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Encyclopedia > Lathe (metal)
Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. Size is 460 mm swing x 1000 mm between centers
Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. Size is 460 mm swing x 1000 mm between centers

Metal lathe or metalworking lathe are generic terms for any of a large class of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials. They were originally designed to machine metals; however, with the advent of plastics and other materials, and with their inherent versatility, they are used in a wide range of applications, and a broad range of materials. In machining jargon, where the larger context is already understood, they are usually simply called lathes, or else referred to by more-specific subtype names (toolroom lathe, turret lathe, etc.). These rigid machine tools remove material from a rotating workpiece via the (typically linear) movements of various cutting tools, such as tool bits and drill bits. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1816x1401, 232 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1816x1401, 232 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... DRO providing a three axis display with pitch circle calculator, diameter/radius conversion, absolute and incremental toggle, and inch metric toggle A Digital Read Out (or DRO) is an electronic measuring instrument and display that converts the signal generated by a linear encoder and glass or digital scale into a... For other uses, see Lathe (disambiguation). ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ...

Contents

Construction

The machine has been greatly modified for various applications however a familiarity with the basics shows the similarities between types. These machines consist of, at the least, a headstock, bed, carriage and tailstock. The better machines are solidly constructed with broad bearing surfaces (slides or ways) for stability and manufactured with great precision. This helps ensure the components manufactured on the machines can meet the required tolerances and repeatability.


Headstock

Headstock with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image
Headstock with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image

The headstock (H1) houses the main spindle (H4), speed change mechanism (H2,H3), and change gears (H10). The headstock is required to be made as robust as possible due to the cutting forces involved, which can distort a lightly built housing, and induce harmonic vibrations that will transfer through to the workpiece, reducing the quality of the finished workpiece. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1644x1443, 216 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1644x1443, 216 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... This article is about the components of sound. ...


The main spindle is generally hollow to allow long bars to extend through to the work area, this reduces preparation and waste of material. The spindle then runs in precision bearings and is fitted with some means of attaching work holding devices such as chucks or faceplates. This end of the spindle will also have an included taper, usually morse, to allow the insertion of tapers and centers. On older machines the spindle was directly driven by a flat belt pulley with the lower speeds available by manipulating the bull gear, later machines use a gear box driven by a dedicated electric motor. The fully geared head allows the speed selection to be done entirely through the gearbox A Chuck is a specialised type of clamp used to hold rotating tools or materials. ... A faceplate is the basic workholding accessory for a wood or metal turning lathe. ... In the design of machine tools there is a need for users to be able to quickly and easily install or remove particular cutting bits or other accessories from the powered rotating spindle of the machine tool. ... In the design of machine tools there is a need for users to be able to quickly and easily install or remove particular cutting bits or other accessories from the powered rotating spindle of the machine tool. ... A lathe center (or center) is a tool that has been ground to an included angle of 60 ° and is used to accurately position a workpiece about its axis. ... Belts are used to mechanically link two or more rotating items. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ...


Bed

The bed is a robust base that connects to the headstock and permits the carriage and tailstock to be aligned parallel with the axis of the spindle. This is facilitated by hardened and ground ways which restrain the carriage and tailstock in a set track. The carriage travels by means of a rack and pinion system, leadscrew of accurate pitch, or feedscrew. Rack and pinion animation A rack and pinion is a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. ... This article is about screws and bolts. ...


Feed and lead screws

The feedscrew (H8) is a long driveshaft that allows a series of gears to drive the carriage mechanisms. These gears are located in the apron of the carriage. Both the feedscrew and leadscrew (H9) are driven by either the change gears (on the quadrant) or an intermediate gearbox known as a quick change gearbox (H6) or Norton gearbox. These intermediate gears allow the correct ratio and direction to be set for cutting threads or worm gears. Tumbler gears (operated by H5) are provided between the spindle and gear train along with a quadrant plate that enables a gear train of the correct ratio and direction to be introduced. This provides a constant relationship between the number of turns the spindle makes, to the number of turns the leadscrew makes. This ratio allows screwthreads to be cut on the workpiece without the aid of a die. This article is about the mechanical device. ... A leadscrew is a screw specialized for the purpose of translating rotational to linear motion. ... This article is about screws and bolts. ... Worm and worm gear A worm gear, or worm wheel, is a type of gear that engages with a worm to greatly reduce rotational speed, or to allow higher torque to be transmitted. ... Taps and dies are generally metalworking tools for the creation (cutting) of screw threads in metal parts. ...


