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Encyclopedia > Latvian language
Latvian
Latviešu
Spoken in: Latvia 
Region: Northern Europe
Total speakers: ~2 million
Language family: Indo-European
 Baltic
  Eastern Baltic
   Latvian 
Official status
Official language of: Latvia, European Union
Regulated by: State Language Center
Language codes
ISO 639-1: lv
ISO 639-2: lav
ISO 639-3: lav

Latvian (latviešu valoda), sometimes referred to as Lettish, is the official state language of the Republic of Latvia. There are about 1.5 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia and about 200,000 abroad. Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Baltic languages are a group of genetically-related languages spoken in the Northern Europe and belonging to the Indo-European language family. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Latvian belongs to the Eastern Baltic sub-group of the Baltic language group in the Indo-European language family. Of the Baltic languages, only Latvian and its closest relative Lithuanian remain. However, while related, the Latvian and Lithuanian vocabularies vary greatly from each other and are not mutually intelligible. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...

Contents

Classification

Latvian is one of two living Baltic languages (with the other one being Lithuanian), a group of its own within the Indo-European language family. The Latvian and Lithuanian languages have retained many features of the nominal morphology of the proto-language, though in matters of phonology and verbal morphology they show many innovations, with Latvian being considerably more innovative than Lithuanian. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


Dialects

Map showing geographical distribution of the dialects in Latvia
Map showing geographical distribution of the dialects in Latvia

There are three dialects in Latvian: the Livonian dialect, Latgalian and the Middle dialect. The Livonian dialect is divided into the Vidzeme variety and the Courland variety (also called tāmnieku or ventiņu). The Middle dialect, the basis of standard Latvian, is divided into the Vidzeme variety, the Curonian variety and the Semigallian variety. Note: Latvian dialects should not be confused with the Livonian, Curonian, Semigallian and Selonian languages. Image File history File links Latvaldialekti. ... Image File history File links Latvaldialekti. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Latgalian language can mean one of the following: It was a language spoken by Latgalians in a great part of the area which is now Latvia. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Liflandiya) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... The term Curonian language (Latvian: kurÅ¡u valoda; Lithuanian: kurÅ¡ių kalba) may refer to two different, but genetically related Baltic languages. ... Semigallian is an extinct language appertaining to the Baltic languages sub-family of Indo-European languages. ... Selonian was a language appertaining to the Baltic languages group of the Indo-European languages family. ...


Livonian dialect

The Livonian dialect of Latvian was more affected by the Livonian language substratum than Latvian in other parts of Latvia. There are two intonations in the Livonian dialect. In Courland short vowels in the endings of words are discarded, while long vowels are shortened. In all genders and numerals only one form of verb is used. Personal names in both genders are derived with endings - els, -ans. In prefixes ie is changed to e. Due to migration and the introduction of a standardised language this dialect has declined. It arose from assimilated Livonians, who started to speak in Latvian and assimilated Livonian grammar into Latvian. Livonian (Līvõ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anthroponym. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... The Livonians were the indigenous Finnics who since ancient times populated the shores of the Gulf of Riga adjacent to the Indo-European Balts. ...


Middle dialect

The Vidzeme variety and the Semigallian variety are closer to each other than to the Curonian variety, which is more archaic than the other two. There are three intonations in the Middle dialect. In the Semigallian variety, ŗ is still used


Grammar

Main article: Latvian grammar

Latvian is an inflective language with several analytical forms, and German syntactical influence. There are two grammatical genders in Latvian (masculine and feminine). Each noun is declined in seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative. The stress, with a few exceptions, is on the first syllable. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about inflection in linguistics. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Dative has several meanings. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


Orthography

Historically, Latvian was written using a system based upon German phonetic principles. At the beginning of the 20th century, this was replaced by a more phonetically appropriate system, using a modified Latin alphabet. Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Standard orthography

Today, the Latvian standard alphabet consists of 33 letters:

A Ā B C Č D E Ē F G Ģ H I Ī J K Ķ L Ļ M N Ņ O P R S Š T U Ū V Z Ž
a ā b c č d e ē f g ģ h i ī j k ķ l ļ m n ņ o p r s š t u ū v z ž

