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Encyclopedia > Latvia
Latvijas Republika
Republic of Latvia
Flag of Latvia Coat of arms of Latvia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Tēvzemei un Brīvībai"  (Latvian)
"For Fatherland and Freedom"
Anthem
Dievs, svētī Latviju!  (Latvian)
"God, bless Latvia!"

Location of  Latvia  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Latvia. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 Flag ratio: 2:3. ... Coat of Arms of Latvia The Latvian National Coat of Arms was formed after the proclamation of an independent Republic of Latvia on November 18, 1918, and was specially created for its independent statehood. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Piano sheet of the Latvian National Anthem Dievs, svÄ“tÄ« Latviju! (God Bless Latvia) is the national anthem of Latvia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Latvia ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Riga
56°57′N, 24°6′E
Official languages Latvian
Ethnic groups  59.0% Latvians
28.5% Russians
  3.8% Belarusians
  2.4% Poles
  6.3% others
Government Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Valdis Zatlers
 -  Prime Minister Aigars Kalvītis
Independence1 from Russia and Germany 
 -  Declared November 18, 1918 
 -  Recognized January 26, 1921 
 -  Proclaimed2 May 4, 1990 
 -  Completed September 6, 1991 
Accession to
the
 European Union
May 1, 2004
Area
 -  Total 64,589 km² (124th)
24,937 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.5
Population
 -  January 2006 estimate 2,291,000 (143rd)
 -  2000 census 2 375 000 
 -  Density 36 /km² (166th)
93 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $29.214 billion (95th)
 -  Per capita $15,549 (51st)
Gini? (2003) 37.7 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.845 (high) (45th)
Currency Lats (Ls) (LVL)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .lv 3
Calling code +371
1 Latvia considers itself continuous with the first republic.
2 Secession from Soviet Union begun.
3 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Latvia (historically Lattonia, Lettonia, or Lettland), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvija or Latvijas Republika, Livonian: Leț), is a country in Northern Europe. Latvia shares land borders with Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south – and both Russia and Belarus to the east. It is separated from Sweden in the west by the Baltic Sea. The capital of Latvia is Riga (Latvian: Rīga). Latvia has been a member state of the European Union since May 1, 2004. This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Historically, Latvia had a fairly large German, Russian, Jewish and Polish minorities, the demographics shifted dramatically in the 20th Century due to the world wars, the repatriation of the Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and the Soviet occupation so today only the Russian minority, which has tripled in numbers ever since... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... See also: Lists of office-holders Categories: | ... Valdis Zatlers (born March 22, 1955) is president-elect of Latvia. ... The Prime Minister of Latvia is the most powerful member of the Latvian government, and presides over the Latvian cabinet. ... Aigars KalvÄ«tis (born June 27, 1966) is a Latvian politician and the current Prime Minister of Latvia. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2004) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .lv is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Latvia. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Latvia

The territory of Latvia has been populated since 9000 BC with the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settling on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea around the third millennium BC (3000 BC).[1] The proto-Baltic forefathers of the Latvian people have lived on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea since the third millennium BC [1]. At the beginning of this era the territory known today as Latvia became famous as a trading crossroads. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Across Europe, Latvia's coast was known for its amber. The ancient Balts traded Latvian amber with Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. Amber pendants. ... http://www. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


By 900 AD, four Baltic tribal cultures had developed: Couronians, Latgallians, Selonians, Semigallians (in Latvian: kurši, latgaļi, sēļi and zemgaļi). The Curonians (also called Kursi, Latvian KurÅ¡i) are one of the extinct Baltic tribes that later formed the Latvian nation. ... The Latgallians (Latvian: latgaļi) were one of the Baltic tribes that later formed Latvian nation. ... Selonians were a tribe of Baltic peoples that are now extinct. ... The Semigallians in the context of the other Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE. The Eastern Balts are shown in brown hues while the Western Balts are shown in green. ...

A knight (on the right) of The Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

At the end of the 1100s, Latvia was often visited by traders from western Europe who set out on trading journeys along Latvia's longest river, the Daugava, to Russia. Image File history File links LivoniaKnight. ... Image File history File links LivoniaKnight. ... Livonian Brothers The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order organized in 1202 by Albert of Buxhoeveden, bishop of Riga (or...


In 1180, Christian missionaries arrived. As the Balts did not readily convert and opposed the ritual of christening, German Crusaders were sent into Latvia [2] to convert the pagan population. By 1211, Christianity had effective control with the foundation stone for the Dome Cathedral in Riga laid. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ...


In the 1200s, a confederation of feudal nations called Livonia developed under German rule. Livonia included today's Latvia and Southern Estonia. In 1282, Rīga and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera were included in the Hanseatic League. From this time, Riga became an important point in west-east trading. Rīga, being the centre of the eastern Baltic region, formed close cultural contacts with Western Europe. Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... CÄ“sis (German: Wenden) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme Central upland. ... Limbaži is a town in Northern Latvia, 90 km from the capital Riga. ... Koknese (-Latvian, German: Kokenh(a)usen, Polish: Kokenhuza) is a town in Aizkraukle County, Latvia on the right bank of the Daugava river. ... Valmiera (German: Wolmar) is the largest city of Vidzeme region, Latvia with a total area of 18. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...


