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Encyclopedia > Latino
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Latino (Spanish Latino, (Latin Latina, (English Latin, (Latina is the feminine form) is a term that is historically denoted relation to the ancient Latina tribe, who were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C and spread the Latin language in Europe. Most usage, the word Latino, it is the literal translation of the English word for Latin and are interchangeable with each other. [1] Most often it refers to inhabitants of Latin America, and their descendants in the United States or relating to the language that developed from Latin, such as Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, or to the peoples that speak them. It is the abbreviated use of 'Latin-American'; Francophone Canadians are not normally referred to as Latino, even though they speak a Romance language. The concept of "Latin America" was coined by the French in the 1800s as a means of legitimizing French influence over the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas; compare Latin Europe. Napoleon III, cited Amérique Latine and Indochine as goals for expansion during his reign. He proposed the Monarchy in Mexico headed by the Austrian Archduke Maximillian or Maximilian I of Mexico. The term emphasized a common culture and history of the Romance language-speaking countries, as opposed to the Germanic language-speaking countries of "Anglo-America". Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Latino is a Brazilian singer. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... Argentine Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the southeast South American nation of Argentina. ... The first Brazilians to establish in North America arrived in New Amsterdam in , coming from Recife, fleeing religious persecution for being jews. ... // Bolivia, the only landlocked country in the Western Hemisphere, is home to almost eight million people. ... Chilean Americans are a group of 68,849 people who emigrated from Chile and their descendants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... A Dominican American or Dominican-York [2] is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from the Dominican Republic to the United States. ... An Ecuadorian American is someone who is of Ecuadorian descent or was born in Ecuador and achieved American citizenship. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Nicaraguan American (Spanish: Nicaragüense Americano) are Americans of Nicaraguan ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United States. ... A Peruvian American is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from Peru that arrived in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Puerto Rican. ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Salvadoran Americans are residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent. ... ... Venezuelan Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the South American nation of Venezuela. ... // Latinos and Hispanics has a long history in the United States. ... The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... The struggle for independence after 1810 among the Latin American nations evoked a sense of unity, especially in South America where, under Simón Bolívar in the north and José de San Martín in the south, there were cooperative efforts. ... Latinos and Hispanics are predominantly Christian in the United States. ... Latino Jews are Latinos whose religion is Judaism. ... Latino Muslims are Latinos whose religion is Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that searched for social liberation and power for Mexican Americans. ... There are three main components to AHA’s programming and services: Advocacy: Latino arts and culture is an essential and vibrant part of the nation’s identity. ... // About the CHC The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is comprised of 21 Members of Congress of Hispanic descent. ... LULAC is an organization which strives for rights for Hispanic Americans. ... The National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO) is an umbrella council for 23 Latino Greek Letter Organizations established in 1998. ... The SHPE Logo The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1974 by a group of engineers employed by the city of Los Angeles. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... National Association of Latino Elected Officials aka NALEO External links http://www. ... For the fictional robot, see Mecha. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... Latino/a Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestory in America. ... Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and even country music. ... Spanish language spread in the United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that Hispanicisms_in_English be merged into this article or section. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities, towns, and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Hispanic or Latino, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... . ... Famous Hispanic Americans // Silvana Arias, actress Adrian Bellani, actor Jessica Alba, actress Nadine Velazquez, actress Desi Arnaz, actor Alexis Bledel, actress Benjamin Bratt, actor Julissa Bermudez, actress and VJ Lynda Carter, actress Ricardo Chavira, actor from Desperate Housewives Sammy Davis, Jr. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México) (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ...

Contents

Usage in the United States

Since its official adoption in 1997, the definition and usage of the term by the Federal Government is strictly as an ethnic, as opposed to racial, identifier, used together with the term Hispanic.[2][3] The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ...


Authorities of American English maintain a distinction between the terms Hispanic and Latino.[4] Latino is not officially used as a racial label, as a 'Latino' or 'Latin American' can be of any race.[5] This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. ...


Related terms

Latino is sometimes used interchangeably with the following terms:[6]


Latin

Latin refers to the Latin peoples (linguistic), i.e. Romance-speaking Latin Europeans, and those tracing most of their ancestry to them. Latin also refers to the Romance-speaking Latin-Americans. The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Latin America Latin America (Portuguese and Spanish América Latina, French: ) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages, those derived from Latin (particularly Spanish and Portuguese), are primarily spoken. ...


In the United States, the term Latin is often synonymous with Latino or Latin American, [1] [7] e.g. Latin jazz, Latin Cuisine, [2] Latin music. The Latin Grammy Awards is an event in which many Latins, from the Latin American countries, the United States and Latin European countries participate. It is now being held in New York City, where the Latin culture has especially flourished.
Latin jazz is the general term given to music that combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries with jazz harmonies from the United States. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties, from the simple, rural conjunto music of northern Mexico to the sophisticated habanera of Cuba, from the symphonies of Heitor Villa-Lobos to the simple and moving Andean... Grammy Award The Latin Grammy Awards were launched in 2000 with a telecast aired on CBS. It was the first primarily Spanish language prime-time program carried on an American network television. ...