The modern standard Latvian alphabet uses 22 unmodified letters of the Latin alphabet (all except Q, W, X and Y). It adds a further eleven letters by modification. The vowel letters A, E, I and U can take a macron to show length, unmodified letters being short. The letters C, S and Z, that in unmodified form are pronounced [ts], [s] and [z] respectively, can be marked with a caron. These marked letters, Č, Š and Ž are pronounced [tʃ], [ʃ] and [ʒ] respectively. The letters Ģ, Ķ, Ļ and Ņ are written with a cedilla or little 'comma' placed below (or above the lowercase g). They are modified (palatalized) versions of G, K, L and N and represent the sounds [ɟ], [c], [ʎ] and [ɲ]. Non-standard varieties of Latvian add extra letters to this standard set. For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... Ä€ or ā, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Latvian alphabet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ÄŒ in upper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Slovenian alphabet and the fifth letter of the Lithuanian and Latvian alphabet. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A macron (from Gr. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A macron (from Gr. ... For other uses, see J (disambiguation). ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see L (disambiguation). ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see M (disambiguation). ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Å  in upper- and lowercase The grapheme Å , Å¡ (Latin S with háček) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative . ... For other uses, see T (disambiguation). ... For other uses of U, see U (disambiguation). ... A macron (from Gr. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ž (minuscule: ž) is: the 25th letter of the Slovenian alphabet, the 30th letter of the Serbian; the 42nd letter of the Czech; the 19th letter of the Estonian; the 33rd letter of the Latvian; the 32nd letter of the Lithuanian; the 46th letter of Slovak; the 13th letter of the Turkmen... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... Ä€ or ā, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Latvian alphabet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ÄŒ in upper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Slovenian alphabet and the fifth letter of the Lithuanian and Latvian alphabet. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A macron (from Gr. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A macron (from Gr. ... For other uses, see J (disambiguation). ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see L (disambiguation). ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see M (disambiguation). ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Å  in upper- and lowercase The grapheme Å , Å¡ (Latin S with háček) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative . ... For other uses, see T (disambiguation). ... For other uses of U, see U (disambiguation). ... A macron (from Gr. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ž (minuscule: ž) is: the 25th letter of the Slovenian alphabet, the 30th letter of the Serbian; the 42nd letter of the Czech; the 19th letter of the Estonian; the 33rd letter of the Latvian; the 32nd letter of the Lithuanian; the 46th letter of Slovak; the 13th letter of the Turkmen... Look up Q, q in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see X (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of U, see U (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Caron (disambiguation). ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


Latvian spelling has almost perfect correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. Every phoneme has its own letter so that a reader need not learn how a word is pronounced, but simply pronounce it. There are only three exceptions to this that could cause mispronunciation. The first is the letter E and its long variation Ē, which are used to write two sounds that represent the short and long versions of either [ɛ] or [a] respectively. The letter O indicates both the short and long [ɔ], and the diphthong [uɔ]. These three sounds are written as O, Ō and Uo in Latgalian, and some Latvians campaign for the adoption of this system in standard Latvian. However, the majority of Latvian linguists argue that o and ō are found only in loanwords, with the Uo sound being the only native Latvian phoneme. The digraph Uo was discarded in 1914, and the letter Ō has not been used in the official Latvian language since 1946. Likewise, the letters Ŗ and Ch were discarded in 1957, although they are still used in some varieties and by many Latvians living beyond the borders of Latvia. The letter Y is used only in the Latgalian language, where it is used to write a distinct phoneme that does not occur in other Latvian varieties. Latvian orthography consists of nine digraphs, which are written Ai, Au, Ei, Ie, Iu, Ui, Oj, Dz and . In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Old orthography

The old orthography was based on that of German and did not represent the Latvian language phonemically. At the beginning it was used to write religious texts for German priests to help them in their work with Latvians. The first writings in Latvian were chaotic: there were as many as twelve variations of writing Š. In 1631 the German priest Georgs (Juris) Mancelis tried to systematize the writing. He wrote long vowels according to their position in the word — a short vowel followed by h for a radical vowel, a short vowel in the suffix and vowel with a diacritic mark in the ending indicating two different accents. Consonants were written following the example of German with multiple letters. The old orthography was used until the 20th century when it was slowly replaced by the modern orthography.