The 1500s were a time of great changes for the inhabitants of Latvia, notable for the reformation and the collapse of the Livonian nation. After the Livonian War (1558-1583) today's Latvian territory came under Polish-Lithuanian rule. The Lutheran faith was accepted in Kurzeme, Zemgale and Vidzeme, but the Roman Catholic faith maintained its dominance in Latgale and continues to do so today. The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Polish-Lithuanian can refer to: Polish-Lithuanian Union from 1385 until 1569 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 untul 1795 Categories: Disambiguation ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century reformer Martin Luther. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Zemgale (also historically known as Semigallia or Semigalia) forms an historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Liflandiya) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Latgale or Latgalia (Latvian: , Latgalian: Latgola; Polish: Łatgalia; German: Lettgallen; Russian: Латгалия) is one of the four cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic. ...


The seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries saw a struggle between Poland, Sweden and Russia for supremacy in the eastern Baltic. Most of Polish Livonia, including Vidzeme, came under Swedish rule with the Truce of Altmark in 1629. Under the Swedish rule serfdom was eased and a network of schools was established for the peasantry. This article is about the region in Europe. ... A six-year Truce of Altmark was signed on September 25, 1629 at the German town of Altmark, near Danzig by Sweden and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during Thirty Years War. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ...


The Treaty of Nystad ending the Great Northern War in 1721 gave Vidzeme to Russia (it became part of the Riga Governorate). The Latgale region remained part of Poland as Inflanty until 1772, when it was joined to Russia. The Duchy of Courland became a Russian province (the Courland Governorate) in 1795, bringing all of what is now Latvia into Imperial Russia. The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Riga Governorate (Рижская губерния or Riga guberniya) was a governorate of the Russian Empire. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Courland Governorate (german Kurländisches Gouvernement) was one of the governorates of the Russian Empire. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


The promises Peter the Great made to the Baltic German nobility at the fall of Riga in 1710, confirmed by the Treaty of Nystad and known as "the Capitulations," largely reversed the Swedish reforms. The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in 1817 and in Vidzeme in 1819. In practice, the emancipation was actually advantageous to the nobility because it dispossessed the peasants of their land without compensation. The social structure changed dramatically, with a class of independent farmers establishing itself after reforms allowed the peasants to repurchase their land, landless peasants numbering 591 000 in 1897, a growing urban proletariat and an increasingly influential Latvian bourgeoisie. The Young Latvians (Latvian: Jaunlatvieši) movement laid the groundwork for nationalism from the middle of the century, many of its leaders looking to the Slavophiles for support against the prevailing German-dominated social order. Russification began in Latgale after the January Uprising in 1863 and spread to the rest of what is now Latvia by the 1880s. The Young Latvians were largely eclipsed by the New Current, a broad leftist social and political movement, in the 1890s. Popular discontent exploded in the 1905 Revolution, which took on a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces. Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Young Latvians (in Latvian: jaunlatvieÅ¡i) is the term most often applied to the intellectuals of the first Latvian National Awakening (in Latvian: tautas atmoda), active from the 1850s to the 1880s. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... In the history of Latvia, the New Current (in Latvian, Jaunā strāva; participants in the movement are called jaunstrāvnieki) was a broad leftist social and political movement that followed the First Latvian National Awakening (led by the Young Latvians from the 1850s to the 1880s) and culminated in... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


World War I devastated the country. Demands for self-determination were at first confined to autonomy, but full independence was proclaimed in Riga on November 18, 1918, by the People's Council of Latvia, Kārlis Ulmanis becoming the head of the provisional government. The War of Independence that followed was a very chaotic period in Latvia's history. By the spring of 1919 there were actually three governments- Ulmanis' government; the Iskolat led by Pēteris Stučka, which proclaimed an independent Soviet Latvia and whose forces, supported by the Red Army, occupied almost all of the country; and the Baltic German government of "Baltic Duchy" headed by Andrievs Niedra. Estonian and Latvian forces defeated the Germans at the Battle of Cēsis in June 1919, and a massive attack by a German and Russian force under Pavel Bermondt-Avalov was repelled in November. Eastern Latvia was cleared of Red Army forces by Polish, Latvian, and German troops in early 1920. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Tautas Padome (Latvias Peoples Council) was a temporary council which declared Latvias independence in 1918 and then acted as a temporary parliament until a Constitutional Assembly (Satversmes Sapulce) was elected. ... Kārlis Ulmanis (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Iskolat was the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and the Landless in Latvia, established in Valmiera on July 29-30, 1917, O.S. (August 11- 12, 1917, N.S.), at the initiative of the Central Committee of the Latvian Social Democratic Party, then controlled by the... PÄ“teris Stučka, sometimes spelt Stuchka (b. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Andrievs Niedra, formerly spelt Andreews Needra (b. ... CÄ“sis (German: Wenden) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme Central upland. ... Pavel Rafalovich Bermondt-Avalov (1884-1973) was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord who led the Bermontians, a group of adventurers who captured Riga in October 1919 and attempted to set up a pro-German government there. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


