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Encyclopedia > Latin Empire
Romania
Latin Empire of Constantinople

1204 – 1261

Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople of Latin Empire Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople

The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. 1204. The borders are very uncertain.
Capital Constantinople
Language(s) Latin, Old French (official)
Greek (popular)
Religion Roman Catholic (official)
Greek Orthodox (popular)
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1204–1205 Baldwin I
 - 1206–1216 Henry
 - 1217–1219 Yolanda (regent)
 - 1219–1228 Robert I
 - 1228–1237 John of Brienne (regent)
 - 1237–1261 Baldwin II
Historical era High Middle Ages
 - Established 1204
 - Disestablished 1261

The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name: Imperium Romaniae, "Empire of Romania") is the name given by historians to the Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire after their sack of Constantinople in 1204. The Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as titular successor to the Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Byzantine Greeks. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned Emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1715x701, 476 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Byzantine Empire Latin Empire Sultanate of Rûm ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the... Henry (c. ... Yolanda of Flanders (d. ... Coat of arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... The coronation of John of Brienne as King of Jerusalem, with Maria of Montferrat, from a late 13th century MS of the Histoire dOutremer, painted in Acre. ... Baldwin II (1217—1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... The Crusader states, c. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ...

Contents

History

Creation of the Latin Empire

By arrangement among the crusaders, Byzantine territory was divided, in the Partitio terrarum imperii Romanie, signed on 1 October 1204, with three eighths - including Crete and other islands - going to the Republic of Venice. The Latin Empire claimed the remainder, and did exert control over areas of Greece, divided into vassal fiefs: the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the Principality of Achaea, the Duchy of Athens, the Duchy of the Archipelago and the short-lived duchies of Nicaea, Philippopolis, and Philadelphia. The Doge of Venice did not rank as a vassal to the Empire, but his position in control of 3/8 of its territory and of parts of Constantinople itself, ensured Venice's influence in the Empire's affairs. However, much of the former Byzantine territory remained in the hands of rival successor states led by Byzantine Greek aristocrats, such as the Despotate of Epirus, the Empire of Nicaea, and the Empire of Trebizond, which were bent on reconquest from the Latins. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade over the conquered Greek lands. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ... // Duchy of Athens A small crusader state which was established after the Sack of Constantinople (1204) by the Crusaders. ... The Duchy of Naxos and states in the Morea, carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Republic of Venices Duchy of the Archipelago (also called Egeon Pelagos in Greek) was a maritime state created in the Cyclades islands of... Alasehir, Turkey, began as perhaps one of the first ancient cities with the name Philadelphia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by...


The crowning of Baldwin and the creation of the Latin Empire had the curious effect of creating three so-called Roman Empires in Europe at the same time, the others being the Holy Roman Empire and the remnants of the Byzantine Empire, none of which actually controlled Rome. This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The Empire in Asia Minor

Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.

The initial campaigns of the crusaders in Asia Minor resulted in the capture of most of Bithynia by 1205, with the defeat of the forces of Theodore I Lascaris at Poemanenum and Prusa. Latin successes continued, and in 1207 a truce was signed with Theodore, newly proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea. The Latins inflicted a further defeat on Nicaean forces at the Ryndakos river in October 1211, and three years later the treaty of Nymphaeum recognized their control of most of Bithynia and Mysia. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Mysia. ...


The peace was maintained until 1222, at which point the resurgent power of Nicaea felt sufficiently strong to challenge the Latin Empire, by that time weakened by constant warfare in its European provinces. At the battle of Poemanenum in 1224, the Latin army was defeated, and by the next year Emperor Robert of Courtenay was forced to cede all his Asian possessions to Nicaea, save Nicomedia and the territories directly across Constantinople. Nicaea turned also to the Aegean, capturing the islands awarded to the Empire. In 1235, finally, the last Latin possessions fell to Nicaea. Coat of arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Empire in Europe

Unlike in Asia, where the Latin Empire faced only an initially weak Nicaea, in Europe it was immediately confronted with a powerful enemy: the Bulgarian tsar Kaloyan. When Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thrace, they called upon Kaloyan for help. At the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205, the Latin heavy cavalry was lured into an ambush by Kaloyan's troops, and Emperor Baldwin was captured. He was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tărnovo until his death later in 1205. Luckily for the new Latin Emperor, Henry of Flanders, Kaloyan was killed a couple of years later (1207) during a siege of Thessalonica, and the Bulgarian threat conclusively defeated with a victory the following year, which allowed Henry to reclaim most of the lost territories in Thrace until 1210, when peace was concluded with the marriage of Henry to Maria, tsar Kaloyan's daughter. Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... This Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14, 1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I. It was won by the Bulgarians after a skillful ambush. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Henry (c. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ...


