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Encyclopedia > Latin America

Latin America

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 800 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) Western hemisphere map: Latin America Lambert azimuthal projection. ...

Area 21,069,501 km²
Population 541 million
Countries 20
Dependencies 10
GDP $3.33 Trillion (exchange rate)
$5.62 Trillion (purchasing power parity)
Languages Spanish, Portuguese, Quechua, Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan languages, Guaraní, Italian, English, French, Haitian Creole, Spanish creole German, Welsh, Dutch, Cantonese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and many others
Time Zones UTC -2:00 (Brazil) to UTC -8:00 (Mexico)
Largest Cities 1. Mexico City
2. São Paulo
3. Buenos Aires
4. Rio de Janeiro
5. Lima
6. Bogotá
7. Santiago de Chile
8. Belo Horizonte
9. Caracas
10. Guadalajara

Latin America (Portuguese and Spanish: América Latina; French: Amérique latine) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages, those derived from Latin (particularly Spanish and Portuguese), are primarily spoken. PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Haïtian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the city. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1701 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Guadalajara may refer to: Mexico Guadalajara, Jalisco, the capital of the state of Jalisco Chivas de Guadalajara, aka Chivas, a Mexican association football team Spain Guadalajara (province), a province in Castile–La Mancha Guadalajara, Spain, the capital of the above province This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Contents

Definition

The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America, and more generally the stress on European heritage (or Eurocentrism), is simply a convention by which Romance-language and English speaking cultures are distinguished, being the predominant languages at this time in history. There are, of course, many places in the Americas (e.g. highland Peru and Guatemala) where American Indian cultures and languages are important, as well as areas in which the influence of African cultures is strong (e.g. the Caribbean, including parts of Colombia and Venezuela, coastal Peru and coastal Brazil). For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... West Indies redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Maximilian or Maximillian (sometimes Maximilia) is a name of Latin origin meaning greatest. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (French Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) is a French overseas collectivity consisting of several small islands off the eastern coast of Canada near Newfoundland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Etymology

Look up Latin America in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Originally, Amérique latine was a political denomination thought coined by French Emperor Napoleon III, in citing Amérique latine and Indochine as goals for his reign's imperial expansion, [1] thus justifying French imperial claims to the native peoples and their lands; eventually, Amérique latine denominated the Americas colonised by Spanish, Portuguese, and French settlers between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries; nevertheless, Michel Chevalier introduced his alternate etymology, the Southern Americas, in 1836, in Lettres sur l'Amèrique du Nord.[2] In the United States, before the 1890s, Spanish America was the nominal term for the region until early in the twentieth century when Latin America became current. [3] Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Michel Chevalier (born January 13, 1806 in Limoges; died November 18, 1879 in Montpellier) was a French politician, economist and Manchester liberal. ...


Contemporaneously, Latin America is equivalent to Latin Europe, implying supranationality greater than statehood and nationhood. Supranational identity is expressed through common socio-economic initiatives and organisations, such as the Union of South American Nations; nevertheless, the terms Latin American, Latin, Latino, and Hispanic denote and connote different things. Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ...


Many Latin Americans do not speak Latinate languages, but native tongues transplanted by immigration, e.g. German in Paraguay. Moreover there are Latin European-derived cultures resultant from European immigrants blending with the indigenous peoples and with the imported African slaves, thus, they are Latin American, but not Spanish, Portuguese, and French, as usually connoted by the Latin American term. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


Francophone Canada (except Québec) and the U.S., such as Acadia, French Louisiana, and places north of Mexico are excluded from the socio-political definition of Latin America, despite significant or predominant populations speaking a Latinate language, because they are not sovereign states and are geographically discrete from Latin America proper; yet, French Guiana, a French dependency, is included. Some Latin American countries do not have a Romance language as the official language, yet are denominated Latin American countries, i.e. Dutch-speaking Suriname, and the Anglophone countries of Belize and Guyana. During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ...


To avoid the ambiguities inherent to Latin America, the term Ibero-America is used in Spain and Portugal in referring to the nations and countries once colonies of itself and of Portugal; Ibero-America derives from the Iberian Peninsula wherein lay Spain and Portugal. The Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI — Organzación de Estados Iberoamericanos) extends the definition by including Spain and Portugal (the Mother Countries of Latin America) as member states. Ibero-America is a term used to refer collectively to the countries in the Americas which were formerly colonies of Spain or Portugal. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ...


History

Main article: History of Latin America
See also: History of South America for a treatment of pre-Columbian civilisations and a general overview of the region's history.

The Americas are thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering strait, from northeast Asia into Alaska more than 10,000 years ago. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. By the first millennium AD/CE, South America’s vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed permanent settlements, such as the Chibchas (or "Muiscas" or "Muyscas") and the Tairona groups. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas of Peru and the Aymaras of Bolivia were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. Latin America refers to countries in the Americas where Latin-derived (Romance) languages are spoken; these countries generally lie south of the United States. ... While perhaps the last continent--except Antarctica-- to be inhabited by humans, South America has a history that spans the full range of human cultural and civilizational forms. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Chibcha hieroglyph Colombias first inhabitants migrated from North and Central America. ... Tairona figure pendants Monument in Santa Marta depicting Taironas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is the name of a South-American people and of their language. ...

A view of Machu Picchu, a pre-Columbian Inca site in Peru.
"The Castle" of Chichén-Itzá in Yucatán Mexico.
Rano Raraku Moai in Easter Island buried to their shoulders.

The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Caribs, Tupi, Maya, and Inca. The golden age of the Maya began about 250, with the last two great civilizations, the Aztecs and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively. Picture of Machu Picchu taken in the morning. ... Picture of Machu Picchu taken in the morning. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The famous El Castillo (The castle), formally named Temple of Kukulcan, in the archeological city of Chichén-Itzá, in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The famous El Castillo (The castle), formally named Temple of Kukulcan, in the archeological city of Chichén-Itzá, in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Templo de los Guerreros (Temple of the Warriors) at Chichen Itza. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 106 Government  - Governor Ivonne Ortega Pacheco PRI  - Federal Deputies PAN: 4 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Hugo Laviada (PAN) Alfredo Rodríguez (PAN) Cleominio Zoreda (PRI) Area Ranked 20th  - State 38,402 km²  (14,827. ... Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB)Moai at Rano Raraku taken during January 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Moai Rano Raraku Around the World in 80 Treasures Categories: User-created public domain images | NowCommons ... Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB)Moai at Rano Raraku taken during January 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Moai Rano Raraku Around the World in 80 Treasures Categories: User-created public domain images | NowCommons ... Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ... Ahu Tongariki, restored by Chilean archaeologist Claudio Cristino in the 1990s This is about the statues of Easter Island, for the seamount see Moai (seamount) Main article: Easter Island Moai (or mo‘ai) are monolithic human figures carved from rock on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), mostly... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... The Toltecs (or Toltec or Tolteca) were a Pre-Columbian Native American people who dominated much of central Mexico between the 10th and 12th century AD. Their language, Nahuatl, was also spoken by the Aztecs. ... This article is about the Island Carib, who lived on the islands of the Caribbean. ... Tupinambá redirects here. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Central New York City. ...


With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incans and Aztecs, lost power to the Europeans. Hernán Cortés destroyed the Aztec elite's power with the help of local groups who disliked the Aztec elite, and Francisco Pizarro eliminated the Incan rule in Western South America. European powers, most notably Spain and Portugal, colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the Line of Demarcation in 1493, which gave Spain all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in America subsequently becoming Brazil). By the end of the sixteenth century, Europeans occupied large areas of North, Central and South America, extending all the way into the present southern United States. European culture and government was imposed, with the Roman Catholic Church becoming a major economic and political power, as well as the official religion of the region. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... The Line of Demarcation was an imaginary longitude, moved slightly from the line drawn by Pope Alexander VI to divide new lands claimed by Portugal from those of Spain. ...


Diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large proportion of the indigenous population, with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, but some put the figures as high as 85% and as low as 20%. Due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines. Intermarriage between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... Colonial Period can refer to: Period of Japanese Rule (Korea) Colonial America This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Dates of independence of countries in the Americas.

By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. Resentment grew over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards (Iberian-born peninsulares) over the major institutions and the majority population, including the colonial-born Spaniards (criollos, Creoles). Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked the turning point, compelling Creole elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Also, the newly independent Haiti, the second oldest nation in the New World after the United States and the oldest independent nation in Latin America, further fueled the independence movement by inspiring the leaders of the movement, such as Simón Bolívar and José de San Martin, and by providing them with considerable munitions and troops. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (694x824, 44 KB) Summary Latin America & Caribbean countries by date of independence as listed on wikipedia:List of countries by date of nationhood Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Latin America History of South America History of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (694x824, 44 KB) Summary Latin America & Caribbean countries by date of independence as listed on wikipedia:List of countries by date of nationhood Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Latin America History of South America History of... In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire, modernly called just Spain, in Iberian Peninsula. ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... In the Spanish colonial caste system (castas), a criollo was a person of unmixed Spanish ancestry born in the colonies. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... José de San Martín José Francisco de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850) was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the successful struggle for independence from Spain of the southern nations of South America. ...


Fighting soon broke out between the Juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial Creole victories, including Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico and Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela, crushed by the Spanish troops. Under the leadership of Simón Bolívar, José de San Martin and other Libertadores in South America, the independence movement regained strength, and by 1825, all Spanish Latin America, except for Puerto Rico and Cuba, gained independence from Spain. Brazil achieved independence with a constitutional monarchy established in 1822. During the same year in Mexico, a military officer, Agustín de Iturbide, led conservatives who created a constitutional monarchy, with Iturbide as emperor (followed by a republic, 1823). Look up junta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla Gallaga Mondarte Villaseñor (May 8, 1753 – July 31, 1811), also known as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, or simply as Miguel Hidalgo,was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader. ... Francisco de Miranda Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (commonly known as Francisco de Miranda March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816) was a South American revolutionary whose own plan for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, but who is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bol... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... José de San Martín José Francisco de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850) was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the successful struggle for independence from Spain of the southern nations of South America. ... Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for Liberators) refers to the leaders of the revolutions which gained the nations of Latin America independence from Spain and Portugal. ... Hispanic America (Hispanoamérica in Spanish) refers to those parts of the Americas inhabited by Spanish-speaking peoples. ... Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ...


Political divisions

Latin America is politically divided into the following countries and territories:
The countries included in all definitions are:

Independent Countries and Puerto Rico

The more expansive definition can include: For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Independent Countries French dependencies Netherlands
dependencies
United States
dependency

Owing to their geographical location, Belize, the Falkland Islands, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago could be added to this grouping, but they are not culturally or linguistically Latin American. They maintain economic ties with nearby countries, and are grouped by the United Nations in the predominantly Latin American region of South America. All except Suriname are also the objects of long-standing territorial claims by their Latin American neighbors. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ... Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organisation of economic activities across the Earth. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


Demographics

Demographics

Image File history File links RickyMartin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 45 KB)Fidel Castro at the Monument to José Martí, Havana Source: Ricardo Stuckert/ABr. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Image File history File links JuanesNokiaTheater. ... Juan Esteban Aristizábal Vásquez (born August 9, 1972), best known as Juanes, is a rock musician from Medellín, Colombia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1999x1311, 161 KB) Brasília - O presidente eleito da Bolívia, Evo Morales, concede entrevista coletiva à imprensa, após encontro com o presidente Lula no Palácio do Itamaraty. ... Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro), popularly known as Evo (pronounced ), is the President of Bolivia, and has been declared the countrys first fully indigenous head of state since the Spanish Conquest in 470 years. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 372 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (440 × 709 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Pele redirects here. ... Benicio Monserrat Rafael Del Toro Sanchez (born February 19, 1967, in San Germán, Puerto Rico) is an Academy Award winning Puerto Rican actor. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (768 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Category:Soccer players from Brazil File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other persons named Ronaldinho, see Ronaldinho (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 640 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) imagen mejorada con paint shop X Other versions Imagen:ShakiraRipoll_cropped. ... This article is about the musician. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1012x1280, 656 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Diego Maradona ... Diego Armando Maradona (born October 30, 1960) is a former Argentine football player. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (560x708, 111 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salma Hayek ... Salma Hayek Jiménez (born September 2, 1966) is an Academy Award-, Golden Globe- and Emmy-nominated Mexican/American actress, Daytime Emmy-winning director, and an Emmy-nominated TV and film producer. ...

Racial groups

The population of Latin America is a composite of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most — if not the most — diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: Some have a predominance of a mixed population, in others people of Amerindian origin are a majority, some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry and some populations are primarily of African descent. Most or all Latin American countries have Asian minorities. Europeans and groups with part-European ancestry combine for nearly 80% of the population.[4] For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


Amerindians

Amerindians make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and a plurality in Peru.

The aboriginal population of Latin America, the Amerindians, experienced tremendous population decline particularly in the early decades of colonization. They have since recovered in numbers, surpassing sixty million, though they compose a majority in only one country, Bolivia. In Peru they are a plurality, while in Ecuador, Guatemala and Mexico, they are large minorities of more than 25%. Most of the other countries have small Amerindian minorities. In many countries, people of mixed Indian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population (see Mestizo). Image File history File links Qichwa_conchucos_01. ... Image File history File links Qichwa_conchucos_01. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço...


Asians

People of Asian descent are numerous in Latin America. The first Asians to settle in Latin America were Filipino, as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. The majority of ethnic Asians in Latin America are of Japanese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil, home to the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself, numbering 1.5 million.[5] Peru has important Chinese and Japanese communities. Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese are also among the largest ethnic Asian communities in the region. An Asian Latin American is a Latin American of Asian descent. ... The Kasato Maru A Japanese-Brazilian is an ethnically Japanese person born in Brazil. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Africans

A significant number of Latin Americans are of African ancestry

Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward, the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Today, people identified as black constitute important minorities in Brazil, Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Peru and Ecuador. They compose a majority in Haiti, at more than 90% of the population. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2700x1800, 2202 KB) Cuban boys playing in Trinidad, Cuba. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2700x1800, 2202 KB) Cuban boys playing in Trinidad, Cuba. ... Language(s) Portuguese, Spanish, and several creoles Religion(s) Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups sub-Saharan An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial sub-Saharan African ancestry; the term may also... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... West Indies redirects here. ...


Europeans

Beginning in the late fifteenth century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America — Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region — and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages, the Catholic faith and many traditions. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

Latin americans of European descent are predominant in the region of the Argentina, Uruguay and Southern Brazil.

Millions of Europeans have immigrated to Latin America since most countries gained independence in the 1810s and 1820s, with most of the immigration occurring in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the bulk of the immigrants settling in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Italians formed the largest group of immigrants, and next were Spaniards and Portuguese.[6] Many others arrived, such as Germans, Poles, Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Irish and Welsh. Whites make up the vast majority of the population in Argentina and Uruguay, as they do in Southern Region, Brazil. In absolute numbers, Brazil has the largest population of whites in Latin America, Argentina the second and Mexico the third. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 401 KB) Español: Vista de la Reina Nacional del Inmigrante (centro), la 1° princesa (izquierda) y 2° princesa (derecha) del año 2004, en el inicio de la XXVII Fiesta Nacional del Inmigrante, en la ciudad de Oberá, Misiones... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 401 KB) Español: Vista de la Reina Nacional del Inmigrante (centro), la 1° princesa (izquierda) y 2° princesa (derecha) del año 2004, en el inicio de la XXVII Fiesta Nacional del Inmigrante, en la ciudad de Oberá, Misiones... Whites redirects here. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... The Southern Region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. ...