A freely elected Constituent Assembly was convened on May 1, 1920 and adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversme, in February 1922. This was partly suspended by Ulmanis after his coup in 1934, but reaffirmed in 1990. Since then it has been amended and is the constitution still in use in Latvia today. With most of Latvia's industrial base evacuated to the interior of Russia in 1915, radical land reform was the central political question for the young state. In 1897, 61.2% of the rural population had been landless; by 1930 that percentage had been reduced to 23.2%. The extent of cultivated land surpassed the pre-war level already in 1923. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of economy, but it soon suffered the effects of the Great Depression. Though Latvia showed signs of economic recovery and the electorate had steadily moved toward the center during the parliamentary period, Ulmanis staged a bloodless coup on May 15, 1934, establishing a nationalist dictatorship that lasted until 1940. Most of the Baltic Germans left Latvia by agreement between Ulmanis' government and Nazi Germany after the conclusion of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. On October 5, 1939, Latvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" pact with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station 25,000 troops on Latvian territory. On June 16, 1940, Vyacheslav Molotov presented the Latvian representative in Moscow with an ultimatum accusing Latvia of violations of that pact, and on June 17 great numbers of Soviet forces occupied the country. Fraudulent[2] elections for a "People's Saeima" were held, and a puppet government headed by Augusts Kirhenšteins led Latvia into the USSR. The annexation was formalized on August 5, 1940. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Inauguration of the Constitutional Assembly of Latvia, 1 May 1920 The Constitution of Latvia (Latvian: ) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Latvia. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Soviet Occupation and Annexation of Latvia 1939-1940 Historical Background Latvia declared its independence on November 18, 1918. ... Augusts KirhenÅ¡teins, formerly spelt KirchenÅ¡teins (b. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Soviets dealt with their opponents - prior to the German invasion, in less than a year, at least 27,586 persons were arrested; most were deported, and ca. 945 persons were shot. While under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Latvian paramilitary and Auxiliary Police units established by occupation authority actively participated in the Holocaust. More than 200,000 Latvian citizens died during World War II, including approximately 70,000 Latvian Jews murdered during the Nazi occupation. Latvian soldiers fought on both sides of the conflict, including in the Latvian Legion of the Waffen-SS, most of them conscripted by the occupying Nazi and Soviet authorities. Refusal to join the occupying army resulted in an imprisonment, threats to relatives or even death. The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Ernst Busch Georg von Küchler Wilhelm List Erich von Manstein Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe Italo Gariboldi Mikl... Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ... The Arajs Commando was a Latvian police unit that participated actively in the killing of Jews during the Holocaust. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...

The statue of Liberty on top of the Freedom Monument in Riga

The Soviets reoccupied the country in 1944-1945, and further mass deportations followed as the country was forcibly collectivized and Sovietized; 42,975 persons were deported in 1949. Influx of laborers, administrators, military personnel and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started and by 1959 ethnic Latvian population had fallen to 62%. During the Khrushchev Thaw, attempts by national communists led by Eduards Berklavs to gain a degree of autonomy for the republic and protect the rapidly deteriorating position of the Latvian language were suppressed. In 1989 the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the "Occupation of the Baltic States," in which it declared that the occupation was "not in accordance with law," and not the "will of the Soviet people". A national movement coalescing in the Popular Front of Latvia took advantage of glasnost under Mikhail Gorbachev, opposed by the Interfront, and on May 4, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR adopted the Declaration of the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, subject to a transition period that came to an end with Latvian independence on August 21, 1991, after the failure of the August Putsch. The Saeima, Latvia's parliament, was again elected in 1993, and Russia completed its military withdrawal in 1994. But to this day Russia still refuses to recognize the fact of Latvia's occupation and falsly claims that Latvians decided to lose their statehood voluntarely and officialy describes freedom fighters of 1944- 1952 as "bandits" or "nazis". Russian position isn't recognized internationaly. Image File history File links Lettland_riga_freih_statue. ... Image File history File links Lettland_riga_freih_statue. ... The Freedom Monument in Riga The Freedom Monument (Latvian: ), located in Riga, Latvia, is a memorial in honor of soldiers killed in action during the Latvian War of Independence. ... In the Soviet Union, collectivisation was a policy introduced in the late 1920s, of consolidation of individual land and labour into co-operatives called collective farms (Russian: , kolkhoz) and state farms (Russian: , sovkhoz). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Soviet history, Kruschevs Thaw or Khrushchev Thaw refers to the period between the end of 1950s and the beginning of 1960s, when repressions and censorship reached a low point. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Eduards Berklavs (June 15, 1914 - November 25, 2004) was a Latvian politician. ... Latvian (latvieÅ¡u valoda), sometimes referred to as Lettish, is the official state language of the Republic of Latvia. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The Popular Front of Latvia (Latvijas Tautas Fronte in Latvian) was a political organization in Latvia in late 1980s and early 1990s which lead Latvia to its independence from the Soviet Union. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The International Front of the Working People of the Latvian SSR or Interfront (Latvian: , Russian: ) — pro-Union socialist organization in Latvia in 1989—1991. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991, also known as the August Putsch, Vodka Putsch or August Coup, a group of hardliners within the Soviet Communist party briefly deposed Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ...



