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Encyclopedia > Latin
Latin
Lingua Latīna 
Pronunciation: /laˈtiːna/
Spoken in: Vatican City
Language extinction: Late Latin developed into various Romance languages by the 9th century (Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, Catalan and Romanian, among others)
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Latino-Faliscan
   Latin 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of the Vatican City Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
(Roman Catholic Church)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
ISO 639-3: lat

Latin (lingua Latīna, pronounced [laˈtiːna]) is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It was also the de facto international language of science and scholarship in mid and western Europe until the 17th century. Through Roman conquest, Latin spread throughout the Mediterranean and a large part of Europe. It later evolved into such languages as French, Italian, Romanian, and the Iberian Romance languages. There are two varieties of Latin: Classical Latin, the literary dialect used in poetry and prose, and Vulgar Latin, the form of the language spoken by ordinary people, which later diverged into the various Romance languages. After the rise of the Catholic Church, Medieval Latin, the ecclesiastical language of the Catholic Church, became the lingua franca of educated classes in the West. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Look up Latin, latin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Latino-Faliscan languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language group. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Historical re-enactors as soldiers of the Roman Army on manoeuvres. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Around the 16th century, the popularity of Medieval Latin began to decline. Vulgar Latin, however, was preserved as a spoken language in much of Europe, and by the 9th century diverged into the various Romance languages. Classical Latin lives on in the form of Ecclesiastical Latin used for edicts and papal bulls issued by the Catholic Church. Much Latin vocabulary is used in science, academia, and law. Classical Latin, the literary language of the late Republic and early Empire, is still taught in many primary, grammar, and secondary schools, often combined with Greek in the study of Classics, though its role has diminished since the early 20th century. The Latin alphabet, together with its modern variants such as the English, Spanish and French alphabets, is the most widely used alphabet in the world. Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The modern English alphabet consists of 26 letters[1] derived from the Latin alphabet: The exact shape of printed letters varies depending on the typeface. ... The Spanish alphabet traditionally consists of the following 29 letters: A, B, C, Ch, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z This includes the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet plus the letter...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Latin
The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the earliest known Old Latin text.
The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the earliest known Old Latin text.

Latin is a member of the Italic languages. Its alphabet is based on the Old Italic alphabet, derived from the Greek alphabet. In the 9th or 8th century BC the Italic languages was brought to the Italian peninsula by migrating tribes, and the dialect spoken in Latium, around the River Tiber, where Roman civilization would develop, evolved in Latin. The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Duenos inscription, as recorded by Heinrich Dressel. ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This page contains special characters. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Tiber River in Rome. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Although surviving Roman literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, the actual spoken language of the Western Roman Empire among ordinary people was what is known as Vulgar Latin, which differed from Classical Latin in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The literature of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire written in the Latin language. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ...


Although Latin long remained the legal and governmental language of the Roman Empire, Greek was the secondary language of the well-educated elite, as much of the literature and philosophy studied by upper-class Romans was written in Greek. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which would become the Byzantine Empire after the final split of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires in 395, Greek eventually supplanted Latin as the legal and governmental language; and it had long been the lingua franca of Eastern citizens of all classes. Byzantine redirects here. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...


Orthography

Main article: Latin alphabet
A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets
A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets
The language of Rome has had a profound impact on later cultures, as demonstrated by this Latin Bible from 1407
The language of Rome has had a profound impact on later cultures, as demonstrated by this Latin Bible from 1407

To write Latin, the Romans used the Latin alphabet, derived from the Old Italic alphabet, which itself was derived from the Greek alphabet. The Latin alphabet survives today as the writing system for Romance, Celtic, Germanic (including English) and many other languages. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Vindolanda tablets are fragments of half-burnt wooden leaf-tablets with writing in ink containing messages to and from members of the garrison of Vindolanda Roman fort, their families, and their slaves. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1011, 310 KB) MARLENE JEANNINE Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1011, 310 KB) MARLENE JEANNINE Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This page contains special characters. ...


