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Encyclopedia > Latvian War of Independence

The Latvian War of Independence, sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvian: Latvijas brīvības cīņas, literally "the struggles for the freedom of Latvia," or Latvijas atbrīvošanas kaŗš, "the war of the liberation of Latvia"), refers to series of military conflicts in Latvia between November 18, 1918, when the Republic of Latvia proclaimed its independence, and the signing of the Treaty of Riga between the Republic of Latvia and Soviet Russia on August 11, 1920. The term War of Independence is generally used to describe a war occurring over a territory that has declared independence. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty was signed in 1920. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

The war involved Latvia (its provisional government supported by Estonia, Poland, and the Western Allies, particuarly the United Kingdom) against Soviet Russia, the Bolsheviks' short-lived Iskolat Republic, Germany and Baltic Landeswehr, as well as West Russian Volunteer Army led by general Pavel Bermont-Avalov . Baltic Germans fought both for and against the provisional government in different phases of the conflict, many supporting a German puppet state for some time. The West Russian Volunteer Army included Germans and former Russian prisoners of war nominally allied with the White Army in the Russian Civil War. Certain episodes of the Latvian Independence War are therefore also considered by some Polish historians to be a part of the Polish-Soviet War (particularly the Battle of Daugavpils)[citation needed]. Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Iskolat was the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and the Landless in Latvia, established in Valmiera on July 29-30, 1917, O.S. (August 11- 12, 1917, N.S.), at the initiative of the Central Committee of the Latvian Social Democratic Party, then controlled by the... Baltische Landeswehr (Baltic Land Defence) was the name of the armed forces of The United Baltic Duchy from November 1918 to July 3, 1919. ... Bermontians were Russian troops who were at first taken as POWs by Germany in World War I and then released on the promise that they would help fighting against the communists in the Russian civil war. ... Pavel Rafalovich Bermondt-Avalov (1884-1973) was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia... White Army redirects here. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Combatants Poland, Latvia Bolshevist Russia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 2 infantry divisions, 1 tank regiment Battle of Daugavpils (also known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle of the joint Polish and Latvian Operation Winter against the Red Army. ...


  • General Fürst Awaloff (1925). Im Kampf gegen den Bolschewismus. Erinnerungen von General Fürst Awaloff, Oberbefehlshaber der Deutsch-Russischen Westarmee im Baltikum.. Verlag von J.J. Augustin, Glückstadt und Hamburg. 
  • General Graf Rüdiger von der Goltz (1920). Meine Sendung in Finland und im Baltikum.. Verlag von K.F. Koehler, Leipzig. 
  • BischoffJosef, Die letzte Front. Geschichte der Eiserne Division im Baltikum 1919, Berlin 1935.
  • Darstellungen aus den Nachkriegskämpfen deutscher Truppen und Freikorps, Bd 2: Der Feldzug im Baltikum bis zur zweiten Einnahme von Riga. Januar bis Mai 1919, Berlin 1937; Bd 3: Die Kämpfe im Baltikum nach der zweiten Einnahme von Riga. Juni bis Dezember 1919, Berlin 1938.
  • Die baltische Landeswehr im Befreiungskampf gegen den Bolschevismus. Ein Gedenkbuch, herausgegeben vom baltischen Landeswehrein, Riga 1929.
  • Kiewisz Leon, Sprawy łotewskie w bałtyckiej polityce Niemiec 1914-1919, Poznań 1970.
  • Łossowski Piotr, Między wojną a pokojem. Niemieckie zamysły wojenne na wschodzie w obliczu traktatu wersalskiego. Marzec-kwiecień 1919, Warszawa 1976.
  • Paluszyński Tomasz, Walka o niepodległość Łotwy 1914-1920, Warszawa 1999.
  • Von den baltische Provinzen zu den baltischen Staaten. Beiträge zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Republiken Estland und Lettland, Bd I (1917-1918), Bd II (1919-1920), Marburg 1971, 1977.

Pavel Rafalovich Bermondt-Avalov (1884-1973) was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord who led the Bermontians, a group of adventurers who captured Riga in October 1919 and attempted to set up a pro-German government there. ... Rüdiger von der Goltz Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz (born December 8, 1865, in Züllichau, Prussia [now Poland]; died November 4, 1946, in Kinsegg, Allgäu, Germany) was the commander of German units which played an instrumental role in the defeat of Russian Bolsheviks...

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