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Encyclopedia > Lattice energy
Diamond Crystal Lattice

The lattice energy of an ionic solid is a measure of the strength of bonds in that ionic compound. It is given the symbol U and is equivalent to the amount of energy required to separate a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions. Lattice energy can also be considered as the energy given off when gaseous ions form an ionic solid. It is dependent on ionic charge and the ionic radius: as the charge of the ions increases the lattice energy increases (becomes more negative), and as the radius decreases (the ions in the ionic solid are closer together) the lattice energy increases. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Electron configurations of lithium and fluorine. ...


Lattice energy deals primarily with metals. It cannot be determined directly but can be by using experimental data in the Born Haber cycle and from theoretical calculations.

Contents

Calculation

Lattice energy is the energy change when an ionic compound is separated into tangents. It is given in units of kilojoules per mole. For example, when solid sodium chloride is separated into gaseous sodium and chlorine ions This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...

the lattice energy is 786 kJ/mol.


Lattice energy is usually calculated by using the Born-Haber cycle. The Kapustinskii equation can also be used. It has been suggested that Born haber be merged into this article or section. ... The Kapustinskii equation calculates the Lattice Energy UL for an ionic crystal, which is experimentally difficult to determine. ...


Lattice energy, the potential energy of two interacting ions (taken as two point charges), can also be calculated by using a modified version of Coulomb's law: , where , d is the distance between the centers of the ions, and q1,q2 are the charges on the ions.[1] Coulombs torsion balance In physics, Coulombs law is an inverse-square law indicating the magnitude and direction of electrostatic force that one stationary, electrically charged object of small dimensions (ideally, a point source) exerts on another. ...


Relative Strengths of Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is directly related to the distances of ionic bonds. Barium Oxide (BaO), for instance, has a bond radius of 275 picometers and a lattice energy of 3054 kJ/mol while Sodium Chloride (NaCl) has a bond radius of 283 picometers and a lattice energy of 786 kJ/mol.


References

  1. ^ Brown, Theodore L, H Eugene Lemay, and Bruce E. Bursten. Chemistry: The Central Science. pp265. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000.

See also

  • Lattice Energy Table

 
 

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