The ancient Romans did not use punctuation, macrons (although they did use apices to distinguish between long and short vowels), the letters j, u or w, lowercase letters (although they did have a cursive script), or interword spacing (though dots were occasionally placed between words that would otherwise be difficult to distinguish). So, a sentence originally written as: Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... A macron (from Gr. ... The apex[1] (plural apices) is a mark with the shape of an acute accent ( ´ ) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long by nature. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... Interword separation is the act and the effect of mutually separating the written representations of words. ...

LVGETEOVENERESCVPIDINESQVE

would be rendered in a modern edition as

Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque

or with macrons

Lūgēte, Ō Venerēs Cupīdinēsque

and translated as

Mourn, O Venuses and Cupids

The Roman cursive script is commonly found on the many wax tablets excavated at sites such as forts, an especially extensive set having been discovered at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall in Britain. A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets:[1] Hoc gracili currenteque / vix hodie patefactas / Romani tabulas ornarunt calamo (With this slender and running pen the Romans decorated writing tablets, which today scarcely have been brought to light. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Vindolanda tablets are fragments of half-burnt wooden leaf-tablets with writing in ink containing messages to and from members of the garrison of Vindolanda Roman fort, their families, and their slaves. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ...


Legacy

The expansion of the Roman Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and, eventually, Vulgar Latin began to diverge into various dialects. Vulgar Latin gradually evolved into a number of distinct Romance languages by the 9th century. These were for many centuries only oral languages, Latin still being used for writing. The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


For example, Latin was still the official language of Portugal until 1296 when it was replaced by Portuguese. Many of these "daughter" languages, including Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, and Romanian flourished, the differences between them growing greater and more formal over time. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...


Out of the Romance languages, Sardinian is the most conservative in terms of phonology,[1] though Italian is the most conservative descendant of Latin in terms of vocabulary[clarify][2]. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Some of the differences between Classical Latin and the Romance languages have been used in attempts to reconstruct Vulgar Latin. For example, the Romance languages have distinctive stress on certain syllables, whereas Latin had this feature in addition to distinctive length of vowels. In Italian and Sardo logudorese, there is distinctive length of consonants as well as stress; in Spanish and Portuguese, only distinctive stress; while in French length (for most speakers) and stress are no longer distinctive. Another major distinction between Romance and Latin is that all Romance languages, excluding Romanian, have lost grammatical case[3]. This article is about word stress in some languages, sometimes called accent. For accent meaning the pronunciation of a particular group of people, see Accent (linguistics). ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ...


There has also been a major Latin influence in English. Although English is Germanic in grammar, its vocabulary is mostly Italic. Sixty percent of the English vocabulary has its roots in Latin (although much of this is indirect, mostly via Anglo-Norman and French). In the medieval period, much of this borrowing occurred through ecclesiastical usage established by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the 6th century, or indirectly after the Norman Conquest, through the Anglo-Norman language. English has been called a Germanic language with a Romance vocabulary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek roots. These words were dubbed "inkhorn" or "inkpot" words, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, but some were so useful that they survived. Imbibe, extrapolate, dormant, and employer are all inkhorn terms created from Latin words. Many of the most common polysyllabic "English" words are simply adapted Latin forms, in a large number of cases adapted by way of Old French. An inkhorn is an inkwell made out of horn. ... An inkhorn is an inkwell made out of horn. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ...


Latin mottos are used as guidelines by many organizations.


Pronunciation

The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language. ...

Grammar

Main article: Latin grammar

Latin is a synthetic, fusional language: affixes (often suffixes, which usually encode more than one grammatical category) are attached to fixed stems to express gender, number, and case in adjectives, nouns, and pronouns—a process called declension. Affixes are attached to fixed stems of verbs, as well, to denote person, number, tense, voice, mood, and aspect—a process called conjugation. Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, and so has a very flexible word order. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... A fusional language (also called inflecting language) is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to squish together many morphemes in a way which can be difficult to segment. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ...


Nouns

Main article: Latin declension

There are six main Latin noun cases. These play a major part in determining a noun's syntactic role in the sentence, so word order is not as important in Latin as it is in some other languages, such as English. Because of noun cases, words can often be moved around in a sentence without significantly altering its meaning, though the emphasis will have been altered. The cases, with their most important uses, are these: Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ...