Latin American countries attracted European immigrants to work in agriculture, commerce and industry. Many Latin American governments encouraged immigrants from Europe to civilize the region.[7] Despite their different origins, these immigrants integrated in the local societies and most of their descendants only speak Spanish or, in Brazil, Portuguese. For example, people of Italian descent make up half of Argentina's and Uruguay's population, but only a few of them are able to speak Italian. The only notable exceptions are some communities of Germans and Italians across Southern Brazil who still preserve their languages. Brazil has the biggest population of Italians outside of Italy; São Paulo city alone has more Italians than Rome.[8] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Immigration from the Middle East took place also since the 19th century, and consisted largely of Christian Lebanese and Syrians. They have generally assimilated into the European-descended population. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Mestizos

Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early and was extensive. The resulting people, known as mestizos, make up the majority of the population in half the countries of Latin America: Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay and Venezuela. Mestizos additionally compose large minorities in nearly all the mainland countries. Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço...


The degree of Amerindian admixture varies with social class. In Chile, for example, it is higher in the lower classes, and almost negligent in most of the middle and upper class mestizos, a vast segment of whom are indistinguishable from whites.[citation needed]


Mulattoes

Mulattoes are biracial descendants of mixed European and African ancestry, mostly European settlers and African slaves during the colonial period. The vast majority of mulattoes are found in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Colombia, and Venezuela. There is also a small presence of mulattoes in other Latin American countries.[4] Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ...


Zambos

Slaves often ran away (cimarrones) and were taken in by Amerindian villagers. Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians produced descendants known as zambos. This was especially prevalent in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before a shaman, Suriname 1955 A Maroon (from the word marronage or American/Spanish cimarrón: fugitive, runaway, lit. ... A representation of Zambos in Pintura de Castas during the Latin American colonial period. ...


In addition to the foregoing groups, Latin America also has millions of people of mixed African, Amerindian and European triracial ancestry, mostly in Colombia and Venezuela but with a much smaller presence in a number of other countries.


Racial distribution

The following table shows the different racial groups and their percentages for all Latin American countries and territories.[4][9]

Country Population White Mestizo Mulatto Amerindian Black White and
mestizo
Mixed Other1
Argentina 40,301,927 97% 3%
Aruba 100,018 80% 20%
Bolivia 9,119,152 15% 30% 55%
Brazil 190,010,647 53.7% 38.5% 6.2% 1.6%
Chile 16,284,741 3% 95% 2%
Colombia 44,379,598 20% 58% 14% 1% 4% 3%
Costa Rica 4,133,884 1% 3% 94% 2%
Cuba 11,394,043 37% 51% 11% 1%
Dominican Republic 9,365,818 16% 11% 73%
Ecuador 13,755,680 65% 25% 3% 7%
El Salvador 6,948,073 9% 90% 1%
French Guiana 199,509 12% 88%
Guadeloupe 452,776 5% 95%
Guatemala 12,728,111 40.5% 59.4% 0.1%
Haiti 8,706,497 95% 5%
Honduras 7,483,763 1% 90% 7% 2%
Martinique 436,131 5% 95%
Mexico 108,700,891 9% 60% 30% 1%
Netherlands Antilles 223,652 85% 15%
Nicaragua 5,675,356 17% 69% 5% 9%
Panama 3,242,173 10% 70% 6% 14%
Paraguay 6,669,086 95% 5%
Peru 28,674,757 15% 37% 45% 3%
Puerto Rico 3,944,259 80.5% 0.4% 8% 4.1% 7%
Saint Barthélemy 6,852 100%
Saint Martin 33,102 100%
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 7,036 100%
Uruguay 3,460,607 88% 8% 4%
Venezuela 26,023,528 41% 49% 1% 7% 2%
Total 562,461,667 33.8% 27% 15.2% 10.9% 4.9% 4.8% 1.7% 1.8%

1 May include one or more of the previous groups. Caucasian is originally a geographical term, meaning relative or pertaining to the Caucasus region of eastern Europe. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... St. ...


Language

See also: Indigenous languages of the Americas
Romance languages in Latin America: Green-Spanish; Orange-Portuguese; Blue-French

Castillian Spanish is the predominant language in the majority of Latin American countries. Portuguese is spoken primarily in Brazil, the most populous country in the region. French is spoken in some countries of the Caribbean (notably the dependencies of Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana as well as the sovereign island-nation of Haiti). Dutch is the official language of some Caribbean islands and in Suriname on the continent; however, as Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not considered part of Latin America. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Image File history File links Map-Romance_Latin_America. ... Image File history File links Map-Romance_Latin_America. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...


Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: English, by some groups in Argentina, Nicaragua, Panama, and Puerto Rico; German, in southern Brazil, southern Chile, Argentina, and German-speaking villages in northern Venezuela; Italian, in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and, to a lesser extent, Venezuela; and Welsh, in southern Argentina. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely-spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with some Amerindian and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues. Native American languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay, and to a lesser degree, in Mexico, Ecuador and Chile. In absolute numbers, Mexico contains the largest population of indigenous-language speakers of any country in the Americas, surpassing those of the Amerindian-majority countries of Guatemala, Bolivia and the Amerindian-plurality country of Peru. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages is tiny or non-existent. West Indies redirects here. ... A creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ...


In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely-related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guarani is, along with Spanish, an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages", along with Spanish. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Quechua (also Runasimi language of people) is a Native American language of South America. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... The city of Corrientes and the Paraná River, photographed from the International Space Station. ... Miskito is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northern Nicaragua, especially in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras. ... Sumo (also known as Sumu) is a Misumalpan language spoken in Nicaragua and Honduras. ... Rama is one of the indigenous languages of the Chibchan family spoken by the Rama people on the island of Rama Cay and south of lake Bluefields on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ...


Religion

The vast majority of Latin Americans are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics. However, membership in the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America is declining while membership in Protestant churches is increasing. Brazil has an active quasi-socialist Roman Catholic movement known as Liberation Theology. Practitioners of the Buddhist, Jewish, Islamic, Hindu, Bahá'í, and indigenous denominations and religions exist. Various Afro-Latin American traditions such as Santería and Macumba, tribal-voodoo religions, are also practiced. This article is about the Brazilian city. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Language(s) Portuguese, Spanish, and several creoles Religion(s) Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups sub-Saharan An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial sub-Saharan African ancestry; the term may also... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Macumba is a word of African (Bantu) origins. ...


Emigration

Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades, the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration. According to the 2005 Colombian census or DANE, about 3,331,107 Colombians currently live abroad.[10] Some 60,000 to 80,000 Argentineans a year have been emigrating, but emigration slowed in 2002 after the bank accounts of many people were frozen, so that they had no money for overseas travel.[10] The number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2 million people.[11] Remittances to Mexico rose from $6.6 billion to $24 billion between 2000 and 2006, but stabilized in 2007. Much of the reported increase between 2000 and 2006 may reflect better accounting, but the slowdown in 2007 may reflect tougher U.S. border and interior enforcement.[10] A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...


Economy

Economic performance

CBD of São Paulo, Brazil.
Skyline of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Skyline of Mexico City, Mexico.
Skyline of the 7th avenue of Bogotá, Colombia.
Skyline of Lima, Peru.
Skyline of Santiago, Chile.

