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Encyclopedia > Latex
The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX
The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX

LaTeX is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as mathrm{L!!^{{}_{scriptstyle A}} !!!!!;; T!_{displaystyle E} ! X}. Look up latex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links LaTeX_logo. ... Image File history File links LaTeX_logo. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


It is widely used by mathematicians, scientists, philosophers, engineers, scholars in academia and the commercial world, and other professionals. As a primary or intermediate format (e.g. translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF) LaTeX is used because of the quality of typesetting achievable by TeX. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout and bibliographies. Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... DocBook is a markup language for technical documentation, originally intended for authoring technical documents related to computer hardware and software but which can be used for any other sort of documentation. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Bibliographies at the University Library of Graz Bibliography (from Greek: βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia; lit. ...


LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX. LaTeX essentially comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the TeX formatting commands are very low-level, it is usually much simpler for end-users to use LaTeX. For other uses, see Macro (disambiguation) A macro in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to an output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure. ...


LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International [1]. It has become the dominant method for using TeX—few people write in plain TeX anymore. The current version is LaTeX2e (styled mathrm{L!!^{{}_{scriptstyle A}} !!!!!;; T!_{displaystyle E} ! X} , 2_{displaystyle varepsilon}). Leslie Lamport Dr. Leslie Lamport (born 1941) is an American computer scientist. ... SRI Internationals main campus on Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document preparation system for the TEX typesetting program. ...


LaTeX, like TeX, is free software. This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ...

Contents

The typesetting system

LaTeX is based on the idea that authors should be able to focus on the meaning of what they are writing without being distracted by the visual presentation of the information. In preparing a LaTeX document, the author specifies the logical structure using familiar concepts such as chapter, section, table, figure, etc., and lets the LaTeX system worry about the presentation of these structures. It therefore encourages the separation of layout from content while still allowing manual typesetting adjustments where needed. This is similar to the mechanism by which many word processors allow styles to be defined globally for an entire document or the CSS mechanism used by HTML. A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... In web development, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ...


LaTeX can be arbitrarily extended by using the underlying macro language to develop custom formats. Such macros are often collected into packages, which are available to address special formatting issues such as complicated mathematical content or graphics. There are numerous commercial implementations of the entire TeX system. System vendors may add extra features like additional typefaces and telephone support. LyX is a free visual document processor that uses LaTeX for a back-end. TeXmacs is a free, WYSIWYG editor with similar functionalities as LaTeX but a different typesetting engine. Macro (meaning large or wide) is also applied to macroeconomics, and macroscopic or macro lenses. ... “Font” redirects here. ... (written as LyX in plain text) is a document processor following the self-coined what you see is what you mean paradigm (WYSIWYM), as opposed to the WYSIWYG ideas used by word processors. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... TeXmacs on Fedora Core 2 GNU TeXmacs is a free scientific word processor, which was both inspired by TeX and GNU Emacs. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... WYSIWYG (IPA Pronunciation [] or []), is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, used in computing to describe a system in which content during editing appears very similar to the final product. ...


A number of popular commercial desktop publishing systems use modified versions of the original TeX typesetting engine. The recent rise in the popularity of XML systems and the demand for large-scale batch production of publication-quality typesetting from these systems and other sources has seen a steady increase in the use of LaTeX. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... Batch production is a manufacturing process used to produce or process any product in batches, as opposed to a continuous production process, or a one-off production. ...


The example below shows the LaTeX input:

 documentclass[12pt]{article} title{LaTeX} date{} begin{document} maketitle LaTeX{} is a document preparation system for the TeX{} typesetting program. It offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout, bibliographies, and much more. LaTeX{} was originally written in 1984 by Leslie Lamport and has become the dominant method for using TeX; few people write in plain TeX{} anymore. The current version is LaTeXe. newline % This is a comment, it is not shown in the final output. % The following shows a little of the typesetting power of LaTeX begin{eqnarray} E &=& mc^2  m &=& frac{m_0}{sqrt{1-frac{v^2}{c^2}}} end{eqnarray} end{document} 

This input would produce the following LaTeX output:


Image File history File links LaTeX_Output. ...


Example from Online LaTeX HTML /Flash.