At the same time, another Greek successor state, the Despotate of Epirus, under Michael I Komnenos Doukas, posed a threat to the Empire's vassals in Thessalonica and Athens. Henry demanded his submission, which Michael provided, giving off his daughter to Henry's brother Eustace in the summer of 1209. This alliance allowed Henry to launch a campaign in Macedonia, Thessaly and Central Greece against the rebellious Lombard lords of Thessalonica. However, Michael's attack on the Kingdom of Thessalonica in 1210 forced him to return north to relieve the city and to force Michael back into submission. The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... Michael I Komnenos Doukas or Comnenus Ducas (Greek: Μιχαήλ Α΄ Κομνηνός Δούκας, Mikhaēl I Komnēnos Doukas), often inaccurately called Michael Angelos (a name he never used), was the founder and first ruler of the principality of Epirus from 1205 until his death in 1215. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Central Greece (Greek: Στερεά Ελλάδα - Stereá Elláda) is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... Look up Lombard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1214 however, Michael died, and was succeeded by Theodore Komnenos Doukas, who was determined to capture Thessalonica. On 11 June 1216, while supervising repairs to the walls of Thessalonica, Henry died, and was succeeded by Peter of Courtenay, who himself was captured and executed by Theodore the following year. A regency was set up in Constantinople, headed by Peter's widow, Yolanda of Flanders until 1221, when her son Robert of Courtenay was crowned Emperor. Distracted by the renewed war with Nicaea, and waiting in vain for assistance from Pope Honorius III and the King of France Philip II, the Latin Empire was unable to prevent the final fall of Thessalonica to Epirus in 1224. Epirote armies then conquered Thrace in 1225-26, appearing before Constantinople itself. The Latin Empire was saved for the time by the threat posed to Theodore by the Bulgarian tsar Ivan II Asen, and a truce was concluded in 1228. Theodore Komnenos Doukas or Theodore Comnenus Ducas (Greek: Θεόδωρος Κομνηνός Δούκας, Theodōros KomnÄ“nos Doukas), ruler of Epirus from 1215 to 1230 and of Thessalonica from 1224 to 1230, died c. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Yolanda of Flanders (d. ... Coat of arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... Honorius III, né Cencio Savelli (b. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Portrait of Ivan Asen II from the Zograf Monastery on Mount Athos, 1817 Ivan Asen II (Bulgarian: Иван Асен II, and also Йоан Асен II, Ioan Asen II, in English sometimes John Asen II), emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241. ...


Decline and Fall

Baldwin II (1217-1273) was the last Latin emperor of Constantinople.
Baldwin II (1217-1273) was the last Latin emperor of Constantinople.

After Robert of Courtenay died in 1228, a new regency under John of Brienne was set up. After the disastrous Epirote defeat by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Klokotnitsa, the Epirote threat to the Latin Empire was removed, only to be replaced by Nicaea, which started acquiring territories in Greece. Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes of Nicaea concluded an alliance with Bulgaria, which in 1235 resulted in joint campaign against the Latin Empire, and an unsuccessful siege of Constantinople the next year. In 1237, Baldwin II attained majority and took over the reins of a much-diminished state. The Empire's precarious situation forced him to travel often to Western Europe seeking aid, but largely without success. In order to gain money, he was forced to resort to desperate means, from removing the lead roofs of the Great Palace and selling them, to handing over his only son, Philip, to Venetian merchants as a guarantee for a loan. Baldwin II (1217—1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... The coronation of John of Brienne as King of Jerusalem, with Maria of Montferrat, from a late 13th century MS of the Histoire dOutremer, painted in Acre. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Despotate of Epirus Commanders Ivan Asen II Theodore Komnenos Doukas Strength 25,000 85,000 Casualties Light Almost the whole army was killed or captured The Battle of Klokotnitsa (Bulgarian: , Bitka pri Klokotnitsa) occurred on 9 March 1230 near the village of Klokotnitsa (today in Haskovo Province... John III Doukas Vatatzes or Ducas Vatatzes (Greek: Ιωάννης Γ΄ Δούκας Βατάτζης, IōannÄ“s III Doukas BatatzÄ“s) (c. ... Baldwin II (1217—1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ...


By 1247, the Nicaeans had effectively surrounded Constantinople, with only the city's strong walls holding them at bay, and the Battle of Pelagonia in 1258 signaled the beginning of the end of Latin predominance in Greece. Thus, on July 25, 1261, with most of the Latin troops away on campaign, the Nicaean general Alexios Strategopoulos found an unguarded entrance to the city, and entered it with his troops, restoring the Byzantine Empire for his master, Michael VIII Palaiologos. Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... Combatants Principality of Achaea Empire of Nicaea Commanders William II Villehardouin John Palaiologos Theodore Dukas Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Pelagonia took place in September of 1259, between the Empire of Nicaea and the Principality of Achaea. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Alexios Strategopoulos (Greek: ) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, rising to the rank of Caesar. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1224/1225 – December 11, 1282) reigned as Byzantine emperor 1259–1282. ...