According to ECLAC,[12] an economic growth rate of 5.3% is estimated for 2006, equivalent to a per capita increase of 3.8%. This marks the fourth consecutive year of economic growth, and the third consecutive year of rates exceeding 4%, after an average annual growth rate of only 2.2% between 1980 and 2002. A breakdown of the annual rates of GDP growth (in U.S. dollars at constant 2000 prices) is transcribed as follows: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 543 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 543 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Vitacura_at_night. ... Image File history File links Vitacura_at_night. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

Country 2004 2005 2006 2007a 2008 a
 Argentina 9 9.2 8.5a 7.5 5.5
 Bolivia 4.2 4 4.6 3.9 5.4
 Brazil 5.7 3.2 3.8 5.4 4.5
 Chile 6 5.7 4 5.9 5
 Colombia 4.9 4.7 6.8 6.6 7.5
 Costa Rica 4.3 5.9 8.2 6 5
 Cubab 5.4 11.8 12.5 N/A N/A
 Dominican Republic 2 9.3 10.7 8 4.5
 Ecuador 8 6 3.9 2.7 3.4
 El Salvador 1.9 3.1 4.2 4.2 3.8
 Guatemala 3.2 3.5 4.9 4.8 4.3
 Haiti -2.6 0.4 2.2 3.2 4.3
 Honduras 5 4.1 6 5.4 3.4
 Mexico 4.2 2.8 4.8 2.9 3
 Nicaragua 5.3 4.3 3.7 4.2 4.7
 Panama 7.5 6.9 8.1 8.5 8.8
 Paraguay 4.1 2.9 4.3 5 4
 Peru 5.1 6.7 7.6 8.9 9.5
 Uruguay 11.8 6.6 7 5.2 3.8
 Venezuela 18.3 10.3 10.3 8 6
Latin America 6 4.5 5.3 4.7 N/A

Notes: a. Estimates b. Figures provided by the National Statistics Office of Cuba, under evaluation by ECLAC
Sources: 1. All countries, except Cuba: IMF [2] 2. Cuba and Latin America: ECLAC [3]PDF (230 KiB) Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


Inequality and poverty

Inequality and poverty continue to be the region's main challenges; according to the ECLAC Latin America is the most unequal region in the world.[13] Moreover, according to the World Bank, nearly 25% of the population lives on less than 2 USD a day. The countries with the highest inequality in the region (as measured with the Gini index in the UN Development Report[14]) in 2006 were Bolivia (60.1), Haiti (59.2), Colombia (58.6), Brazil (58), Paraguay (57.8) and Chile (57.1), while the countries with the lowest inequality in the region were Nicaragua (43.1), Ecuador (43.7), Venezuela (44.1) and Uruguay (44.9). One aspect of inequality and poverty in Latin America is unequal access to basic infrastructure. For example, access to water and sanitation in Latin America and the quality of these services remain low. The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variabilità e mutabilità. It is usually used to measure income inequality, but can be used to measure any form of uneven distribution. ... Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health. ...


Crime and Violence

See also: Crime and Violence in Latin America

Crime and violence prevention and public security have become key social issues of concern to public policy makers and citizens in the Latin American and Caribbean region. In Latin America, violence is now among the five main causes of death and is the principal cause of death in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, El Salvador and Mexico. Homicide rates in Latin America are among the highest of any region in the world. From the early 1980s through the mid-1990s, intentional homicide rates in Latin America increased by 50 percent. The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old.[15] Many analysts agree that the prison crisis will not be resolved until the gap between rich and poor is addressed. They say that growing social inequality is fuelling crime in the region. But there is also no doubt that, on such an approach, Latin American countries have still a long way to go.[16] Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ...


Trade blocs

The major trade blocs or agreements in the region are Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations (CAN). Minor blocs or trade agreements are the G3 and the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally admitted into the Mercosur (pending ratification from the Brazilian and Paraguayan legislatures). The president-elect of Ecuador has manifested his intentions of following the same path. This bloc nominally opposes any Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States, although Uruguay has manifested its intention otherwise. On the other hand, Mexico is a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement, Chile has signed an FTA with the United States, and Colombia's and Peru's legislatures have approved an FTA with the United States and are awaiting its ratification by the US Senate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 176 KB) Photo of Panama Canal Gatun Locks, taken 2 January 2000 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Panama Canal User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Places ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 176 KB) Photo of Panama Canal Gatun Locks, taken 2 January 2000 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Panama Canal User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Places ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción...  â€¢  â€¢ Seat of Secretariat Lima, Peru Official language Spanish Type Trade bloc Membership 10 South American states 2 Central/North American observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Freddy Ehlers Establishment  -  as the Andean Pact 1969   -  as the CAN 1996  Website http://www. ... G3 countries. ... The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a free trade agreement between the United States and the Central American countries of Guatemala, Honduras, and Canada, and Mexico. ... NAFTA redirects here. ...


Standard of living, consumption and the environment

The following table lists (in alphabetical order) all the countries in Latin America indicating Gross Domestic Product (GDP), per capita income in nominal terms and adjusted to purchasing power parity (PPP), Gross Domestic Product in PPP, a measurement of inequality through the Gini index (the higher the index the more unequal the income distribution is), the Human Development Index (HDI), the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), and the Quality-of-life index. GDP and PPP GDP statistics come from the International Monetary Fund with data as of 2006. Gini index, the Human Poverty Index HDI-1, the Human Development Index, and the number of internet users per capita come from the UN Development Program. The number of motor vehicles per capita come from the UNData base on-line. The EPI index comes from the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy and the Quality-of-life index from The Economist Intelligence Unit. Green cells indicate the 1st rank in each category, while yellow indicate the last rank. GDP redirects here. ... GDP redirects here. ... The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variabilità e mutabilità. It is usually used to measure income inequality, but can be used to measure any form of uneven distribution. ... Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically scaling the environmental performance of a set of companies or countries. ... The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the objective determinants of quality of life across countries. ... IMF redirects here. ... The Human Poverty Index is an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN). ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... The Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy is a joint initiative between the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and the Yale Law School. ... The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the objective determinants of quality of life across countries. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...

Country GDP[17]
(2006)
GDP per
capita[17]
(2006)
GDP
(PPP) [17]
(2006)
GDP per
capita
(PPP)[17]
(2006)
Income
equality[14]
(2001-04)
Poverty
Index[18]
(2005)
Human
Develop.[19]
(2005)
Envirnm.
Perfrm.[20]
(2008)
Quality
of life[21]
(2005)
Motor
veh.[22]
(2007)
Higher
annual
economic
growth[23]
(2007)
Emissions
per
capita[24]
(2004)
Current
billion USD
Current
USD
billion USD USD Gini index HPI-1 % HDI EPI index per 1,000
people
%
ton CO2
 Argentina 212.595 5,455 626.665 16,080 51.3 4.1 0.869 (H) 81.8 6.469 173 7.5 3.7
 Bolivia 11.221 1,166 28.221 2,931 60.1 13.6 0.695 (M) 64.7 5.492 52 3.9 0.8
 Brazil 1,067.706 5,717 1,881.277 10,073 57.0 9.7 0.800 (H) 82.7 6.470 118 5.4 1.8
 Chile 145.845 8,903 209.852 12,811 54.9 3.7 0.867 (H) 83.4 6.789 140 5.9 3.9
 Colombia 135.883 2,905 386.353 8,260 58.6 7.9 0.791 (M) 88.3 6.176 55 7.5 1.2
 Costa Rica 21.466 4,877 52.215 11,862 49.8 4.4 0.846 (H) 90.5 6.624 193 6 1.5
 Cuba[25] 40.000 3,500 46.220 4,100 N/A 4.7 0.838 (H) 80.7 N/A 2 N/A 2.3
 Dominican Republic 31.600 3,653 81.119 9,377 51.6 10.5 0.779 (M) 83.0 5.630 111 8 2.2
 Ecuador 41.402 3,058 65.465 4,835 53.6 8.7 0.772 (M) 84.4 6.272 55 2.7 2.2
 El Salvador 18.654 2,664 39.210 5,600 52.4 15.1 0.735 (M) 77.2 6.164 64 4.2 0.9
 Guatemala 30.299 2,334 56.282 4,335 55.1 22.5 0.689 (M) 76.7 5.321 108 4.8 1.0
 Haiti 4.473 528 15.602 1,840 59.2 35.4 0.529 (M) 60.7 4.090 20 3.2 0.2
 Honduras 9.072 1,225 25.613 3,300 53.8 16.5 0.700 (M) 75.4 5.250 14 5.4 1.1
 Mexico 840.012 8,066 1,183.956 11,369 46.1 6.8 0.829 (H) 79.8 6.766 191 2.9 4.2
 Nicaragua 5.301 897 22.974 3,100 43.1 17.9 0.710 (M) 73.4 5.663 38 4.2 0.7
 Panama 17.103 5,208 28.222 8,593 56.1 8.0 0.812 (H) 83.1 6.361 102 8.5 1.8
 Paraguay 9.527 1,611 31.579 5,339 58.4 8.8 0.755 (M) 77.7 5.756 69 5 0.7
 Peru 107.000 3,366 207,985 7,856 52.0 11.6 0.773 (M) 78.1 6.216 54 8.9 1.1
 Uruguay 19.127 5,977 38.302 11,969 44.9 3.5 0.852 (H) 82.3 6.368 154 5.2 1.6
 Venezuela 181.608 6,736 201.674 7,480 48.2 8.8 0.792 (M) 80.0 6.089 120 8 6.6

Notes: (H) High human development; (M) Medium human development The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variabilità e mutabilità. It is usually used to measure income inequality, but can be used to measure any form of uneven distribution. ... The Human Poverty Index is an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN). ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically scaling the environmental performance of a set of companies or countries. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...