Latvian on computers

The rarely used Latvian ergonomic keyboard layout
The rarely used Latvian ergonomic keyboard layout

Lack of software support of diacritics has caused an unofficial style of orthography, often called translit, to emerge for use in situations when the user is unable to access Latvian diacritic marks in today's computerised media (e-mail, newsgroups, web user forums, chat, SMS etc.). It uses basic Modern Latin alphabet only, and letters that aren't used in standard orthography are usually omitted. In this style, diacritics are replaced by digraphs - a doubled letter indicates a long vowel; j indicates palatalisation of consonants, except for Š, Č and Ž that are indicated by using h. Sometimes the second letter, the one used instead of a diactric, is changed to one of two other diacritic letters (e.g. š is written as ss or sj, not sh), and since many people may find it difficult to use these unusual methods, they write without any indication of missing diacritic marks, or they use digraphing only if the diacritic mark in question would make a semantic difference.[1] Sometimes an apostrophe is used before or after the character that would properly need to be diacriticised. There exists yet another style, sometimes called "Pokemonism" (In Latvian Internet slang "pokemon" is derogatory for adolescent), characterised by use of some elements of leet, use of non-Latvian letters (particularly w and x instead of v and ks), use of c instead of ts, use of z in endings, and use of mixed case. Also, digraph diacritics are often used and sometimes even mixed with diacriticised letters of standard orthography. Although today there is software support available, diacritic-less writing is still widespread because of financial and social reasons. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Volapuk encoding. ... List of Latin letters. ... “Pokemon” redirects here. ... “Ttyl” redirects here. ... “Adolescent” redirects here. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... StudlyCaps (or perhaps StUdLyCaPs) is a variation of CamelCase in which the individual letters in a word (or many) are capitalized and not capitalized, either at random or alternating in some pattern. ...


Standard QWERTY keyboards are used for writing in Latvian; diacritics are entered by using dead key (usually ", occasionally ~). Some keyboard layouts use modifier key AltGr (most notable of such is windows 2000 and XP builtin layout (Latvian QWETRTY)). In the early 1990s, the Latvian ergonomic keyboard layout was developed. Although this layout may be available with language support software, it hasn't become popular because of a lack of keyboards with such layout. For the song by Linkin Park, see QWERTY (song). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Combining character. ... In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination. ... AltGr is a modifier key on PC keyboards used to type many characters, primarily ones that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as foreign currency symbols and accented letters. ... A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and English (QWERTY) letters. ...


Phonology

Consonants

  Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Alveolopalatal Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Plosives p  b   t  d   k  ɡ  
Affricates     t͡s  d͡z t͡ɕ  d͡ʑ t͡ʃ  d͡ʒ    
Nasal m   n 1   ŋ  
Trill     r        
Fricative   f  v s  z ʃ  ʒ   h
Central approximant     j1    
Lateral Approximant     l 1    
  • 1 [nʲ] is the palatalized alveolar nasal, [lʲ] is the palatalized lateral alveolar approximant, and [j] is the palatal approximant; these are included here among the alveolo-palatals ( = palatalized postalveolars) for space reasons.

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In music, a trill is a type of ornament; see trill (music) In phonetics, a trill is a type of consonant; see trill consonant In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Trill are two symbiotic races of aliens; see Trill (Star Trek). ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ...

Pitch accent

In Latvian, the stressed (= first) syllable can take one of three tones:

Level tone
high throughout the syllable. E.g., loki "chives".
Falling tone
brief rise followed by a long fall. E.g., loks "arch, bow".
Broken tone
rising tone followed by falling tone with interruption in the middle or some creakiness in the voice. E.g., logs "window".

This system is similar to the ones found in Lithuanian, Swedish, Norwegian and Serbian. The broken tone is similar to the Danish stød. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A map showing the distribution of the stød in Danish dialects. ...