The major goals of Latvia in the 1990s, to join NATO and European Union, were achieved in 2004. Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones (citizenship was not automatically extended to some former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet occupation). The government denationalized private property confiscated by the Soviet rule, returning it or compensating the owners for it, and privatized most state-owned industries, reintroducing the prewar currency. After a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia still has one of the lowest standards of living in the EU, though its economy has one of the highest growth rates. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Look up Russophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ...


Politics

Ingrīda Ūdre, former Speaker of Saeima, the Latvian parliament.
Main article: Politics of Latvia

The 100-seat unicameral Latvian parliament, the Saeima, is elected by direct, popular vote every four years. The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election also every four years. The president appoints a prime minister who, together with his cabinet, forms the executive branch of the government, which has to receive a confidence vote by the Saeima. This system also existed before the Second World War. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1500, 542 KB) Ingrida Udre 07/10/2004 Ingrida UDRE - Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union (Latvia) Source: http://www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1500, 542 KB) Ingrida Udre 07/10/2004 Ingrida UDRE - Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union (Latvia) Source: http://www. ... IngrÄ«da Ūdre, former Speaker of Saeima, the Latvian parliament. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... Politics of Latvia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


In a nationwide referendum on September 20, 2003, 66.9% of those taking part voted in favour of joining the European Union. Latvia became a full-fledged member of the European Union on May 1, 2004. Latvia has been a NATO member since March 29, 2004. Although membership in the EU and NATO were the major goals of Latvia through the 1990s, Latvian politicians today are often criticized for being unable to gain benefits out of Latvia's membership. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Latvia has had strained relations with Russian Federation due to Russian discontent with Latvian language and citizenship policies, as well as Latvia's requests for Russia to recognize it as continuous with the first Latvian Republic and acknowledge consequences of Soviet occupation. As of 2007, however Latvia's relationship with Russia seems to be improving. Latvian (latviešu valoda), sometimes referred to as Lettish, is the official state language of the Republic of Latvia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Administrative divisions

Further information: Regions of Latvia

Latvia is divided into 26 districts (rajoni). There are also seven cities (lielpilsētas) that have a separate status. Latvia is also historically, culturally and constitutionally divided in four or more distinct regions. Latvia is divided into 26 districts (apriņķis; plural - apriņķi) (more often - rajons (rajoni)) and 7 cities (lielpilsÄ“tas; singular - lielpilsÄ“ta), indicated with asterisks: Aizkraukle District AlÅ«ksne District Balvi District Bauska District CÄ“sis District Daugavpils District Daugavpils* Dobele District Gulbene District JÄ“kabpils District Jelgava District... Subdivisions of Latvia The districts of Latvia are divided into 68 towns (pilsetas, sing. ... Latvia is divided into several historical and cultural regions. ... Latvia is divided into 26 districts (apriņķis; plural - apriņķi) (more often - rajons (rajoni)) and 7 cities (lielpilsÄ“tas; singular - lielpilsÄ“ta), indicated with asterisks: Aizkraukle District AlÅ«ksne District Balvi District Bauska District CÄ“sis District Daugavpils District Daugavpils* Dobele District Gulbene District JÄ“kabpils District Jelgava District... Inauguration of the Constitutional Assembly of Latvia 1 May 1920 Constitution of Latvia (Latvian: ) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Latvia. ...

  1. Aizkraukle District
  2. Alūksne District
  3. Balvi District
  4. Bauska District
  5. Cēsis District
  6. Daugavpils District
  7. Daugavpils (city)
  8. Dobele District
  9. Gulbene District
  10. Jēkabpils District
  11. Jelgava District
  12. Jelgava (city)
  13. Jūrmala (city)
  14. Krāslava District
  15. Kuldīga District
  16. Liepāja District
  17. Liepāja (city)
  1. Limbaži District
  2. Ludza District
  3. Madona District
  4. Ogre District
  5. Preiļi District
  6. Rēzekne District
  7. Rēzekne (city)
  8. Rīga District
  9. Rīga (city)
  10. Saldus District
  11. Talsi District
  12. Tukums District
  13. Valka District
  14. Valmiera District
  15. Ventspils District
  16. Ventspils (city)
50km
  • Abrene District (1919-1940), the eastern part of which was annexed to Russia in 1944;
    the legal status of the annexed portion is disputed -- the western part of the former district is now in Balvi District.