The leadscrew will be manufactured to either imperial or metric standards and will require a conversion ratio to be introduced to create thread forms from a different family. To accurately convert from one thread form to the other requires a 127-tooth gear, or on lathes not large enough to mount one, an approximation may be used. Multiples of 3 and 7 giving a ratio of 63:1 can be used to cut fairly loose threads. This conversion ratio is often built into the quick change gearboxes. This article is about post-1824 imperial units, see also English unit, U.S. customary units or Avoirdupois. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Carriage

Carriage with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image
Carriage with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image

In its simplest form the carriage holds the tool bit and moves it longitudinally (turning) or perpendicularly (facing) under the control of the operator. The operator moves the carriage manually via the handwheel (5a) or automatically by engaging the feedscrew with the carriage feed mechanism (5c), this provides some relief for the operator as the movement of the carriage becomes power assisted. The handwheels (2a, 3b, 5a) on the carriage and its related slides are usually calibrated, both for ease of use and to assist in making reproducible cuts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 357 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 357 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ...


Cross-slide

(3) The cross-slide stands atop the carriage and has a leadscrew that travels perpendicular to the main spindle axis, this permits facing operations to be performed. This leadscrew can be engaged with the feedscrew (mentioned previously) to provide automated movement to the cross-slide, only one direction can be engaged at a time as an interlock mechanism will shut out the second gear train.


Compound rest

(2) The compound rest (or top slide) is the part of the machine where the tool post is mounted. It provides a smaller amount of movement along its axis via another leadscrew. The compound rest axis can be adjusted independently of the carriage or cross-slide. It is utilized when turning tapers, when screwcutting or to obtain finer feeds than the leadscrew normally permits.


The slide rest can be traced to the fifteenth century, and in the eighteenth century it was used on French ornamental turning lathes. The suite of gun boring mills at Woolwich Arsenal in the 1780s by the Verbruggan family also had slide rests. The story has long circulated that Henry Maudslay invented it, but he did not (and never claimed so). The legend that Maudslay invented the slide rest originated with James Nasmyth, who wrote ambiguously about it in his Remarks on the Introduction of the Slide Principle, 1841; later writers misunderstood, and propagated the error. Maudslay did help to disseminate the idea widely. It is highly probable that he saw it when he was working at the Arsenal as a boy. In 1794, whilst he was working for Joseph Bramah, he made one, and when he had his own workshop used it extensively in the lathes he made and sold there. Coupled with the network of engineers he trained, this ensured the slide rest became widely known and copied by other lathe makers, and so diffused throughout British engineering workshops. A practical and versatile screw-cutting lathe incorporating the trio of leadscrew, change gears, and slide rest was Maudslay's most important achievement. The Woolwich Arsenal was an armaments manufacturing facility on the south bank of the River Thames in Woolwich in south-east London. ... Henry Maudslay. ... James Nasmyth James Hall Nasmyth (August 19, 1808 – May 7, 1890) was an engineer and inventor famous for his development of the steam hammer. ... Joseph Bramah (1748 - December 9, 1814), born Stainborough, Yorkshire, England. ...


The first fully documented, all-metal slide rest lathe was invented by Jacques de Vaucanson around 1751. It was described in the Encyclopédie a long time before Maudslay invented and perfected his version. It is likely that Maudslay was not aware of Vaucanson's work, since his first versions of the slide rest had many errors which were not present in the Vaucanson lathe. Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709-November 21, 1782) was a French engineer and inventor who is credited with creating the worlds first true robots, as well as for creating the first completely automated loom. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... This article is about the 18th-century French encyclopaedia. ...


Toolpost

(1) The tool bit is mounted in the toolpost which may be of the American lantern style, traditional 4 sided square style, or in a quick change style such as the multifix arrangement pictured. The advantage of a quick change set-up is to allow an unlimited number of tools to be used (up to the number of holders available) rather than being limited to 1 tool with the lantern style, or 3 to 4 tools with the 4 sided type. Interchangeable tool holders allow the all the tools to be preset to a center height that will not change, even if the holder is removed from the machine. A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ...