Culture

A type of traditional Mexican dance and costume.

The rich mosaic of Latin American cultural expressions is the product of many diverse influences: Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the peoples of Latin America, and includes both high culture (literature, high art) and popular culture (music, folk art and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mexican may have several meanings. ...

  • Native cultures of the peoples that inhabited the continents prior to the arrival of the Europeans.
  • European cultures, brought mainly by the Spanish, the Portuguese and the French. This can be seen in any expression of the region's rich artistic traditions, including painting, literature and music, and in the realms of science and politics. The most enduring European colonial influence was language. Italian and British influence has been important as well.
  • African cultures, whose presence derives from a long history of New World slavery. Peoples of African descent have influenced the ethno-scapes of Latin America and the Caribbean. This is manifest for instance in dance and religion, especially in countries such as Brazil, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Haiti, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic and Cuba.

Look up native in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Slave redirects here. ...

Literature

See also: List of Latin American writers

Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala. Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. ... . ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... The Popol Vuh (Quiché for Council Book or Book of the Community; Popol Wuj in modern spelling) is the book of scripture of the Quiché, a kingdom of the post classic Maya civilization in highland Guatemala. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Kiche (or Quiché in Spanish spelling), are a Native American people, part of the Maya ethnic group. ...


From the very moment of Europe's "discovery" of the continent, early explorers and conquistadores produced written accounts and crónicas of their experience--such as Columbus's letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento (1816). Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under Spanish rule between the 15th and 17th centuries. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ... Sor Juana (12 November 1651 (or 1648, according to some biographers) – 17 April 1695), also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz or, in full, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez, was a self taught Mexican scholar, nun, and writer of the... Criollo, in the Spanish colonial Casta system (caste system) of Latin America, was a person born in the Spanish colonies deemed to have purity of blood in respect to the individuals European ancestry. ... El Periquillo Sarniento (The Mangy Parrot) by Mexican author José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, is generally considered the first novel written and published in Latin America. ...


The 19th Century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic Doris Sommer's words), novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and which often focussed on the indigenous question or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism" (for which see, say, Domingo Sarmiento's Facundo (1845), Juan León Mera's Cumandá (1879), or Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões (1902)). Romantics redirects here. ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albarracín (February 15, 1811 – September 11, 1888) was an Argentine statesman, educator, and author. ... Facundo (subtitiled civilization and Barbarism) A book written by Argentinian Domingo Sarmiento in 1845, it was written partly in protest to the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas who ruled Argentina from 1835-1852. ... Juan León Mera Juan León Mera Martínez (June 28, 1832, Ambato—December 13, 1894) was an Ecuadorian poet, novelist, journalist, critic, politician and satirist. ... Caricature of Euclides da Cunha by Raul Pederneiras. ... Os Sertões is a book written by the Brazilian writer Euclides da Cunha. ...


At the turn of the 20th century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío's Azul (1888). This was the first Latin American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue. José Martí, for instance, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico and the USA and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. Modernismo is Spanish for modernism, however the term Modernismo indicates a more specific art movement: Modernismo, also known by its Catalan name Modernisme, as term in architecture generally refers to the pre-Art Nouveau style existing; e. ... A framed picture of Rubén Darío hanging in the National Theater. ... Look up azul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other persons named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation). ...


However, what really put Latin American literature on the global map was no doubt the literary boom of the 1960s and 1970s, distinguished by daring and experimental novels (such as Julio Cortázar's Rayuela (1963)) that were frequently published in Spain and quickly translated into English. The Boom's defining novel was Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad (1967), which led to the association of Latin American literature with magic realism, though other important writers of the period such as Mario Vargas Llosa and Carlos Fuentes do not fit so easily within this framework. Arguably, the Boom's culmination was Augusto Roa Bastos's monumental Yo, el supremo (1974). In the wake of the Boom, influential precursors such as Juan Rulfo, Alejo Carpentier, and above all Jorge Luis Borges were also rediscovered. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Julio Cortázar (August 26, 1914 – February 12, 1984) was a Belgian-born Argentine intellectual and author of experimental novels and short stories. ... For other uses, see Hopscotch (disambiguation). ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927[1] in Aracataca, Colombia) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... One Hundred Years of Solitude (Spanish: Cien años de soledad) is a novel by Nobel Prize winning Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez that was first published in Spanish in 1967 (Buenos Aires: Sudamericana), with an English translation by Gregory Rabassa released in 1970 (New York: Harper and... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. ... Mario Vargas Llosa in his youth. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... Augusto Roa Bastos, (June 13, 1917 – April 26, 2005), was a Paraguayan novelist, widely acclaimed as one of the greatest that nation has produced. ... Juan Rulfo (16 May 1917 [not 1918 as he often told people after 1936, see note below] – 7 January 1986) was a Mexican novelist, short story writer, and photographer. ... Alejo Carpentier y Valmont (December 26, 1904 – April 24, 1980) was a Cuban novelist, essay writer, and musicologist who greatly influenced Latin American literature during its famous boom period. ... Borges redirects here. ...


Contemporary literature in the region is vibrant and varied, ranging from the best-selling Paulo Coelho and Isabel Allende to the more avant-garde and critically acclaimed work of writers such as Diamela Eltit, Ricardo Piglia, or Roberto Bolaño. There has also been considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in collaboration with subaltern subjects such as Rigoberta Menchú. Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented by the more journalistic Carlos Monsiváis and Pedro Lemebel. Paulo Coelho (IPA: ) (born August 24, 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist. ... For the Chilean politician and daughter of Salvador Allende, see Isabel Allende Bussi. ... Diamela Eltit (Santiago de Chile, 1949) is a writer and a Spanish teacher from Chile. ... Ricardo Piglia (born on November 24, 1941 in Adrogué) is an Argentine writer best known for his 1992 novel The Absent City. Heavely influenced by countryman Jorge Luis Borges, Piglias stories contain elements of the occult, while still heavily grounded in the reality of their metafictional narratives. ... Roberto Bolaño (April 28, 1953 — July 15, 2003) was a Chilean novelist and poet, winner of the prestigious Rómulo Gallegos Prize for his novel Los detectives salvajes (The Savage Detectives) in 1999. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... The term subaltern is used in postcolonial theory to refer to marginalized groups and the lower classes; this sense of the word was coined by Antonio Gramsci. ... Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b. ... Carlos Monsiváis (born May 4, 1938, in Mexico City) is a Mexican writer and journalist on the El Universal newspaper. ...


The region boasts five Nobel Prizewinners: in addition to the Colombian García Márquez (1982), also the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral (1945), the Guatemalan novelist Miguel Ángel Asturias (1967), the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1971), and the Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz (1990). Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Gabriela Mistral (April 7, 1889 – January 10, 1957) was the pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga, a Chilean poet, educator, diplomat and feminist who was the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1945. ... Miguel Ángel Asturias (October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Guatemalan writer and diplomat. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ...