Aizkraukles District (Latvian: Aizkraukles rajons) is a district in vidzeme and sÄ“lija. ... AlÅ«ksne district (Latvian: AlÅ«ksnes rajons) is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the north-east of the country 202 km (152 mi 1267) from capital city Riga. ... Balvu District (Latvian: Balvu rajons) is a district in Latgale. ... Bauska District (Latvian: Bauskas rajons) is a district in zemgale. ... CÄ“sis District is a district in Latvia. ... Daugavpils District (Latvian: Daugavpils rajons) is a district in latgale. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, DźwiÅ„sk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... Dobeles District (Latvian: Dobeles rajons) is a district in ZemgalÄ“ and KurzemÄ“). Cities Auce Dobele Towns Tervete Vilages Annenieki Auri BÄ“ne BÄ“rze Biksti Īle JaunbÄ“rze KrimÅ«ni Lielauce NaudÄ«te Penkule Ukri VÄ«tiņi Zebrene Categories: | ... Gulbene District (Latvian: Gulbenes rajons) is in northeast Latvia, composed of Gulbene city and 13 parishes. ... Jekabpils district lies on both the banks of the Daugava in the south-east part of Latvia between Vidzeme and Latgale. ... Jelgava District (Latvian: Jelgavas rajons) is a district in ZemgalÄ“. Categories: | ... Jelgava (German: Mitau; Russian: Елгава / Митава; Polish: Mitawa) is a town in central Latvia about 41 km southwest of Riga with approximately 66,000 inhabitants. ... Beach at Majori. ... Kraslava District (Latvian: Krāslavas rajons) is a district in LatgalÄ“. Categories: | ... KuldÄ«ga district (Latvian: KuldÄ«gas rajons) is located at western part of Latvia along both sides of the Venta River. ... Liepaja District (Latvian: Liepājas rajons) is a district in KurzemÄ“. Categories: | ... Liepāja Liepāja (German: Libau, Lithuanian: Liepoja, Polish: Lipawa, Russian: Либава / Libava or Лиепая / Liyepaya, Yiddish: ליבאַװע / Libave) is a city in western Latvia on the Baltic sea. ... Limbaži district is a district (Latvian: Limbažu rajons) in Latvia, located in the north of the country at the shore of the Baltic Sea. ... Ludza District (Latvian: Ludzas rajons) is a district in LatgalÄ“. Categories: | ... Madona District (Latvian: Madonas rajons) is a district in Vidzeme and Latgale. ... Ogre District (Latvian: Ogres rajons) is a district in the centre of Latvia. ... Preili District (Latvian: Preiļu rajons) is a district in Latgale. ... Rezekne District (Latvian: RÄ“zeknes rajons) is a district in LatgalÄ“. Cities Rezekne Viļāni Categories: | ... The castle mound and remains of the Livonian Orders fortress RÄ“zekne (Latgalian: RÄ“zne, Russian: , previously (-1893) Розиттен, (1893-1917) Режица; German: Rositten, Estonian: Räisaku, Polish: Rzeżyca) is a city in the Latgale region of eastern Latvia, 242 km east of RÄ«ga. ... RÄ«ga district (Latvian: RÄ«gas rajons) is located in the very centre of Latvia, around the RÄ«ga metropolis. ... Riga (Latvian:RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′ N 24°8′ E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial center... Saldus Distric (Latvian: Saldus rajons) is a district in KurzemÄ“. Categories: | ... Talsi District (Latvian: Talsu rajons) is one of 26 rural districts of the Republic of Latvia and it consists of 20 local communities. ... Tukums District (Latvian: Tukuma rajons) is a district in KurzemÄ“. Categories: | ... Valka district in is Latvia. ... Valmiera district (population 60,345 as of 2000 census) is located in Northern Latvia. ... Ventspils District (Latvian: Ventspils rajons) is a district in KurzemÄ“. Categories: | ... Ventspils (Russian: , formerly Виндава; German: Windau, Polish: Windawa, Livonian: VÇŸnta) is a city in northwestern Latvia on the coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Image File history File links Latvia_districts_numbered. ... The Abrene district (Latvian: Abrenes apriņķis) was an administrative district in the Republic of Latvia with an area of 4292 square kilometers, formed in 1925 from the northern part of the Ludza district and the western part of the Ostrov region as the Jaunlatgale (New Latgale) district, but this...