  1. Nominative: used when the noun is the subject of the sentence or phrase, or when functioning as a predicative of the subject. (i.e., Puer currit. The boy runs.)
  2. Vocative: used when the noun is used in a direct address. The vocative form of a noun is the same as the nominative except for second declension nouns ending in -us. The -us becomes an -e or if it ends in -ius (such as filius) then the ending is just -i (fili) (as opposed to the plural nominative (filii). (i.e., "Master!" shouted the slave. "Domine!" servus clamavit.)
  3. Accusative: used when the noun is the direct object of the sentence/phrase, with certain prepositions, or as the subject of an infinitive. (i.e., Ancilla vinum portat. The slave girl carries the wine.)
  4. Genitive: used when the noun is the possessor of an object (example: "the horse of the man", or "the man's horse" - in both of these cases, the word man would be in the genitive case when translated into Latin). Also indicates material of which something greater is made of (example: "a group of people"; "a number of gifts"—people and gifts would be in the genitive case). Some nouns are genitive with special verbs and adjectives too. (i.e., The cup is full of wine. Poculum plenum vini est. The master of the slave beats him. Dominus servi eum verberat.)
  5. Dative: used when the noun is the indirect object of the sentence, with special verbs, with certain prepositions, and if used as agent, reference, or even possessor. (i.e., The merchant hands over the toga to the woman. Mercator feminae togam tradit.)
  6. Ablative: used when the noun demonstrates separation or movement from a source, cause, agent, or instrument, or when the noun is used as the object of certain prepositions; adverbial.

There is also a seventh case, called the Locative case, used to indicate a location (corresponding to the English "in" or "at"). This is far less common than the other six cases of Latin nouns and usually applies to place names, especially of cities. In the first and second declension singular, its form coincides with the genitive (Roma becomes Romae, "in Rome"). In the plural, and in the other declensions, it coincides with the dative and ablative (Athenae becomes Athenis, "at Athens"). The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The predicative is an element of the predicate of a sentence which supplements the subject or object by means of the verb. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ... In linguistics, a grammatical agent is an entity that carries out an action. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ...


Latin lacks articles; thus puer currit can mean either "the boy runs" or "a boy runs". The redirects here. ...


Verbs

Main article: Latin conjugation

Verbs in Latin are usually identified by four main conjugations, groups of verbs with similarly inflected forms. The first conjugation is typified by active infinitive forms ending in -āre, the second by active infinitives ending in -ēre, the third by infinitives ending in -ere, and the fourth by active infinitives ending in -īre. However, there are exceptions to these rules. Further, there is a subset of the 3rd conjugation, the -iō verbs, which behave somewhat like the 4th conjugation. There are six general tenses in Latin (present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect), four grammatical moods (indicative, infinitive, imperative and subjunctive), six persons (first, second, and third, each in singular and plural), two voices (active and passive), and a few aspects. Verbs are described by four principal parts: Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from one basic form. ... Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from one basic form. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ...

  1. The first principal part is the first person, singular, present tense, and it is the indicative mood form of the verb.
  2. The second principal part is the active, present tense, infinitive form of the verb.
  3. The third principal part is the first person, singular, perfect tense, active indicative mood form of the verb.
  4. The fourth principal part is the supine form, or alternatively, the participial form, nominative case, singular, perfect tense, passive voice participle form of the verb. The fourth principal part can show either one gender of the participle, or all three genders (-us for masculine, -a for feminine, and -um for neuter). It can also be the future participle when that verb cannot be made passive.

Instruction in Latin

Main article: Instruction in Latin
A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz
A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz

The linguistic element of Latin courses offered in secondary schools and in universities is primarily geared toward an ability to translate Latin texts into modern languages, rather than using it for the purpose of oral communication. As such, the skills of reading and writing are heavily emphasized, while speaking and listening skills are de-emphasized (usually passively, through omission). A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz // Latin is not offered by the mainstream curriculum; however it is offered in many high schools throughout Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x1120, 805 KB) A multi-volume Latin dictionary (Egidio Forcellini: Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, 1858-87) in a table in the main reading room of the University Library of Graz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x1120, 805 KB) A multi-volume Latin dictionary (Egidio Forcellini: Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, 1858-87) in a table in the main reading room of the University Library of Graz. ... a part of the new front built 1994-96 The University Library of Graz is the biggest scientific and public library in Styria and the third biggest in Austria. ...