Art

Main article: Latin American art
See also: List of Latin American artists
Guggenheim Guadalajara, is scheduled to be completed in 2011 Guadalajara Mexico.

Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed the trends of the Italian Masters. In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early twentieth century, as Latin-Americans began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and started to follow their own path. The following is a list of famous Latin American Painters: // Xul Solar Antonio Berni (1905 – 1981) Lucio Fontana (1899 – 1968) Florencio Molina Campos (1891 – 1959) Benito Quinquela Martín (1890 – 1977) Xul Solar (1887 – 1963) Raúl Soldi (1905 – 1994) Anita Malfatti Alfredo Volpi (born Italian) Ismael Nery Lasar Segall... A list of Latin American artists (painters, sculptors, photographers, video artists, etc. ... Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ...


From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement. The Constructivist Movement was founded in Russia around 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin. The Movement quickly spread from Russia to Europe and then into Latin America. Joaquin Torres Garcia and Manuel Rendón have been credited with bringing the Constructivist Movement into Latin America from Europe. Vladimir Yevgrafovich Tatlin (Владимир Евграфович Татлин) (December 28, 1885 (OS: December 16) – May 31, 1953) worked as a painter and architect. ... Joaquín Torres García (b. ... Rendóns , oil on canvas, 1955. ...

Palace of Fine Arts, built in the early 20th century in Mexico City.

An important artistic movement generated in Latin America is Muralismo represented by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo in Mexico and Santiago Martinez Delgado and Pedro Nel Gómez in Colombia. Some of the most impressive Muralista works can be found in Mexico, Colombia, New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 979 KB)Author: Daniel Manrique (Roadmaster). ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 979 KB)Author: Daniel Manrique (Roadmaster). ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is the premier opera house of Mexico City. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... David Alfaro Siquerios (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... José Clemente Orozco (born November 23, 1883, in Zapotlán el Grande (now Ciudad Guzmán), Jalisco; died September 7, 1949, in Mexico City) was a famous Mexican social realist painter, who specialized in bold murals, which co-established Mexican Mural Renaissance. ... Rufino Tamayo holding a guitar in a photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1945. ... Master Santiago Martinez Delgado. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the state. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


Mexican painter Frida Kahlo remains by far the most known and famous Latin American artist. She painted about her own life and the Mexican culture in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. Kahlo's work commands the highest selling price of all Latin American paintings. Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Max Ernst. ...


Music and dance

See also: Latin American music
See also: Latin dance

One of the main characteristics of Latin American music is its diversity, from the lively rhythms of Central America and the Caribbean to the more austere sounds of the Andes and the Southern Cone. Another feature of Latin American music is its original blending of the variety of styles that arrived in The Americas and became influential, from the early Spanish and European Baroque to the different beats of the African rhythms. Latin America thrives on its culture. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties, from the simple, rural conjunto music of northern Mexico to the sophisticated habanera of Cuba, from the symphonies of Heitor Villa-Lobos to the simple and moving Andean... The term Latin dance has two meanings, depending on whether the context is social or ballroom dance. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1360, 1348 KB) Summary Inside the Sambodromo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1360, 1348 KB) Summary Inside the Sambodromo. ... Estação Primeira de Mangueira samba school parades in Rio de Janeiro The Brazilian Carnival (Portuguese: ) is an annual festival in Brazil held 40 days before Easter and marks the beginning of Lent. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ...


Hispano-Caribbean music, such as Merengue, Bachata, Salsa, and more recently Reggaeton, from such countries as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Panama has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies. Haiti's Compas is a genre of music that draws influence and is thus similar to its Hispano-Caribbean counterparts with an element of jazz and modern sound as well.[26][27] Merengue is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic. ... Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of Dominican Republic. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American (or Latino) youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... Kompa (sometimes written Compas Direct, konpa direk, konpa or compa) is a musical genre as well as a dance that originates from Haïti. ...


Other Latin American musical genres include the Argentine, and Uruguayan tango, the Antillean Soca, and Calypso, the Central American (Garifuna) Punta, the Colombian cumbia and vallenato, the Chilean Cueca, the Ecuadorian Boleros, and Rockoleras, the Mexican ranchera, the Nicaraguan Palo de Mayo, the Peruvian Marinera and Tondero, the Uruguayan Candombe, the French Antillean Zouk, and the various styles of music from Pre-Columbian traditions that are widespread in the Andean region. In Brazil, samba, North American jazz, European classical music, and choro combined to form bossa nova. Tango is a style of music that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. ... See: Soca River (pronounced Socha River), ( Slovenian original reka Soča). ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... Punta is a type of music found primarily in Honduras, Guatemala, Belize and Nicaragua. ... Monument to the dance and music of cumbia in El Banco. ... Vallenato, along with cumbia, is the most popular folk music of Colombia. ... People dancing cueca in 1906 The cueca has been declared the official national dance of Chile since September 18, 1979. ... The ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico. ... Palo de Mayo (English: Maypole; or ¡Mayo Ya!) is a type of Afro-caribbean dance with sensual movements that forms part of the culture of several communities in the RAAS region in Nicaragua, as well as a genre of music. ... Marinera, the most representative dance in Peru. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Candombe is a drum-based musical form of Uruguay. ... Zouk is a style of rhythmic music originating from Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ... For other uses, see Samba (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Choro, also called chorinho, is a Brazilian popular music style. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ...

A couple dances Argentine Tango

The classical composer Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) worked on the recording of native musical traditions within his homeland of Brazil. The traditions of his homeland heavily influenced his classical works.[28] Also notable is the recent work of the Cuban Leo Brouwer and guitar work of the Venezuelan Antonio Lauro and the Paraguayan Agustín Barrios. Latin America has also produced world-class classical performers such as the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau, Brazilian pianist Nelson Freire and the Argentinian pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (430x640, 89 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tango (dance) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (430x640, 89 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tango (dance) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... A couple dances Argentine Tango. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Leo Brouwer (born March 1, 1939) is a Cuban composer, guitarist and conductor. ... Antonio Lauro Antonio Lauro (born August 3, 1917 in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, died April 18, 1986 in Caracas) was a Venezuelan composer, considered to be one of the foremost South American composers of the 20th century. ... Augstin Barrios Agustín Pío Barrios (also known as Agustín Barrios Mangoré) (born May 5, 1885 in San Juan Bautista de las Missiones, Paraguay; died August 7, 1944) was a Paraguayan guitarist and composer. ... Claudio Arrau León (February 6, 1903 – June 9, 1991) was a Chilean pianist of world fame for his deep interpretations of a huge, vast repertoire spanning from the baroque to 20th-century composers. ... Nelson Freire (born 1944) is a Brazilian classical pianist. ...


Arguably, the main contribution to music entered through folklore, where the true soul of the Latin American and Caribbean countries is expressed. Musicians such as Yma Súmac, Chabuca Granda, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Violeta Parra, Victor Jara, Mercedes Sosa, Jorge Negrete, Luiz Gonzaga, Caetano Veloso as well as musical ensembles such as Inti Illimani, Quilapayún and Illapu, are magnificent examples of the heights that this soul can reach. Yma Sumac on the cover of her collection The Ultimate Yma Sumac Collection Yma Súmac (born in Ichocán, Cajamarca, Perú September 10, 1922), also earlier spelled Ymma Sumak (from Ima Shumaq, Quechua for how beautiful!)[1] or Imma Sumack, is a noted dramatic coloratura soprano of Peruvian origin. ... María Isabel Granda Larco (Cotabamba, Apurímac, 1920 - Miami 1983) , better known as Chabuca Granda, was a beloved Peruvian singer and composer. ... Atahualpa Yupanqui performing for Radio Nacional, Buenos Aires. ... Violeta del Carmen Parra Sandoval (October 14, 1917 – February 5, 1967) was a notable Chilean folklorist and visual artist. ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ... Mercedes Sosa (born 9 July 1935) is an Argentine singer immensely popular throughout Latin America. ... Jorge Alberto Negrete Moreno (November 30, 1911 - December 5, 1953) was a Mexican singer and movie star. ... Luiz Gonzaga was born in the countryside of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil) and was personally responsible for the promotion of northeastern music on the rest of the country. ... Caetano Emanuel Viana Teles Veloso (born 7 August 1942), known as Caetano Veloso, is a Grammy Award-winning Brazilian composer and singer. ... Inti-Illimani is a musical group from Chile, formed in 1967. ... Quilapayún Quilapayún are an instrumental and vocal folk musical group from Chile and the most lasting and influential exponents of the Nueva canción (New Song) movement. ... Illapu (prounounced eeyapu), are a Chilean folk and andean musical ensemble that was formed in 1971, in Antofagasta, in northern Chile, by the brothers José Miguel, Jaime, Andrés and Roberto Márquez Bugueno. ...