Latin Americans
The Countries of
Latin Europe and Latin America

Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 24 KB) Latin America Map. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Latin American

A Latin American is a national of a Latin American country. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Hispanic

Main article: Hispanic

USA Official use of the term Hispanic has its origins in the 1970 United States Census. The Census Bureau attempted to identify all Hispanics by use of the following criteria in sampled sets: [8] Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

  • Spanish speakers and persons belonging to a household where Spanish was spoken [citation needed]
  • Persons with Spanish heritage by birth location [citation needed]
  • Persons who self-identify with Spanish ancestry or descent

Rejection of the term

Arawak/Taíno Native Americans/Indians (the pre-Columbian inhabitants of Puerto Rico) have asserted to Census Bureau officials that there is a practice or mechanisms in place to discourage Latinos of Native American descent in Puerto Rico and the U.S. from choosing the Native American category as a race.[9] Many of federally recognized Native American Tribes in the United States are Latino/Hispanic.[citation needed] Some 'Latinos' state that the term Latino marginalizes who they really are and distorts their individual histories.[10] White Latinos are, in a sense, disassociated from their roots and histories that can be traced to Europe while Native American Latinos are disappropriated from their Native American origins and histories.[11][12][13] This blurring or concealment of their identity and history impoverishes them psychologically and culturally.[14][15][16] This confusion is the result of using a racial criteria for classifying people in the census and media as well as ( only for Hispanics/Latinos) a so called 'ethnic' or cultural criteria.[10][5] Many U.S. hospitals and health centers also use the term Latino/Hispanic incorrectly as if it were a race. In cases where medical conditions or diseases may be more prone to a particular race, using the generic term Hispanic/Latino causes confusion and can be costly, as it does not identify the Latinos at risk and puts some Latinos in danger. This is because this method does not identify the Latinos at risk for the particular disease and puts some Latinos in danger of not seeking medical help as soon as they would have if they would have been identified by race. Many consider this a diservice and negligent, because in fact Hispanics/Latinos can be white, black, American Indian or multi-racial, and medical studies of such importance should indicate what race of Latinos were being used to measure susceptibility to the particular disease. Groups such as the Mexica Movement also reject the term Latino and describe it as a racist term that denies and obscures their indigenous (Native American) identities. The group states Latino improperly associates people of different races, i.e. associating both the Spanish colonizers and the indigenous inhabitants, especially the descendants of both groups, as the same ethnic group.[17] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Native Americans redirects here. ...


Related terms in other languages

Originally, Latino in the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, French and Spanish, literally means a person from the Lazio (ancient name: Latium) region in Italy and most notably, someone of ancient Italy's capital, Rome, as well as a member of any of the modern European Romance-speaking nations or peoples, and Romance-speaking nations or peoples of the Americas. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Latin: someone who speaks Latin or a language which comes from it.


The Spanish adjective latino (feminine: latina) directly translates to English as "Latin".[4] Spaniards view themselves as being Latins, the same as Europeans with Latin heritage, such as Italians, Romanians, French, and Portuguese and any Latin Americans with any of these European heritages. It is generally accepted that Napoleon III was the first one who came up with the idea of having a "Latin America" back in the 1880's. He wanted a union between French language-speaking countries in America and other countries in America that also spoke one of the Latin-based Romance languages. After the defeat of the French in Mexico, Indian Mexican leader Benito Juarez started referring to his countrymen as latinoamericanos. This term spread throughout what is now called Latin America. Over a century later, the American government shortened the term "latinoamericano" to "latino" ("Latin American") for its annual census. In the United States, the term "Latino" doesn't have the same meaning as it has in Europe. Latin European males and their descendants, whether living in Europe or abroad, have been referring to themselves as Latino for centuries. Originally the term was used in Europe by the Italians and later by the Spaniards prior to its newer meaning and usage in America. Many of the Latin American countries have interracial populations and a large percentage of the people in the Latin American countries self-identify themselves as being of Native American descent. However there is also a large percentage who self-identify as being Latin. This is because most of the entire population falls in groups of either European descendants and Indigenous Native American descendants. The extent of inter-racial populations vary in the different Latin American countries. (The same can be said of non-Latin Countries). Puerto Rico, Brazil, Cuba, Colombia, Mexico and Argentina will have different percentages of people of Latin ancestral descent as well as different portions of people of Native American descent. All however, are Latin American countries and are considered Latin.[18][19][20] In Spanish, latino, just like any other gentilic, is by convention not capitalized. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Most people in Latin America consider Latiness to be a culture or a lifestyle to some degree, in Brazil as well as in Spanish-speaking countries in the region. Many Latin Americans therefore describe themselves as Latin whether they are of white, black, Amerindian, Asian, or mixed descent (Mestizo, Mulatto, Zambo, etc). For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the white classified population of Latin America. ... Languages Portuguese, Spanish, and several creoles Religions Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups sub-Saharan An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial sub-Saharan African ancestry; the term may also refer to... Native Americans redirects here. ... An Asian Latin American is a Latin American of Asian descent. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ... A representation of Zambos in Pintura de Castas during the Latin American colonial period. ...