History

The Baltic languages are of particular interest to linguists because they retain many archaic features believed to have been present in the early stages of the Proto-Indo-European language.[citation needed] The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


There is some evidence to suggest the existence of a Balto-Slavic language group after the break-up of Proto-Indo-European, with the Slavic and Baltic languages then splitting perhaps around the 10th century BC. However, this is disputed by many linguists,[attribution needed] because the first inhabitants of Latvia appeared around 8000 BC, but Slavic tribes at the border of Latvia appeared only around 6th century AD. While the possession of many archaic features is undeniable, the exact manner by which the Baltic languages have developed from the Proto-Indo-European language is not clear. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Balto-Slavic languages are an Indo-European language family, consisting of the (possibly genetically related) Baltic languages and Slavic languages. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...


According to some clotochronological speculations, the Eastern Baltic languages split from Western Baltic (or, perhaps, from the hypothetical proto-Baltic language) between 400 and 600. The differentiation between Lithuanian and Latvian started after 800, with a long period of being one language but different dialects. At a minimum, transitional dialects existed until the 14th century or 15th century, and perhaps as late as the 17th century. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Proto-Baltic is the proto-language of the Baltic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ...


Latvian emerged as a distinct language in the 16th century, having evolved from Latgalian and assimilating Curonian, Semigallian and Selonian on the way. All of these belong to the Baltic language group. Latgalian language can mean one of the following: It was a language spoken by Latgalians in a great part of the area which is now Latvia. ... The term Curonian language (Latvian: kuršu valoda; Lithuanian: kuršių kalba) may refer to two different, but genetically related Baltic languages. ... Semigallian is an extinct language appertaining to the Baltic languages sub-family of Indo-European languages. ... Selonian was a language appertaining to the Baltic languages group of the Indo-European languages family. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...


The oldest known examples of written Latvian are from a 1530 translation of a hymn made by Nikolaus Ramm, a German pastor in Riga. For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ...


Until 19th century Latvian language was heavily influenced by German language, because upper class of local society was formed by Baltic Germans. In middle of 19th century first Latvian National Awakening was started, led by “Young Latvians” who popularized use of Latvian language, participants of this movement laid foundations for standard Latvian and also popularized latvianization of loan words. However in 1880s when tsar Alexander III came into power, Russification started, during this period some Latvian scholars even suggested adopting the Cyrillic alphabet for use in Latvian. After the tsar's death, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, nationalist movements reemerged. German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... The Latvian National Awakening (in Latvian: latvieÅ¡u [or latvju] tautas atmoda) refers to three distinct but ideologically related nationalist movements: the First Awakening refers to the national revival led by the Young Latvians from the 1850s to the 1880s, the Second Awakening to the movement that led to the... The Young Latvians (in Latvian: jaunlatvieÅ¡i) is the term most often applied to the intellectuals of the first Latvian National Awakening (in Latvian: tautas atmoda), active from the 1850s to the 1880s. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...


In 1908, Latvian linguists Kārlis Mīlenbahs and Jānis Endzelīns elaborated the modern Latvian alphabet, which slowly replaced old orthography used before. Another interesting feature of the language, in common with its sister language Lithuanian, that was developed at the time is that proper names from other countries and languages, no matter how obscure, are altered phonetically to fit the phonological system of Latvian. Even if the original language also uses the Latin alphabet, this process takes place. Moreover the names are modified to ensure they have noun declension endings, declining like all other nouns. For example a place such as Lecropt (a Scottish parish) is likely to become Lekropta; the Scottish village of Tillicoultry becomes Tilikutrija. This is a good example of linguistic purism in this ancient language. Kārlis MÄ«lenbahs (his surname was formerly also written as Mühlenbach, Mühlenbachs or MÄ«lenbachs) (b. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


During the years of Soviet occupation (1940–41 and 1945–91) the policy of Russification greatly affected the Latvian language. Through these two periods around 340,000[citation needed] Latvians — approximately one-third of the population — were deported and otherwise persecuted. A massive immigration from the Soviet republics of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and others followed, largely driven by Stalin's desire to integrate Latvia and the other Baltic republics into the Soviet Union by means of Slavic colonisation. As a result, the proportion of the ethnic Latvian population within the total population was reduced from about 80% in 1935 to 52% in 1989. Most of the immigrants who settled in the country never attempted to learn Latvian. Today Latvian is the mother tongue of only a little over 60% of the country's population. // Soviet Occupation and Annexation of Latvia 1939-1940 Historical Background Latvia declared its independence on November 18, 1918. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


After the re-establishment of independence in 1991 a new policy of language education was introduced. The primary goals that have now been declared are the integration of all inhabitants in the context of the official state language while protecting and developing the languages of Latvia's native minorities. Some scholars[attribution needed] believe that these programs may actually be contributing to an overall decline of the Latvian language.