Tailstock

Tailstock with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image
Tailstock with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image

The tailstock is a toolholder directly mounted on the spindle axis, opposite the headstock. The spindle (T5) does not rotate but does travel longitudinally under the action of a leadscrew and handwheel (T1). The spindle includes a taper to hold drill bits, centers and other tooling. The tailstock can be positioned along the bed and clamped (T6) in position as required. There is also provision to offset the tailstock (T4) from the spindles axis, this is useful for turning small tapers. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1884x1364, 160 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1884x1364, 160 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... In the design of machine tools there is a need for users to be able to quickly and easily install or remove particular cutting bits or other accessories from the powered rotating spindle of the machine tool. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... A lathe center (or center) is a tool that has been ground to an included angle of 60 ° and is used to accurately position a workpiece about its axis. ... A Chuck is a specialised type of clamp used to hold rotating tools or materials. ...


The image shows a reduction gear box (T2) between the handwheel and spindle, this is a feature found only in the larger center lathes, where large drills may necessitate the extra leverage.




Types of metal lathes

There are many variants of lathes within the metalworking field. Some variations are not all that obvious, and others are more a niche area. For example, a centering lathe is a dual head machine where the work remains fixed and the heads move towards the workpiece and machine a center drill hole into each end. The resulting workpiece may then be used "between centers" in another operation. The usage of the term metal lathe may also be considered somewhat outdated these days, plastics and other composite materials are in wide use and with appropriate modifications, the same principles and techniques may be applied to their machining as that used for metal. Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...


Center lathe / engine lathe / bench lathe

Two-speed back gears in a cone-head lathe.
Two-speed back gears in a cone-head lathe.
A typical center lathe.
A typical center lathe.

The terms center lathe, engine lathe, and bench lathe all refer to a basic type of lathe that may be considered the archetypical class of metalworking lathe most often used by the general machinist or machining hobbyist. The name bench lathe implies a version of this class small enough to be mounted on a workbench (but still full-featured, and larger than mini-lathes or micro-lathes). The construction of a center lathe is detailed above, but depending on the year of manufacture, size, price range, or desired features, even these lathes can vary widely between models. A Lathe for Turning Metal From US Army training publication TC 9-524. ... A Lathe for Turning Metal From US Army training publication TC 9-524. ... A machinist is a craftsman who uses machine tools to make parts or alter parts by cutting away excess material. ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ...


Engine lathe is the name applied to a traditional late-19th-century or 20th-century lathe. It is assumed that the word engine was added to the description to separate them from foot-powered and hand-powered lathes. The word engine would refer to a steam engine, which was the standard industrial power source for many years. The works would have one large steam engine which would provide power to all the machines via a line shaft system of belts. Therefore early engine lathes were generally 'cone heads', in that the spindle usually had attached to it a multi-step pulley called a cone pulley designed to accept a flat belt. Different spindle speeds could be obtained by moving the flat belt to different steps on the cone pulley. Cone-head lathes usually had a countershaft (layshaft) on the back side of the cone which could be engaged to provide a lower set of speeds than was obtainable by direct belt drive. These gears were called back gears. Larger lathes sometimes had two-speed back gears which could be shifted to provide a still lower set of speeds. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Line shafts and belt driven machinery Line shafting was the power transmission system at the heart of the Industrial Revolution. ...


When electric motors started to become common in the early 20th century, many cone-head lathes were converted to electric power. At the same time the state of the art in gear and bearing practice was advancing to the point that manufacturers began to make fully geared headstocks, using gearboxes analogous to automobile transmissions to obtain various spindle speeds and feed rates while transmitting the higher amounts of power needed to take full advantage of high speed steel tools. For other uses, see Gear (disambiguation). ... A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... High speed steel (often abbreviated HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and other cutters. ...


The inexpensive availability of electronics has again changed the way speed control may be applied by allowing continuously variable motor speed from the maximum down to almost zero RPM. (This had been tried in the late 19th century but was not found satisfactory at the time. Subsequent improvements have made it viable again.)


Toolroom lathe

A toolroom lathe is a lathe optimized for toolroom work. It is essentially just a top-of-the-line center lathe, with all of the best optional features that may be omitted from less expensive models, such as a collet closer, taper attachment, and others. There has also been an implication over the years of selective assembly and extra fitting, with every care taken in the building of a toolroom model to make it the smoothest-running, most-accurate version of the machine that can be built. However, within one brand, the quality difference between a regular model and its corresponding toolroom model depends on the builder and in some cases has been partly marketing psychology. For name-brand machine tool builders who made only high-quality tools, there wasn't necessarily any lack of quality in the base-model product for the "luxury model" to improve upon. In other cases, especially when comparing different brands, the quality differential between (1) an entry-level center lathe built to compete on price, and (2) a toolroom lathe meant to compete only on quality and not on price, can be objectively demonstrated by measuring TIR, vibration, etc. In any case, because of their fully-ticked-off option list and (real or implied) higher quality, toolroom lathes are more expensive than entry-level center lathes.


