament which regulates the operation of trade unions and industrial action, and governs relations between employers and unions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Kant redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Printed sources

  • Albrow, Martin (1970). Bureaucracy (Key Concepts in Political Science). London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-11262-8. 
  • Anderson, J.N.D. (January 1956). "Law Reform in the Middle East". International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944—) 32 (1): 43–51. Retrieved on 2007-03-04. 
  • Aristotle: Constitution of the Athenians on Wikisource. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Auby, Jean-Bernard (2002). "Administrative Law in France", Administrative Law of the European Union, its Member States and the United States edited by F. A. M. Stroink, René Seerden. Intersentia. ISBN 9-050-95251-8. 
  • Bayles, Michael D. (1992). "A Critique of Austin", Hart's Legal Philosophy. Springer. ISBN 0-792-31981-8. 
  • Bergkamp, Lucas (2001). "Introduction", Liability and Environment. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9-041-11645-1. 
  • Berle, Adolf (1932). Modern Corporation and Private Property. 
  • Bielefeldt, Heiner (1998). "Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberalism: Systematic Reconstruction and Countercriticism", Law as Politics: Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberalism. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-822-32244-7. 
  • Blackstone, William (1765–69). Commentaries on the Laws of England. 
  • Campbell, Tom D. (1993). "The Contribution of Legal Studies", A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy edited by Robert E. Goodin and Philip Pettit. ISBN 0-631-19951-9. 
  • Coase, Ronald H. (November 1937). "The Nature of the Firm". Economica 4 (16): 386–405. Retrieved on 2007-02-10. 
  • Coase, Ronald H. (October 1960). "The Problem of Social Cost The Problem of Social Cost (this online version excludes some parts)". Journal of Law and Economics 3: 1–44. Retrieved on 2007-02-10. 
  • "Criminal law". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  • Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross (2001). "Financial Structures and Economic Growth", Financial Structures and Economic Growth. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-54179-3. 
  • Dickens, Charles (1841). The Old Curiosity Shop, Chapter 73. 
  • Durkheim, Emile (1893). The Division of Labor in Society. The Free Press reprint. ISBN 0684836386. 
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. ... William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. ... Ronald Coase (born December 29, 1910) is a British economist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Coase (born December 29, 1910) is a British economist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dickens redirects here. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... Anastasios Giannoulatos (Albanian: Anastas Janullatos; Greek: Αναστάσιος Γιαννουλάτος), Archbishop of Tirana, Durrës and All Albania, is the Head of the Holy Synod of the Albanian Orthodox Church. ... Georges Gurvitch (or Jorge Gurvitch, born Georgij Davydovič Gurvič, November 11, 1894, Novorossiysk - December 12, 1965, Paris) was the Russian born French sociologist, jurist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kant redirects here. ... The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, 1785) is a work by Immanuel Kant meant to establish the fundamental rational and a priori basis for morality. ... Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek: Νίκος Καζαντζάκης) (February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Greece - October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany), author of poems, novels, essays, plays, and travel books, was arguably the most important and most translated Greek writer and philosopher of the 20th century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... The Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, And His Followers, are Detected and Overthrown. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (pronounced was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ... What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government (French: Quest-ce que la propriété?) is the title of a book (written in French) by the 19th century French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. ... Joseph Raz (born 1939) is an influential legal, moral and political philosopher. ... William Harrison Riker (September 22, 1920 - June 26, 1993) was an influential political scientist, who advanced the field of political science through his application of game theory and mathematics to the field. ... Geoffrey Ronald Robertson QC (born September 30, 1946 in Sydney) is an Australian human rights lawyer, academic, author and broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Friedrich Carl von Savigny Friedrich Carl von Savigny (February 21, 1779 - 25 October 1861) was one of the most respected and influential 19th-century jurists. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The original Wikisource logo. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[3] in the United States, with three campuses located in and around New York City. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

John Austin (1790 - 1859) was a noted British jurist. ... The Province of Jurisprudence Determined is a book written by John Austin, first published in 1832, in which he sets out his theory of law generally known as the command theory. Austin believed that the science of general jurisprudence consisted in the clarification and arrangement of fundamental legal notions. ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is widely regarded as the most important English-speaking legal philosopher of the twentieth century. ... The Concept of Law (ISBN 0-19-876122-8) is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L. A. Hart. ...

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Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice_2. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Labour law (American English: labor) or employment law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which addresses the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. ... Human rights law is a system of laws, both domestic and international which is intended to promote human rights. ... Legal procedure is the body of law and rules used in the administration of justice in the court system, including such areas as civil procedure, criminal procedure, appellate procedure, administrative procedure, labour procedure, and probate. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of law which governs business and commerce. ... Corporate law (also corporations law or company law) refers to the law establishing separate legal entities known as the company or corporation and governs the most prevalent legal models for firms, for instance limited companies (Ltd or Pty Ltd), publicly limited companies (plc) or incorporated businesses (Inc. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The following analysis is based on English law. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Tax law is the codified system of laws that describes government levies on economic transactions, commonly called taxes. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... Antitrust redirects here. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Products liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aviation law is the branch of law that concerns flight, air travel, and associated legal and business concerns. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article is about law in society. ... Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that applies methods of economics to law. ... Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3758 words)
Law is typically administered through a system of courts in which judges (sometimes with the aid of a jury or lay magistrate) hear disputes between parties, and apply a set of rules in order to provide an outcome that is just and fair.
The area of public law, in a general sense, is the law in a given legal system that concerns the legal organisation of the various branches of government and institutions of state, as well as disputes between the government and private persons within the jurisdiction of the country.
Economic analysis of law (or economics and law) is the term usually employed to describe an approach to legal theory that incorporates and applies the methods and ideas of economics to the concepts of law.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Law (4368 words)
Human laws, however, must be subordinate to the Divine law, or at least, must not contradict it, for human authority is only a participation in the supreme Divine power of government, and it is impossible that God could give human beings the right to issue laws that are unreasonable and in contravention of His will.
Law is a bond imposed upon the subjects by which their will is bound or in some way brought under compulsion in regard to the performance or the omission of definite actions.
A classification of law, as limited to law administered in the courts, and familiar to Roman jurisprudence, is that of law in the strict sense and equity (jus strictum et jus aequum et bonum).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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