Truly bilingual education is available in primary school at government expense for several minorities. These include Russian, Jewish, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Estonian, and Roma schools, where Latvian is taught as a second language in the initial stages so as to encourage the attainment of competence in Latvian and to ensure that each resident of Latvia is integrated into society and is not hindered by a lack of proficiency in Latvian. Since the mid-1990s, the government pays a student's tuition in public universities only if the instruction is in Latvian. Since 2004, the state mandates Latvian as the language of instruction in public secondary schools (Form 10–12) for at least 60% of class work. (Previously, a broad system of education in Russian existed.) Due to these integration policies many Russian pupils and students are now taught in Latvian by native Russian teachers who can barely speak Latvian themselves. This situation has been irritating to many Russians since Russian children, allegedly, do not receive the best possible education due to these circumstances. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ...


The Law on State Language was adopted on December 9, 1999. Several regulatory acts associated with this law have been adopted. The observance of the law is monitored by the Ministry of Justice State Language Centre. is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


To cope with influence of Russian and English government organizations (namely Terminology Commission of the Academy of Science of Latvia and State Language Center) try to popularize use of Latvian terms and linguistic purism. Purism is often observed in coining of new terms, which are usually dissputed by general society — although purists have invented some euphonic words, many neologisms are considered to sound alien and unnecessary as pre-existing words could be used instead – for example a heated debate started when Terminology Commission suggested that “eira” would be better term for euro then widely used “eiro”. Other new terms are literal translations or new loanwords. For example, Latvian has two words for "telephone" – "tālrunis" and "telefons" — the first one is direct translation of the second. Still others are older, more euphonic loanwords rather than to Latvian words. For example, "computer" can be either "dators" or "kompjūters". Both are loanwords (the natively Latvian word for computer is "skaitļotājs"). However “dators” is considered an appropriate translation because it sounds better. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


There are several contests held annually to promote correct use of Latvian.[2][3] Notably, the State Language Center holds contests for language mistakes, named "Gimalajiešu superlācis" after an incorrect naming of the Asiatic Black Bear. These, often quite amusing, mistakes are both grammatical and stylistic; sometimes also obvious typos and mistranslations are considered to belong here. Organizers claim that most mistakes are collected in areas heavily populated by Russians and from Lithuanian chain stores. Mistranslations are not necessarily grammatically wrong; style and choice of words also matters, i.e. directly translated English might appear weirdly exalted in comparison with Latvian. Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1823) Thibetanus bear range Synonyms Selenarctos thibetanus The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-coloured bear with a distinctive white or cream... Chain stores are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardised business methods and practices. ...


References

  1. ^ Veinberga, Linda (2001). Latviešu valodas izmaiņas un funkcijas interneta vidē (Latvian). politika.lv. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  2. ^ "2006. gada vārds — "draugoties", nevārds — "hendlings"", Apollo, 2007-01-22. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. (Latvian) 
  3. ^ BNS. "Akcijā pret valodas kropļošanu aicina nofilmēt 'gimalajiešu lāci'", DELFI, 2006-03-30. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. (Latvian) 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Latvian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Latvian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1950 words)
Latvian (latviešu valoda), sometimes referred to as Lettish, is the official state language of the Republic of Latvia.
Latvian belongs to the Eastern Baltic sub-group of the Baltic language group in the Indo-European language family.
The closest ties the Baltic languages have are with the Slavic and Germanic languages.
Latgalian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (814 words)
From 1920 to 1934 the two literary traditions of Latvians developed in parallel, but after the coup staged by Kārlis Ulmanis in 1934 severe limitations on the use of Latgalian language were introduced.
It is formally protected by the Latvian Language Law stating that "The Latvian State ensures the preservation, protection and development of Latgalian literary language as a historical variant of Latvian language" (§3.4).
Whether Latgalian language is a separate language or a dialect of Latvian has been a matter of heated debate throughout the 20th century.
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