Turret lathe and capstan lathe

Main article: Turret lathe

Turret lathes and capstan lathes are members of a class of lathes that is used for repetitive production of duplicate parts (which by the nature of their cutting process are usually interchangeable). It evolved from earlier lathes with the addition of the turret, which is an indexable toolholder that allows multiple cutting operations to be performed, each with a different cutting tool, in easy, rapid succession, with no need for the operator to perform setup tasks in between (such as installing or uninstalling tools) nor to control the toolpath. (The latter is due to the toolpath's being controlled by the machine, either in jig-like fashion [via the mechanical limits placed on it by the turret's slide and stops] or via IT-directed servomechanisms [on CNC lathes].) The turret lathe is a form of metal cutting lathe that is used for short production runs of parts. ... The turret lathe is a form of metal cutting lathe that is used for short production runs of parts. ... Interchangeable parts are components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type. ... A jig is any of a large class of tools in woodworking, metalworking, and some other crafts that help to control the location or motion (or both) of a tool or workpiece. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ...


There is a tremendous variety of turret lathe and capstan lathe designs, reflecting the variety of work that they do.


Gang-tool lathe

A gang-tool lathe is one that has a row of tools set up on its cross-slide, which is long and flat and is similar to a milling machine table. The idea is essentially the same as with turret lathes: to set up multiple tools and then easily index between them for each part-cutting cycle. Instead of being rotary like a turret, the indexable tool group is linear.


Multispindle lathe

See also: screw machine

Multispindle lathes have more than one spindle and automated control (whether via cams or CNC). They are production machines specializing in high-volume production. The smaller types are usually called screw machines, while the larger variants are usually called automatic chucking machines, automatic chuckers, or simply chuckers. Screw machines usually work from bar stock, while chuckers automatically chuck up individual blanks from a magazine. Typical minimum profitable production lot size on a screw machine is in the thousands of parts due to the large setup time. Once set up, a screw machine can rapidly and efficiently produce thousands of parts on a continuous basis with high accuracy, low cycle time, and very little human intervention. (The latter two points drive down the unit cost per interchangeable part much lower than could be achieved without these machines.) General Brown & Sharpe Single Spindle Screw Machine. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... General Brown & Sharpe Single Spindle Screw Machine. ...


Rotary transfer machines might also be included under the category of multispindle lathes, although they defy traditional classification. They are large, expensive, modular machine tools with many CNC axes that combine the capabilities of lathes, milling machines, and pallet changers.


CNC lathe / CNC turning center

CNC lathe with milling capabilities
CNC lathe with milling capabilities
An example turned vase and view of the tool turret
An example turned vase and view of the tool turret

CNC lathes are rapidly replacing the older production lathes (multispindle, etc) due to their ease of setting and operation. They are designed to use modern carbide tooling and fully utilize modern processes. The part may be designed by the Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) process, the resulting file uploaded to the machine, and once set and trialled the machine will continue to turn out parts under the occasional supervision of an operator. The machine is controlled electronically via a computer menu style interface, the program may be modified and displayed at the machine, along with a simulated view of the process. The setter/operator needs a high level of skill to perform the process, however the knowledge base is broader compared to the older production machines where intimate knowledge of each machine was considered essential. These machines are often set and operated by the same person, where the operator will supervise a small number of machines (cell). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1674x1290, 245 KB) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on 26th August 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1674x1290, 245 KB) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on 26th August 2005. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1239, 217 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1239, 217 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: User:Graibeard/gallery Lathe (metal) ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... Monotungsten carbide, WC, or Ditungsten Carbide, W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer-based software tools that assist engineers and machinists in manufacturing or prototyping product components. ...


The design of a CNC lathe has evolved yet again however the basic principles and parts are still recognizable, the turret holds the tools and indexes them as needed. The machines are often totally enclosed, due in large part to Occupational health and safety (OH&S) issues. Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ...


With the advent of cheap computers, free operating systems such as Linux, and open source CNC software, the entry price of CNC machines has plummeted. For example, Sherline makes a desktop CNC lathe that is affordable by hobbyists. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Swiss-style lathe / Swiss turning center

For work requiring extreme accuracy (sometimes holding tolerances as small as a few tenths of a thousandth of an inch), a Swiss-style lathe is often used. A Swiss-style lathe holds the workpiece with both a collet and a guide bushing. The collet sits behind the guide bushing, and the tools sit in front of the guide bushing, holding stationary on the Z axis. To cut lengthwise along the part, the tools will move in and the material itself will move back and forth along the Z axis. This allows all the work to be done on the material near the guide bushing where it's more rigid, making them ideal for working on slender workpieces as the part is held firmly with little chance of deflection or vibration occurring.