Latin Time Line: Roman Imperium spreads Latin which gives place to Romance languages (French, Italian, Rumanian, Spanish, Portuguese, etc.) Spanish and Portuguese will be spread into "Iberoamerica" (Iberian America) or "Latinoamerica" with the Colonies Period and further Italian and Spanish migrations. The same with French and Canada. Latin term is a cuestion of language and its culture around.


Latin(o) refers o Latin Americans, However Latin(o) does not at anytime apply exclusively to Latin Americans, as European Latins also use the term.(as opposed to Anglo Saxons which have a different geographical and linguistic origen). As used in the United States, 'Latin(o)' is not a racial term. Latinos may be white (of European descent). Latinos may also be of the Native American race, (Amerindians and their descendants).Some Amerindians who now speak a Latin based language may self-identify as Latino (Culturally or because they speak a Latin based language), However the language spoken does not determine their race, (as language spoken does not determine race anywhere).


See also

Boricua a word of origin from Boriken (or Boriquén, Borinquen, or Borinquén) used by the original Taino Indian population to refer to Puerto Rico before the coming of the Spanish, which translated as The Valiant People of the Sacred House. The word has come to identify any resident... For other uses, see Chicano (disambiguation). ... Hispanic America (Hispanoamérica in Spanish) refers to those parts of the Americas inhabited by Spanish-speaking peoples. ... Ibero-America is a term used to refer collectively to the countries in the Americas which were formerly colonies of Spain or Portugal. ... Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Latino Canadian is a person of Latin American descent residing in Canada. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Spic (also spelled spik, spick, or spig) is an offensive ethnic slur used in the United States and occasionally in the United Kingdom[1] for a person from Latin America or of Latino/Hispanic descent, sometimes including Spanish and Brazilian persons. ... A Tejano (Spanish for Texan; archaic spelling texano) is a person of Hispanic descent born and living in the U.S. state of Texas. ...

Europe

Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Latin American people started arriving in the United Kingdom mainly in the 1970s at a time of much political turmoil and civil unrest in their countries. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Latin Union is an international organization of nations that use a Romance language. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...

References

  1. '^ Latin (definition). yourdictionary' Online Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  2. ^ Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. “OMB does not accept the recommendation to retain the single term "Hispanic." Instead, OMB has decided that the term should be "Hispanic or Latino." Because regional usage of the terms differs -- Hispanic is commonly used in the eastern portion of the United States, whereas Latino is commonly used in the western portion -- this change may contribute to improved response rates ... The provisions of these standards are effective immediately for all new and revised record keeping or reporting requirements that include racial and/or ethnic information. All existing record keeping or reporting requirements shall be made consistent with these standards at the time they are submitted for extension, or not later than January 1, 2003.”
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. “Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic.”
  4. ^ a b American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. “Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant. Hispanic, from the Latin word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common. Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin. Of the two, only Hispanic can be used in referring to Spain and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States is a Hispanic, not a Latino, and one cannot substitute Latino in the phrase the Hispanic influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning. In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin American origin and can theoretically be called by either word.”
  5. ^ a b United States Census Bureau (March 2001). Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  6. ^ Oboler, Suzanne. Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives: Identity and the Politics of (Re) Presentation (in English). 
  7. ^ Latino (definition). Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (login required). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  8. ^ Gibson, Campbell (09 2002). Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States. Working Paper Series No. 56. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  9. ^ The Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Council (April 15, 2000). A Taino Tribal Leader Meets With Heads of US Census. The Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Council. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  10. ^ a b The Facts. National Association for the Advancement of Caucasian Latinos (NAACL). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  11. ^ Common Misconceptions. National Association for the Advancement of Caucasian Latinos (NAACL). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  12. ^ Mexica Movement. Mexica Movement. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  13. ^ The Taino People: A Jatibonicu' Taino History in Puerto Rico & New Jersey. indigenouspeople.net (June 8, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  14. ^ The Social Harm. National Association for the Advancement of Caucasian Latinos (NAACL). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  15. ^ Nathaniel Branden. The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem. Nathaniel Branden;. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  16. ^ Nathaniel Branden. The Disowned Self. Nathaniel Branden. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  17. ^ .Tezcatlipoca, Olin (2003-08-13). The Crimes of Hispanic and Latino Racist Labels: Everything You Need To Know About The Racism Of Hispanic And Latino Labels as Applied to People of Mexican and “Central American” Descent. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  18. ^ Puerto Rico. The CIA World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (June 19, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  19. ^ Cuba. The CIA World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (June 19, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  20. ^ Mexico. The CIA World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (June 19, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States, 4 vls, Oxford University Press 2006, ISBN 0195156005

External links

USA Election Politics

  • PoliticosLatinos.com Videos of 2008 US Presidential Election Candidates' Positions regarding Immigration

 
 

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