Geography

Map of Latvia showing cities
Main article: Geography of Latvia

Located on eastern shore of the Baltic Sea Latvia lies in East European Plain. It consists of fertile, low-lying plains, largely covered by forest, mostly pines, the highest point being the Gaiziņkalns at 311.6 m (1,020 ft). Common species of wildlife in Latvia include deer, wild boar, fox, beaver and wolves[3]. The Latvian climate is humid, continental and temperate in nature, with temperatures varying on average from -5 to +15 °C,[4] providing warm-water ports and water to more than 3,000 lakes and over 12,000 rivers, only seventeen of which are longer than 100 kilometers (sixty miles). The major rivers include the Daugava, the Lielupe, the Gauja, and the Salaca. An inlet of the Baltic Sea, the shallow Gulf of Riga is situated in the northwest of the country. Latvia's coastline extends for 531 kilometers. Its neighbors include Estonia on the north (267 kilometers of common border), Lithuania on the south (453 kilometers), Belarus on the southeast (141 kilometers), and Russia on the east (217 kilometers). Prior to World War II, Latvia bordered eastern Poland, but as a result of boundary changes by the Soviet Union, this part of Poland was attached to Belarus. Latvia also lost part of the former Abrene District (2% of its territory) to Russia in 1940s. map of latvia (CIA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... map of latvia (CIA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Detailed map of Latvia Satellite image of Latvia in March 2003 Between 55. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Toporaphy of Europe Toporaphy of Europe The East European Plain (also Eastern-European Lowland, Eastern European Lowlands, Eastern European Plain, and Russian Plain) is a plain and series of broad river basins in Eastern Europe. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded area set aside for hunting). ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... The tower atop Gaizinkalns. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Fawn and Stag redirect here. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Wolves may refer to: Gray Wolf Other uses of Wolf: see Wolf (disambiguation) Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Category: ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Lake Clearwater, Ontario, Canada A lake is a large body of water, usually fresh water, surrounded by land. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Look up Mile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Daugava sunset in Riga. ... Lielupe (Latvian) big river; in German Kurländische Aa, (see Aa River) is a river in Latvia. ... Gauja(Estonain andLivonianKoiva,GermanLivlandische Aa)- one of the longest rivers in Latvia: 452 km. ... The Salaca River is a river in Latvia, which flows into the Gulf of Riga. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Gulf of Riga The Gulf of Riga (or Bay of Riga, Latvian RÄ«gas jÅ«ras lÄ«cis, Estonian Liivi Laht) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. ... The Abrene district (Latvian: Abrenes apriņķis) was an administrative district in the Republic of Latvia with an area of 4292 square kilometers, formed in 1925 from the northern part of the Ludza district and the western part of the Ostrov region as the Jaunlatgale (New Latgale) district, but this... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Latvia

Since the year 2000 Latvia has had one of the highest (GDP) growth rates in Europe [5]. In 2006, annual GDP growth was 11.9% and inflation was 6.2%. Unemployment was 8.5% - almost unchanged compared to the previous two years. However, it has recently dropped to 6.1%, partly due to active economic migration, mostly to the Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom. Some believe that Latvia's flat tax is responsible for its high growth rate, but this is not universally accepted. Privatization has been mostly completed, except for some of the large state-owned utilities. Latvia is a member of the World Trade Organization (1999) and the European Union (2004). Latvia has the fastest growing economy in Europe. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue) and negative (orange) Human migration denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another (migration), often over long distances or in large groups. ... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The fast growing economy is regarded as a possible economic bubble, because it is driven mostly by growth of domestic consumption, financed by a serious increase of private debt, as well as negative foreign trade balance. The prices of real estate, which increases at amount approx. 5% a month (due to lack of tax legislation that could prevent speculations in real estate market), are perceived to be too high for the economy, which mainly produces low valued goods and raw materials. As stated by Ober-Haus, a real estate company operating in Poland and the Baltics, the prices of some segments of real estate market have been stabilized as of summer 2006 and some experts expect serious reduction of real estate prices in the near future. The government introduced special program to reduce inflation and remain high growth rates recently [6]. The main points of the plan are: Currier & Ives print on economic bubbles, 1875. ... In economics, consumption refers to the final use of goods and services to provide utility. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... The balance of trade encompasses the activity of exports and imports, like the work of this cargo ship going through the Panama Canal. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

  • to create a non-deficit country budget for the current 2007 year and a budget with a surplus for 2008 and beyond
  • to tax any transaction concerning real estate that has been in a person's possession less than three years
  • to increase control of credit
  • to increase energy effectiveness in homes and business to guard against possible rises in energy costs
  • to increase work productivity and stimulate competition in business

Latvia plans to introduce the Euro as the country's currency but, due to the inflation being above EMU's guidelines, this is unlikely to happen before 2010. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Demographics

Residents of Latvia by nationality (As of 1 January 2006)[7]
Latvians 59.0%
Russians 28.5%
Belarusians 3.8%
Ukrainians 2.5%
Poles 2.4%
Lithuanians 1.4%
Jews 0.4%
Estonians 0.1%
Others 1.9%

Historically, Latvia had a fairly large German, Russian, Jewish and Polish minorities, the demographics shifted dramatically in the 20th Century due to the world wars, the repatriation of the Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and the Soviet occupation so today only the Russian minority, which has tripled in numbers ever since... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Nationalities

Latvia's population has been multiethnic for centuries, though the demographics shifted dramatically in the twentieth century due to the world wars, the emigration and removal of Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and occupation by the Soviet Union. Multiethnic societies, in contrast to nationalistic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Latvians and Livonians, the indigenous peoples of Latvia, now form c. 60% of the population; 28.5% of the inhabitants are Russian.[8]. Approximately 54% of the ethnic Russians living in Latvia are citizens of Latvia. People who arrived whilst Latvia was occupied by the USSR, and their descendants born before 1991, must be naturalized to receive Latvian citizenship. Over 100,000 persons have been naturalized in recent years. The Livonians were the indigenous Finnics who since ancient times populated the shores of the Gulf of Riga adjacent to the Indo-European Balts. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