This style of lathe is also available with CNC controllers to further increase its versatility.


Most CNC Swiss-style lathes today utilize two spindles. The main spindle is used with the guide bushing for the main machining operations. The secondary spindle is located behind the part, aligned on the Z axis. In simple operation it picks up the part as it is cut off (aka parted off) and accepts it for second operations, then ejects it into a bin, eliminating the need to have an operator manually change each part, as is often the case with standard CNC turning centers. This makes them very efficient, as these machines are capable of fast cycle times, producing simple parts in one cycle (i.e. no need for a second machine to finish the part with second operations), in as little as 10-15 seconds. This makes them ideal for large production runs of small-diameter parts.


Combination lathe / 3-in-1 machine

A combination lathe, often known as a 3-in-1 machine, introduces drilling or milling operations into the design of the lathe. These machines have a milling column rising up above the lathe bed, and they utilize the carriage and topslide as the X and Y axes for the milling column. The 3-in-1 name comes from the idea of having a lathe, milling machine, and drill press all in one affordable machine tool. These are exclusive to the hobbyist and MRO markets, as they inevitably involve compromises in size, features, rigidity, and precision in order to remain affordable. Nevertheless, they meet the demand of their niche quite well, and are not incapable of high accuracy given enough time and skill. They may be found in smaller, non-machine-oriented businesses where the occasional small part must be machined, especially where the exacting tolerances of expensive toolroom machines, besides being unaffordable, would be overkill for the application anyway from an engineering perspective. Maintenance, Repair and Operations or Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO), is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ...


Mini-lathe and micro-lathe

Mini-lathes and micro-lathes are miniature versions of a general-purpose center lathe (engine lathe). They typically have swings in the range of 3" to 7" (70 mm to 170 mm) diameter (in other words, 1.5" to 3.5" (30 mm to 80 mm) radius). They are small and affordable lathes for the home workshop or MRO shop. The same advantages and disadvantages apply to these machines as explained earlier regarding 3-in-1 machines.


As found elsewhere in English-language orthography, there is variation in the styling of the prefixes in these machines' names. They are alternately styled as mini lathe, minilathe, and mini-lathe and as micro lathe, microlathe, and micro-lathe.


Wheel lathe

A lathe for turning the wheels of railway locomotives and rolling stock [1] Great Western Railway No. ... Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ...


References

External links

General education on lathes and their use

History of the lathe

Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Electrical Discharge Machine Electrical discharge machining (or EDM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. ... Electro Chemical Machining (or ECM) is a method of working extremely hard materials or materials that are difficult to machine cleanly using conventional methods. ... Several types of endmills An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. ... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... A hobbing machine is a special form of milling machine that mills gears. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... A metalworking planer is a type of metalworking machine tool, analogous to a shaper but larger and with the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. ... Shaper tool slide, clapper box and cutting tool A shaper is a machine tool used for shaping or surfacing metal and other materials. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used as an industrial term, applies to the building of machines , structures, process equipment for chemical, fertilizer sector by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... This article is about smithing. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... Turning, CNC turning, or manual turning is the process used to produce cylindrical components in a lathe. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Metal Lathe. Small Metal Lathes and CNC Metal Lathes (545 words)
On a Metal Lathe, the work piece which is rigidly held on the rotating head stock of the metal lathe using a chuck, collet.
While working on metal lathes the right method of work holding need to be choosen depending upon the type of metal cutting operation, shape, size and accuracy of the work piece.
In some of the small metal lathes it is possible to holde the work peice between centers where the small lathe is equipped with a mini tail stock.
Lathe (tool) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2340 words)
In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the workpiece using a hardened cutting tool, which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting called the "toolpost", which is then moved against the workpiece using handwheels and/or computer controlled motors.
In metal spinning, a disk of sheet metal is held perpendicularly to the main axis of the lathe, and tools with polished tips (spoons) are hand held, but levered by hand against fixed posts, to develop large amounts of torque/pressure that deform the spinning sheet of metal.
In woodturning, one subtype of a live center is a cup center, which is a cone of metal surrounded by an annular ring of metal that decreases the chances of the workpiece splitting.
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