However, there is a growing movement, sometimes known as the Living Latin movement, whose supporters believe that Latin can be taught in the same way that modern "living" languages are taught, i.e., as a means of both spoken and written communication. This approach to learning the language assists speculative insight into how ancient authors spoke and incorporated sounds of the language stylistically; patterns in Latin poetry and literature can be difficult to identify without an understanding of the sounds of words. The expression Living Latin refers to the living use of Latin, a classical language that has often being classified as dead. There are two main proponents of Living Latin. ... Latin poetry was a major part of Latin literature during the height of the Latin language. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ...


Living Latin instruction is provided in states like the Vatican, and some Institutions in the U.S. like the University of Kentucky. In Great Britain, the Classical Association encourages this approach, and Latin language books describing the adventures of a mouse called Minimus have been published. In the United States, the National Junior Classical League (with more than 50,000 members) encourages high school students to pursue the study of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League encourages college students to continue their studies of the language. The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... The official seal of the National Junior Classical League The National Junior Classical League, or NJCL, is an organization of fifth grade students through high school seniors sponsored by the American Classical League. ... The National Senior Classical League or NSCL is an organization of mostly college students which promotes the study of the Classics. ...


Many international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin. Interlingua, which lays claim to a sizeable following, is sometimes considered a simplified, modern version of the language. Latino sine Flexione, popular in the early 20th century, is a language created from Latin with its inflections dropped. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ...


Latin translations of modern literature such as Paddington Bear, Winnie the Pooh, Tintin, Asterix, Harry Potter, Le Petit Prince, Max und Moritz, How the Grinch Stole Christmas, and The Cat in the Hat are intended to bolster interest in the language. Paddington Station-Bronze of Paddington Bear Paddington Bear is a fictional character in childrens literature. ... Pooh redirects here. ... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... This article is about the comic book series. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... The Little Prince (French: Le Petit Prince), published in 1943, is French aviator Antoine de Saint Exupérys most famous novella, which he wrote in the United States while renting The Bevin House in Asharoken, New York, on Long Island. ... Max and Moritz Max and Moritz (A Story of Seven Boyish Pranks) was a German language illustrated story in verse. ... How the Grinch Stole Christmas! is one of the best-known childrens books by Dr. Seuss. ... The Cat in the Hat is a childrens book by Dr. Seuss, featuring a tall, anthropomorphic, mischievous cat, wearing a tall, red and white striped hat. ...


Modern use of Latin

The signs at Wallsend Metro station are in English and Latin as a tribute to Wallsend's role as one of the outposts of the Roman empire.
The signs at Wallsend Metro station are in English and Latin as a tribute to Wallsend's role as one of the outposts of the Roman empire.

Today, Latin terminology is widely used, amongst other things, in philosophy, medicine, biology, and law, in terms and abbreviations such as subpoena duces tecum, q.i.d. (quater in die: "four times a day"), and inter alia (among other things). The Latin terms are used in isolation, as technical terms. The largest organization which still uses Latin in official contexts is the Roman Catholic Church. Although the Mass of Paul VI is usually said in the local vernacular language, it can be and often is said in Latin, particularly in the Vatican. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 826 KB) One of the bilingual English and Latin signs at Wallsend Tyne and Wear Metro station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 826 KB) One of the bilingual English and Latin signs at Wallsend Tyne and Wear Metro station. ... Wallsend station is probably the only station in Britain with signs in Latin. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Subpoena Duces Tecum (Latin for: bring with under penalty of punishment). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Mass of Pope Paul VI is the liturgy of the Catholic Mass of the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). ...


In situations when lingual neutrality is preferred, such as in scientific names for organisms, Latin is typically the language of choice. In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ...


Some films of relevant ancient settings, such as Sebastiane and The Passion of the Christ, have been made with dialogue in Latin for purposes of realism. Subtitles are usually employed for the predominantly non-Latin speaking audiences. Sebastiane is a controversial 1976 film written and directed by Derek Jarman and Paul Humfress. ... This article is about the film. ...