In some large cities (e.g. Daugavpils and Rēzekne), Russians and other minorities outnumber Latvians. Minorities from other countries such as Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, etc., also live in Latvia. The share of ethnic Latvians had fallen from 77% (1,467,035) in 1935 to 52% (1,387,757) in 1989.[9]. In 2005 there were even fewer Latvians than in 1989, though their share of the population was larger - 1,357,099 (58.8% of the inhabitants). Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, DźwiÅ„sk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... The castle mound and remains of the Livonian Orders fortress RÄ“zekne (Latgalian: RÄ“zne, Russian: , previously (-1893) Розиттен, (1893-1917) Режица; German: Rositten, Estonian: Räisaku, Polish: Rzeżyca) is a city in the Latgale region of eastern Latvia, 242 km east of RÄ«ga. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Languages

The official language of Latvia is Latvian, which belongs to the Baltic language group of the Indo-European language family. Another notable language of Latvia is the nearly extinct Livonian language of Baltic-Finnic subbranch of Uralic language family, which enjoys protection by law; Latgalian language - a dialect of Latvian - is also protected by Latvian law as historical variation of Latvian language. Russian is by far the most widespread minority language, also spoken, or at least understood, by large sections of the non-Russian population. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Baltic-Finnic languages are a subgroup of Finno-Ugric languages, spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 6 million people. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Latgalian dialect. ...


Religion

The population is mostly Christian, although few people attend religious services regularly. [10] The largest groups in 2006 are: Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...

There are also Jews (9,883 in 2005) in Latvia who are now mainly a remainder from the past, as during World War II the Jewish Community (according to the last official census in 1935 there were 93,479 Jews in the country, or approximately 5% of the total population) was mostly murdered. There are 182 known Muslims living in Latvia; total number of Muslims in Latvia, however, is estimated to be much larger - from 500 to 12,000. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia (LELB) is a Lutheran Protestant church in Latvia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


There are about 600 Latvian neopagans Dievturi (The Godskeepers) whose religion is based on Latvian mythology.[12] About 35 % of the total population is not affiliated with a specific religion and may be nontheist. Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Latvian mythology is deeply ingrained in all aspects of Latvian culture, from traditional songs to ornamental patterns in weaving and jewelry. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


== Culture ==

Main article: Culture of Latvia

Between the thirteenth and nineteenth century, Baltic Germans, many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture, formed the upper class. They developed a distinct cultural heritage, characterised by both Latvian and Russian influences. It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the USA, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century. However, most indigenous Latvians did not participate in this particular cultural life. Thus the mostly peasant local pagan heritage was preserved, partly merging with Christian traditions, for example in one of the most popular celebrations today which is Jāņi, a paganic celebration of the summer solstice, celebrated on the feast day of St. John the Baptist. Culture of Latvia combines traditional Latvian and Livonian heritage with influences of the countrys varied historical heritage. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... German culture (German: Deutsche Kultur) is a term that refers to the heritage and weltanschauung of the people from the German-speaking world, or Deutschsprechende Welt. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Jāņi is Latvian festival held on 23/24 June to celebrate summer solstice - the shortest night and longest day in year. ... Illumination of Earth by the sun on the northern hemisphere summer solstice The summer solstice is an astronomical term regarding the position of the sun in relation to the celestial equator. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...


In the nineteenth century Latvian nationalist movements emerged promoting Latvian culture and encouraging Latvians to take part in cultural activities. The nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often regarded as a classical era of Latvian culture. Posters show the influence of other European cultures. For example works of artists such as the Baltic-German artist Bernhard Borchert and the French Raoul Dufy. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Bernhard Borchert (1863-1945) was a Baltic-German artist who spent the greatest part of his life in Latvia. ... Raoul Dufy (June 3, 1877 – March 23, 1953) was a French Fauvist painter. ...


After incorporation into the USSR, Latvian artists and writers had to follow the Socialist realism style of art. During the Soviet era, music became increasingly popular, with the most popular being songs from the 1980s. At this time, songs often made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity. This aroused popular protests against the USSR and also gave rise to an increasing popularity of poetry. Since independence, theatre and scenography have become the most notable branches of Latvian culture. Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scenographer. ...


International rankings

Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the... The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ...