Titular claimants

For about a century thereafter, the heirs of Baldwin II continued to use the title of Emperor of Constantinople, and were seen as the overlords of the various remaining Latin states in the Aegean. They exercised effective authority in Greece only when actually ruling as princes of Achaea, as in 1333–1383. Although they are generally regarded as titular emperors, the continued existence of Latin states in the Aegean that recognized them as their suzerains makes the term a misnomer; a more accurate description would be emperors-in-exile. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ...


Organization and Society

Administration

The empire was formed and administrated on Western European feudal principles, incorporating some elements of the Byzantine bureaucracy. The Emperor was assisted by a council, composed of the various barons, the Venetian podesta and his six-member council. This council had a major voice in the governance of the realm, especially in the periods of regency, where the Regent (moderator imperii) was dependent on their consent to rule. The podesta, likewise, was an extremely influential member, being practically independent of the Emperor. He exercised authority over the Venetian quarters of Constantinople and the Venetian dominions within the Empire, assisted by a separate set of officials. His role was more that of an ambassador and vicegerent of Venice than a vassal to the Empire. For information on the phantom island of the same name, see Podesta (island). ... The official administrative deputy of a ruler or head of state. ...


Society

The elite of the empire were the Frankish and Venetian lords, headed by the Emperor, the barons and the lower-ranking vassals and liege lords, including many former Byzantine aristocrats. The bulk of the people were Orthodox Greeks, still divided according to the Byzantine system in income classes based on land ownership.


Church

As with all Latin states, the Orthodox hierarchy was replaced by Catholic prelates, but not suppressed. An expansive Catholic hierarchy was established, under the dual supervision of the Latin archbishop of Constantinople and the Papal legate, until the two offices were merged in 1231. Catholic monastic orders, such as the Cistercians, the Dominicans and the Franciscans were established in the Empire. The Orthodox clergy retained its rites and customs, including its right to marriage, but was demoted to a subordinate position, subject to the local Latin bishops. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ...


List of Emperors

Latin Emperors of Constantinople, 1204–1261

  • Baldwin I (1204–1205)
  • Henry (1206–1216), his brother
  • Peter (1216–1217)
  • Yolanda (1217–1219), Henry's sister
  • Robert I (1219–1228), crowned 1221, their son
  • Baldwin II (1228–1261), crowned 1240, died 1273, his brother, with...

Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the... Henry (c. ... Yolanda of Flanders (d. ... Coat of arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... Baldwin II (1217—1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... The coronation of John of Brienne as King of Jerusalem, with Maria of Montferrat, from a late 13th century MS of the Histoire dOutremer, painted in Acre. ...

Latin Emperors of Constantinople in exile, 1261–1383

  • Baldwin II (1261–1273), in exile from Constantinople
  • Philip I (1273–1283), his son
  • Catherine I (1283–1308), his daughter, with...
  • Charles of Valois (1301–1308), her husband
  • Catherine II (1308–1346), their daughter, with...
  • Philip II (1313–1332), her husband
  • Robert II (1346–1364), their son
  • Philip III (1364–1373), his brother
  • James of Baux (1373–1383), his nephew
  • James willed his titular claims to Duke Louis I of Anjou, also claimant to the throne of Naples, but Louis and his descendants never used the title.

Philip of Courtenay (1243, Constantinople – 1283, Viterbo) was titular Emperor of Constantinople 1273–1283. ... Catherine I of Courtenay (1274–1307/8) was Titular Empress of Constantinople from 1283 to her death in 1307/8. ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... Philip I of Taranto (1278-1332): of the Anjou family, Prince of Taranto, despot of Epirus, Prince of Achaea, Titular Emperor of Costantinople. ... Robert of Taranto (1299-1364), of the Anjou family, Prince of Taranto (1332-1346), King of Albania (1332-1364), Prince of Achaea (1333-1346), titular Emperor of Constantinople (1346-1364). ... Philip II of Taranto (1329-1374): of the Angevin house, Prince of Achaea and Taranto, titular Emperor of Constantinople. ... James of Baux was the last Latin Emperor of Constantinople (1373-1383). ... Louis I of Anjou (July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, – September 20, 1384, Biselia) was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...

References

Sources

External links

  • The Latin Occupation in the Greek Lands - The Latin Empire, from the Foundation of the Hellenic World

  Results from FactBites:
 
Latin Empire of Constantinople (297 words)
Christian empire in a territory around much of the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus, 1204-1261, 57 years.
The empire was centered to Constantinople, while having modern European Turkey and most of Greece as its main land territory.
The goal of the establishment of this empire was to replace the Greek Orthodox rulers of the Byzantine Empire with Roman Catholic rulers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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