Many organizations today also have Latin mottos, such as "Semper fidelis" (always faithful), the motto of the United States Marine Corps. Semper Fidelis is Latin for Always faithful. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Some universities still hold graduation ceremonies in Latin. For other uses, see Graduation (disambiguation). ...


See also

Latin language

Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... List of Latin letters. ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... Unicode as of version 5. ... ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding of the Latin alphabet. ... Several binary representations of the character sets used for Indo-European languages in computers are compared in this article. ... Pages in category Latin encyclopedias There are 4 pages in this section of this category. ... The Latin Wikipedia is the Latin language version of Wikipedia. ... Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, and so has a very flexible word order. ... Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from one basic form. ... Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... To remember the present active indicative verb tense endings: Actual: Singular 1st person: -m/o 2nd person: -s 3rd person: -t Plural 1st person: -mus 2nd person: -tis 3rd person: -nt mnemonic phrase: Most Must Isnt (-M/O-S-T-MUS-TIS-NT) To remember the conjugating vowels of... The Latin school was the grammar school of earlier times in Europe. ... The golden line is a type of Latin dactylic hexameter frequently mentioned in Latin classrooms in English speaking countries and in contemporary scholarship written in English. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Latin poetry was a major part of Latin literature during the height of the Latin language. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Panegyrici Latini or Latin Panegyrics is a collection of twelve ancient Roman panegyric orations. ... Latin profanity is the profane, indecent, or impolite vocabulary of Latin, and its uses. ... The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language. ... Latin pronunciation, both in the classical and post-classical age, has varied across different regions and different eras. ... A Latinism is a word borrowed from Latin into another language, such as English. ... The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots commonly used in English. ... English has been called a Germanic language with a Romance vocabulary. ... This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages). ... This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form. ... A number of Latin terms are used in legal terminology and legal maxims. ... This list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names is intended to help those unfamiliar with classical languages understand and remember the scientific names of organisms. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Latin was once the universal academic language in Europe. ... This is a list of modern songs having lyrics in Classical Latin. ... In literature, latinisation is the practice of writing a name in a Latin style when writing in Latin so as to more closely emulate Latin authors, or to present a more impressive image. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This list includes continental European countries and regions that were part of the Roman Empire, or that were given Latin place names in historical references. ... This course prepares students for the AP Latin Literature test. ...

Latin culture

A Latin liturgy is a ceremony or ritual conducted in the Latin language. ... The term Latin Mass refers to the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated in Latin. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Hiberno-Latin, also called Hisperic Latin, was a playful and learned sort of Latin literature created and spread by Irish monks during the period from the sixth century to the tenth century. ... Judeo-Latin, or La‘az is the Jewish language of the many scattered Jewish communities of the former Roman Empire, but especially by the Jewish communities of the Italian Peninsula and Transalpine Gaul. ... The phrase Dog Latin refers to the creation of a phrase or jargon in imitation of Latin, often by directly translating English words (or those of other European languages) into Latin without conjugation or declension. ... Pig Latin (Igpay Atinlay in Pig Latin) is a language primarily used in English, where the syllables of English words are spoken in inverse order and an ay is affixed, to both obfuscate the encoding and to indicate for the intended recipient the encoding as Pig Latin. ... Macaronic Latin (or macaroni Latin) is an old term used for various sorts of adulturated Latin. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... A Brocard is a juridical principle usually expressed in Latin (and often derived from juridical works of the past), traditionally used to concisely express a wider legal concept or rule. ... Carmen Possum is a popular 40-line comical poem written in a mix of Latin and English. ... In linguistics (especially in German linguistics), an internationalism is a loanword that occurs in several languages with the same or at least similar meaning and etymology. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ...