See also

Latvia Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 701,200 (2002) Telephones - mobile cellular: 917,200 (2002) Telephone system: fixed line quality and coverage inadequate outside major cities, around 96. ... Today`s Republic of Latvia regards itself as a continuation of the 1918-1940 republic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups The History of the Jews in Latvia... Membership badge of Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija is the national Scouting and Guiding association of Latvia. ... Latvijas TelevÄ«zija logo. ... Latvian humour often have both jokes known from different places in the world as well as some influence from Russian humour and some jokes shared with Estonia and Lithuania. ... Cities in Latvia Daugavpils Jelgava Jūrmala Liepāja Rēzekne Riga (Capital) Ventspils Towns in Latvia Ainaži Aizkraukle Aizpute Aknīste Aloja Alūksne Ape Auce Baldone Baloži Balvi Bauska Brocēni Cēsis Cesvaine Dagda Dobele Durbe... Riga Ethnographic Open-Air Museum Firefighting Museum of Latvia Latvian Museum of Architecture (see also www. ... The Latvian National Armed Forces (Latvian: Latvijas Nacionālie bruņotie spÄ“ki or NBS) consist of 5910 personnel in uniform. ... The presence of Muslims in Latvia was first recorded in the early 1800s. ... This is a list of National Roads in Latvia: A1 RÄ«ga - Ainaži A2 RÄ«ga - Sigulda - Estonian border (Veclaicene) A3 Inčukalns - Valmiera - Estonian border (Valka) A4 RÄ«ga (Baltezers - Saulkalne) A5 RÄ«ga (Salaspils - BabÄ«te) A6 RÄ«ga - Daugavpils - Krāslava - Belarusian border (Paternieki) A7 R... This is a list of holidays in Latvia. ... Latvia is divided into several historical and cultural regions. ... // Basketball Basketball is sometimes regarded the national sport in Latvia. ... The Baltic states include Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. ... // Railways total: 2,347 km broad gauge: 2,314 km 1. ...

References

  • Juris Dreifelds: Latvia in Transition (Cambridge University Press: 1996).
  • Jānis Rutkis (editor): Latvia: Country & People (Latvian National Foundation, Stockholm: 1967).
  • Arveds Švābe: The Story of Latvia - A Historical Survey (Latvian National Foundation, Stockholm: 1949) (see below).
  • These Names Accuse-Nominal List of Latvians Deported to Soviet Russia (Latvian National Foundation, Stockholm: second edition, 1982) (see below).
  1. ^ Data: 3000 BC to 1500 BC. The Ethnohistory project. Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  2. ^ Election "results" were accidentally issued early by the Soviet press service. They were published in the news in London 24 hours before the polls closed.[citation needed]
  3. ^ Nature of Latvia:List of species retrieved March 7, 2007
  4. ^ http://www.meteo.lv, retrieved on March 7, 2007.
  5. ^ http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
  6. ^ http://www.mk.gov.lv
  7. ^ Naturalization Board of the Republic of Latvia: Figures and facts, retrieved on 7 March 2007.
  8. ^ Latvian Central Statistical Bureau
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ http://www.christiantoday.com/article/trust.in.religious.institutions.does.not.convey.to.church.attendance/1462.htm
  11. ^ http://ekai.pl/serwis/?MID=12767
  12. ^ Statistics of approved parishes in Latvia (as of 1-1-2004) retieved on 7 March 2007

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The European Library is a library portal for searching the databases and open public access catalogues as well as for accessing the digital content of European national libraries. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Government

Other

  • AABS (the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies) - an international educational and scholarly organization. Site hosted by Washington University.
  • Baltic Times - English language weekly in the Baltic States, published in Riga.
  • Vietas.lv - Places of Latvia. Guide, calendar and more...
  • http://dmoz.org/Regional/Europe/Latvia/
  • Latvia tourism - Tourism information sponsored by Latvian Tourism Development Agency
  • Latvija - Official Portal of Latvia by Secretariat of Special Assignments Minister for Electronic Government Affairs
  • Latvians.com - Personal web site of Silvija and Peters Vecrumba, includes research reference materials
  • Latvians Online - Online Latvian community, site edited by Andris Straumanis, Minnesota, USA
  • Policy.lv - English version of the Latvian public policy site politika.lv by Providus and the Soros Foundation.
  • The Latvian Institute - professional organization publishing information on Latvian society, economy, culture and history
  • Latvia on Wikitravel
  • Analysis of Freedom in Latvia (pdf file) -Freedom House publication "Nations in Transit 2006". Authored by J.Dreifelds.
  • Latvia : Country Studies - Published in 1996 by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.Authored by J.Dreifelds.
  • National Statistics Agency (in Latvian and English. For English press upper right hand corner "EN")
  • Latvia Tourism Brochures - Official publication by European Travel Commission (ETC)
Geographic locale
International organizations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Latvia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3850 words)
Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvija or Latvijas Republika), is a country in Northern Europe.
Latvia has no territorial claims towards Russian Federation, but demands an acknowledgement by federal government of the annexation of the small part of the Abrene region, since this land was previously part of Latvia and was detached from it by the Soviet Union.
Latvia is historically and culturally divided in four or five distinct regions, see regions of Latvia.
Latvia - definition of Latvia - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (680 words)
The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in the Northern Europe.
Latvia has land borders with its two fellow Baltic states - Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south - and Russia and Belarus to the east.
The ethnic mix of the population of Latvia is largely the result of massive post-war immigration, which resulted in a decline in the share of ethnic Latvians from 77% in 1935 to 52% in 1989.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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