Latin pop, including many forms of rock, is popular in Latin America today (see Spanish language rock and roll).[29] Ritchie Valens album cover Latin Pop (Pop Latino, in Spanish) is pop music from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Hispanic American artists who sing in languages spoken in Latin America, mainly Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Spanish language rock and roll (Spanish: Rock en español) borrows heavily from rock and roll music and from traditional and popular music of Spanish-speaking cultures (bachata, cumbia, merengue, ranchera, rumba, salsa, tango, etc) and has evolved from a cult-like music movement to a more well established music...


More recently, Reggaeton, which blends Jamaican reggae and dancehall with Latin America genres such as bomba and plena, as well as that of hip hop, is becoming more popular, in spite of the controversy surrounding its lyrics, dance steps (Perreo) and music videos. It has become very popular among populations with a "migrant culture" influence - both Latino populations in the U.S., such as southern Florida and New York City, and parts of Latin America where migration to the U.S. is common, such as Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico.[30] Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American (or Latino) youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... For other uses, see Bomba (disambiguation). ... Plena is a folkloric genre native of Puerto Rico. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Perreo is the name of a dance originating in Puerto Rico and which is commonly danced to reggaeton music. ...


Film

Main article: Latin American cinema

Latin American film is both rich and diverse. Historically, the main centers of production have been México, Brazil, Cuba, and Argentina. Latin American cinema refers collectively to the film output and film industries of Latin America. ...


Latin American cinema flourished after the introduction of sound, which added a linguistic barrier to the export of Hollywood film south of the border. The 1950s and 1960s saw a movement towards Third Cinema, led by the Argentine filmmakers Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino. More recently, a new style of directing and stories filmed has been tagged as "New Latin American Cinema." The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Third Cinema is a cinema which decries neocolonialism, the capitalist system, and the Hollywood model of cinema as mere entertainment to make money. ... Fernando Ezequiel Pino Solanas (b. ... Octavio Getino (born in August 6, 1935 in León, Spain[1]) is an Argentinean film director who is best known for co-founding, along with Fernando Solanas, the school of Third Cinema. ...


Argentine cinema was a big industry in the first half of the 20th century. The industry re-emerged after the 1976-1983 military dictatorship to produce the Academy Award winner The Official Story in 1985. The Argentine economic crisis affected the production of films in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but many Argentine movies produced during those years were internationally acclaimed, including Nueve reinas (2000) and El abrazo partido (2004). The Cinema of Argentina has a long tradition, and plays an important role in the culture of Argentina. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dirty War. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Official Story (Spanish: La Historia Oficial) is a 1985 Argentinean film directed by Luis Puenzo and written by Puenzo and Aída Bortnik. ... The Argentine economic crisis was part of the situation that affected Argentinas economy during the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Nueve reinas (international, English title: Nine Queens), is a 2000 Argentine film directed by Fabián Bielinsky and starring Gastón Pauls, Ricardo Darín, Leticia Brédice and Tomás Fonzi. ... El Abrazo Partido (2004) is an Argentine movie depicting episodes in the life of a Jewish family in the Once neighborhood of Buenos Aires and the other shopkeepers in a low-rent commercial galería (gallery). ...


In Brazil, the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical landscape, and a political message. The modern Brazilian film industry has become more profitable inside the country, and some of its productions have received prizes and recognition in Europe and the United States, with movies such as Central do Brasil (1999), Cidade de Deus (2003) and Tropa de Elite (2007). The cinema of Brazil started in 1930. ... Cinema Novo was a movement among Brazilian film makers in the second half of the 20th century, summarized by the phrase Uma câmera na mão e uma idéia na cabeça (which roughly translates to A camera in the hand and an idea in the head). The... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Central do Brasil (released as Central Station on the English speaking market) is a Brazilian film from 1998. ... City of God (Portuguese: Cidade de Deus) is an Academy Award-nominated 2002 Brazilian film, released in its home country in 2002 and worldwide in 2003. ... Tropa de Elite (English working title: Elite Squad) is a Brazilian film released on October 5, 2007. ...


Cuban cinema has enjoyed much official support since the Cuban revolution, and important film-makers include Tomás Gutiérrez Alea. This page is meant to explore the themes explored in the cinema of Cuba. ... Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (December 11, 1928 – April 16, 1996) was a Cuban filmmaker, possibly the most popular and influential to date. ...

Cantinflas in Ahí está el detalle.

Mexican cinema in the Golden Era of the 1940s boasted a huge industry comparable to Hollywood at the time. Stars included María Félix, Dolores del Rio and Pedro Infante. In the 1970s Mexico was the location for many cult horror and action movies. More recently, films such as Amores Perros (2000) and Y tu mamá también (2001) enjoyed box office and critical acclaim and propelled Alfonso Cuarón and Alejandro González Iñarritu to the front rank of Hollywood directors. Alejandro González Iñárritu directed in (2006) Babel and Alfonso Cuarón directed (Children of Men in (2006), and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in (2004)). Guillermo del Toro close friend and also a front rank Hollywood director in Hollywood and Spain, directed Pan's Labyrinth (2006) and produce El Orfanato (2007). Carlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), and screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga are also some of the most known present-day Mexican film makers. Image File history File links Ahi_esta_el_detalle_screenshot. ... Image File history File links Ahi_esta_el_detalle_screenshot. ... Fortino Mario Alfonso Moreno Reyes (August 12, 1911 – April 20, 1993) was a comedian of the Mexican theatre and film industry. ... Ahí está el detalle (Theres the rub, or literally Theres the detail, release internationally as Here Is the Point and Youre Missing the Point in the United States) is a film of the Golden Era of the cinema of Mexico. ... The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the beginning of the 20th century, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have been only recently been rediscovered. ... The Golden age of the cinema of Mexico (in Spanish: Época de oro del cine mexicano) is the name given to the period between 1935 and 1959 where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak. ... ... María Félix was a Mexican actress, one of the leading figures of the golden era of the Cinema of Mexico. ... Dolores Del Rio Dolores del Río (August 3, 1905 - April 11, 1983) was a Mexican film actress. ... Pedro Infante (left) and Jorge Negrete José Pedro Infante Cruz (November 18, 1917 - April 18, 1957), better known as Pedro Infante, is perhaps the most famous actor and singer of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema and idol of the Mexican people, together with Jorge Negrete or Javier Solís. ... Amores perros is a Mexican film directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu in 2000. ... Y tu mamá también (literally And your mother, too, released in English-speaking markets under the original Spanish title) is a 2001 Mexican film directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... Alfonso Cuarón Orozco (born November 28, 1961 in Mexico City) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director, screenwriter and producer. ... Alejandro González Iñárritu (IPA: ; born 15 August 1963 in Mexico City) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ... Babel (Hebrew: ; Bavel) (Arabic|بابل: Babel) is the name used in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran for the city of Babylon (Akkadian Babilu), notable in Genesis as the location of the Tower of Babel. ... Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian science fiction film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a 2004 fantasy adventure film, based on the novel of the same name by J. K. Rowling. ... Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ... Pans Labyrinth (Spanish: , literally The Labyrinth of the Faun) is an Academy Award-winning Spanish language fantasy film[2][3] written and directed by Mexican film-maker Guillermo del Toro. ... The Orphanage (Spanish title: El Orfanato) is a 2007 Spanish horror/suspense/drama film. ... Guillermo Arriaga Jordán (b. ...