Historical periods


Ages of Latin
v  d  e
—75 BC    75 BC – 200    200 – 900    200 – 1300    1300 – 1600    1600 – 1900   1900 – present
Old Latin    Classical Latin    Vulgar Latin    Medieval Latin    Renaissance Latin   New Latin    Recent Latin
See also: History of Latin, Latin literature, Vulgar Latin, Ecclesiastical Latin, Romance languages, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum

For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Foreign Languages: Italian, specifically, "Sardinian in fact conserves many archaic features from Latin which disappeared in Italian, such as the hard k-sound in words like chelu, where Italian has cielo."
  2. ^ Grimes, Barbara F. (October 1996). in Barbara F. Grimes: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Consulting Editors: Richard S. Pittman & Joseph E. Grimes, thirteenth edition, Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Academic Pub. ISBN 1-55671-026-7. 
  3. ^ Columbia University Language Resource Center
  • Clackson, James, and Geoffrey Horrocks, The Blackwell History of the Latin Language (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), Pp. viii, 324.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

References

  • Bennett, Charles E., Latin Grammar (Allyn and Bacon, Chicago, 1908)
  • N. Vincent: "Latin", in The Romance Languages, M. Harris and N. Vincent, eds., (Oxford Univ. Press. 1990), ISBN 0-19-520829-3
  • Waquet, Françoise, Latin, or the Empire of a Sign: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (Verso, 2003) ISBN 1-85984-402-2; translated from the French by John Howe.
  • Wheelock, Frederic, Latin: An Introduction (Collins, 6th ed., 2005) ISBN 0-06-078423-7
  • Frank Palmer. Grammar

External links

Wikipedia
Latin edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Latin edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
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Wikisource
Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article:
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Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... The Latin Library is a website that collects public domain Latin texts. ...

Learn Latin

  • Latinum, free Latin Language Podcast - hundreds of audio lessons and classical readings. Free pdf textbook. Classical Pronunciation.
  • Classical Latin course - a free online course
  • Latin Online - lessons from the University of Texas
  • Latin for Beginners - an ebook of a 1911 Latin textbook
  • Academia Thules offers online courses on Roman History, Philosophy, Archaeology, Religion, Language, Military Arts, Law.
  • Free public domain Latin textbooks - from TextKit.com
  • Beginners' Latin - UK Government website for learning Latin (UK National Archives)
  • Advanced Latin - covers the next stages.
  • Latin grammar - interactive (Java)
  • [2] - A complete textbook for spoken Classical Latin, G.J. Adler's "A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language for Speaking and Writing Latin", which can be heard read aloud here: [3]

Contemporary usage


The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ...

Ages of Latin
v  d  e
—75 BC    75 BC – 200    200 – 900    200 – 1300    1300 – 1600    1600 – 1900   1900 – present
Old Latin    Classical Latin    Vulgar Latin    Medieval Latin    Renaissance Latin   New Latin    Recent Latin
See also: History of Latin, Latin literature, Vulgar Latin, Ecclesiastical Latin, Romance languages, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Senate was the chief foreign policy-making branch of Roman government. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ... Military tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic on and off starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE - 394 BCE and from 391 BCE - 367 BCE The practice of electing consular tribunes ended in 366 BCE when the Lex... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The system for Roman litigation passed through three stages over the years: until around 150 BC, the Legis Actiones system; from around 150 BC until around 342 AD, the formulary system; and from 342 AD onwards, the cognito procedure. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Main article: Military history of ancient Rome As the Roman kingdom successfully overcame opposition from the Italic hill tribes and became a larger state, the age of tyranny in the eastern Mediterranean began to pass away. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Legion redirects here. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... This article is about theatrical performances in ancient Rome. ... The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ... Still life with fruit basket and vases (Pompeii, ca. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... We know less about the music of ancient Rome than we do about the music of ancient Greece. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... Within the wider stream of influences that contributed to the Christianization of the Roman Empire, followers of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For centuries the monetary affairs of the Roman Republic had rested in the hands of the Senate, which was steady and fiscally conservative. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Clothing in Ancient Rome consisted generally of the toga, the stola, brooches for them, and breeches. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Circus Maximus, Rome The Roman Circus, the theatre and the amphitheatre were the most important buildings in the cities for public entertainment in the Roman Empire. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... During the time from 500BC to 400AD, a dramatic increase in engineering and technology overwhelmed a region to the point that it could no longer sustain population growth and urbanization. ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ...

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