It is also worth noting that many Latin Americans have achieved significant success within Hollywood, for instance Carmen Miranda and Salma Hayek, while Mexican Americans such as Robert Rodriguez have also made their mark. Carmen Miranda, pron. ... Salma Hayek Jiménez (born September 2, 1966) is an Academy Award-, Golden Globe- and Emmy-nominated Mexican/American actress, Daytime Emmy-winning director, and an Emmy-nominated TV and film producer. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the American composer born 1946, see Robert Xavier Rodriguez. ...


See also

Latin America Portal
Trinidad, Cuba
Plantation of Colombian coffee

Image File history File links Portal. ... Roasted coffee beans Colombian Coffee is a Protected designation of origin granted by the European Union (September 2007) that applies to the coffee produced in Colombia[1] The colombian coffee has been recognized worldwide as having high quality and distinctive taste. ... Anglo America Anglo-America: dark green indicates countries traditionally included in the region (Canada and the United States), while light green indicates regions where English is prevalent, or where people have English historical roots, and blue indicates the Canadian province of Quebec where French predominates. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ... Hispanic America (Hispanoamérica in Spanish) refers to those parts of the Americas inhabited by Spanish-speaking peoples. ... Ibero-America is a term used to refer collectively to the countries in the Americas which were formerly colonies of Spain or Portugal. ... The United States has always had a special conception of its relationship with the nations of Latin America. ... The Americas, also known as America, are the lands of the western hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture. ... Use of the word American in the English language differs between historical, geographical and political contexts. ... The word America has several meanings: Geographical and political The Americas: North, Central, and South America. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ... The Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (Spanish: Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas or ALBA - which also means dawn in Spanish) is a political, social and economic cooperation and complementation vision of integration between the Latin American countries, proposed by the government of Venezuela as an alternative to the Free... West Indies redirects here. ... The Association of Caribbean States (ACS) (Also called the Asociacion de Estados del Caribe or Association des Etats de la Caraibe) was formed with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation, and concerted action among all the countries of the Caribbean, comprising of 25 member states and 3 associate members. ... Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... Map of the Eastern Caribbean showing OECS member states (dark green) and associate member states (light green) Secretariat Castries, St. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Central American Common Market (abbreviated CACM - in Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano, abbreviated MCCA) is an economic trade organization between five nations of Central America. ... North American redirects here. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... States of CAN The Andean Community of Nations (in Spanish: Comunidad Andina de Naciones, abbreviated CAN) is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Headquarters Paris, France Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Latin Africa, historically those countries in North Africa, from Morocco to Egypt, which were part of the Roman Empire, also called the Maghreb. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Latino Canadian is a person of Latin American descent residing in Canada. ... Language(s) Portuguese, Spanish, and several creoles Religion(s) Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups sub-Saharan An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial sub-Saharan African ancestry; the term may also... An Asian Latin American is a Latin American of Asian descent. ... This article deals with the white population of Latin America. ... Latin American people started arriving in the United Kingdom mainly in the 1970s at a time of much political turmoil and civil unrest in their countries. ... This is a list of notable Latin American people. ... A list of Latin American artists (painters, sculptors, photographers, video artists, etc. ... . ... Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the peoples of Latin America, and includes both high culture (literature, high art) and popular culture (music, folk art and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices. ... Latin American Studies (sometimes abbreviated LAS) is an academic discipline which studies the history and experience of peoples and cultures in the Americas. ... Irish settlement in Argentina is part of the story of immigration in Argentina and the Irish diaspora. ...

Notes and references

  • Julio Miranda Vidal: (2007) Ciencia y tecnología en América Latina Edición electrónica gratuita. Texto completo en http://www.eumed.net/libros/2007a/237/
  1. ^ Latin America
  2. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named alternate_etymology
  3. ^ Latin American. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  4. ^ a b c CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Ethnic groups. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  5. ^ MOFA: Japan-Brazil Relations
  6. ^ South America :: Postindependence overseas immigrants. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  7. ^ As políticas públicas de imigração européia não-portuguesa para o Brasil – de Pombal à República
  8. ^ Mapa 1
  9. ^ French Guiana & Guadeloupe & Martinique, CIA's The World Factbook. Accessed on March 23, 2008.
  10. ^ a b c http://www.pstalker.com/migration/index.htm
  11. ^ Brasileiros no Exterior — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
  12. ^ Latin American and Caribbean Economic Growth Will Exceed 5% in 2006
  13. ^ La región sigue siendo la más desigual del mundo, según Cepal América Economía
  14. ^ a b Human Development Report, UNDP
  15. ^ World Bank Group - 404 error
  16. ^ BBC NEWS | Americas | Latin America: Crisis behind bars
  17. ^ a b c d IMF [1]
  18. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008. Table 3: Human poverty index: developing countries. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. page 238-240
  19. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008. Table 1: Human Development Index. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. page 229-232
  20. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. Environmental Performance Index 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-13.
  21. ^ The Economist Pocket World in Figures 2008. Quality-of-life index The World in 2005. Retrieved on 2008-03-13.
  22. ^ United Nations. UNData. Country profiles (1999-2005). Retrieved on 2008-03-23. Search for each individual country
  23. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008. Table 13: economic higher. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. page 273-276
  24. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008. Table 24: Carbon dioxide emissions and stocks. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. page 310-313
  25. ^ The IMF does not report statistics for Cuba. Data from the CIA World Factbook is used
  26. ^ Dr. Christopher Washburne. Clave: The African Roots of Salsa. University of Salsa. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  27. ^ Guide to Latin Music. Caravan Music. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  28. ^ Heitor Villa-Lobos. Leadership Medica. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  29. ^ The Baltimore Sun. "Latin music returns to America with wave of new pop starlets", The Michigan Daily. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. 
  30. ^ "Daddy Yankee leads the reggaeton charge", Associated Press. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Latin America
General information
  • The Washington Post Interactive Map of Politics in Latin America
  • Andean Community official webpage
  • Council on Hemispheric Affairs
  • Latin American Network Information Center
  • Latin America Working Group
  • Washington Office on Latin America
  • Politics in Latin America
  • Infolatam. Information and analysis of Latin America
Blog
  • Travel in South America
News
  • The Council on Hemispheric Affairs An independent source of Latin American news and opinion
  • Business News Americas Daily news and research on Latin American business and industries.
  • BBC - South America Creates Single Market
  • Latin Business Chronicle Weekly news on Latin American business and technology.
Articles
  • "The failure of Latin America": an article by David Gallagher in the TLS, February 29, 2008
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  Results from FactBites:
 
About Acxiom - Latin America (614 words)
Acxiom has been increasingly active across all of Latin America for the past two years, servicing both US-based international firms marketing to Latin America and local and multi-national companies marketing within specific countries.
To support these efforts, Acxiom has invested in a Latin American Solution Center (located in Phoenix, Arizona), which is both the center of development for solutions tailored for the region and a center of expertise in dealing effectively with the uniqueness of Latin American data.
Acxiom can provide your company with a variety of business solutions designed to help you with your marketing efforts in Latin America.
BBC NEWS | Americas | Latin America looks to 2007 (0 words)
Latin America enters 2007 with renewed political leadership and generally booming economic prospects.
But if Latin American countries are likely to be too busy setting their own affairs to rights to form a coherent challenge to the United States and the perceived neo-liberal model it promotes in the region, Washington does have two major concerns.
Perhaps the new-found political stability and maturity of Latin America could lead it to play a decisive role in ensuring that whatever comes after Fidel Castro is the genuine expression of the Cuban people's political aspirations.
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