Pronouncing and writing "LaTeX"

LaTeX is usually pronounced [ˈleɪ.tɛk] or [ˈlɑ.tɛk] in English (that is, not with the [ks] pronunciation English speakers normally associate with X, but with a [k]). The last character in the name comes from a capital Χ (chi), as the name of TeX derives from the Greek τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuth promotes a /tɛx/ pronunciation (that is, with a voiceless velar fricative as in Modern Greek, or the last sound of the Scottish word "loch" or the German word "Bach", similar to the Spanish "j" or Arabic "خ" sounds). Lamport, on the other hand, has said he does not favor or discourage any pronunciation for LaTeX. For other uses, see X (disambiguation). ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Donald Ervin Knuth ( or Ka-NOOTH[1], Chinese: [2]) (b. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of (see also there). ...


The name is traditionally printed with the special typographical logo shown on this page. In media where the logo cannot be precisely reproduced in running text, the word is typically given the unique capitalization LaTeX to avoid confusion with the word “latex”. For other uses, see latex (disambiguation). ...


Licensing, implementations, and distributions

LaTeX is typically distributed along with plain TeX. It is distributed under a free software license, the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL). The LPPL is not compatible with the GNU General Public License, as it requires that modified files also modify the actual physical file names; this was done to ensure that files that depend on other files will produce the expected behavior and avoid dependency hell. A new version of the LPPL that will be compatible with the GPL is under development. The LPPL is DFSG compliant as of version 1.3. As free/open source software, LaTeX is available on most operating systems including Linux, Unix, Windows, Mac OS X and AmigaOS. It is noteworthy to mention that the first DVI previewers capable of on-screen previewing and modification of LaTeX documents were Amigas[1][2]. TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... The LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL) is a software license originally written for the LaTeX system. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... Dependency hell is a colloquial term for the frustration of some software users who have installed software packages which have dependencies on specific versions of other software packages. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Windows redirects here. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ...


As a Macro package, LaTeX provides a set of macros for TeX to interpret. There are many for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt. GNU Texinfo is a free computer program for generating documentation in multiple formats from one set of source code. ... The AMS-TeX logo , written as AMS-TeX, AmS-TeX, or AMSTeX in plain text, is a (TeX) macro package originally written from 1983 to 1985 by Michael Spivak for the American Mathematical Society. ... Look up Context in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When TeX "compiles" your document, the processing loop (from the user's point of view) goes like this: Macros > TeX > Driver > Output. Different implementations of each of these steps is typically available in TeX distributions. Traditional TeX will output a DVI file, which is usually converted to a PostScript file. More recently, Hàn Thế Thành and others have written a new implementation of TeX called pdfTeX, which also outputs to PDF and takes advantages of features available in that format. The XeTeX engine developed by Jonathan Kew merges modern font technologies with TeX. DVI (DeVice Independent) is the output file format of the TeX typesetting program, designed by Donald Knuth in 1979. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... Hàn Thế Thành (sometimes incorrectly written Han The Thanh) was the original author of pdfTeX, which he used as a vehicle for his doctoral study on microtypography at the Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Brno, which he completed in 2000. ... pdfTeX is a variant of the TeX typesetting program originally written by Hàn Thể Thành. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... In computing, XeTeX is an alternative TeX typesetting engine for the Mac OS X operating system. ...


The default font for LaTeX is Knuth's Computer Modern, which gives most documents created with LaTeX the same distinctive look and feel as those created with plain TeX. Sample text in Computer Modern Computer Modern is the family of typefaces used by default by the typesetting program TeX. It was created by Donald Knuth with his METAFONT program, and was most recently updated in 1992. ...


A number of TeX distributions are available, including TeX Live (multiplatform), teTeX (deprecated, Unix), fpTeX (deprecated), MiKTeX (Windows), MacTeX, gwTeX (Mac OS X), OzTeX (Mac OS Classic), AmigaTeX (no longer available) and PasTeX (AmigaOS) available on Aminet repository. TeX live is a TeX distribution which is advised as the replacement of its no-longer supported counterpart teTeX [1]. TeX live has been developed since 1996 by collaboration between the TeX Users Group ^ http://www. ... The TeX mascot, by Duane Bibby TEX, written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system written by Donald Knuth. ... The TeX mascot, by Duane Bibby TEX, written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system written by Donald Knuth. ... MacTeX is a redistribution of TeX Live. ... Aminet is the worlds largest archive of Amiga-related software and files. ...


Versions

LaTeX2e is the current version of LaTeX. As of 2007, a future version called LaTeX3 is in development. Planned features include improved syntax, hyperlink support, a new user interface, access to arbitrary fonts, and new documentation.[2] // A hyperlink (often referred to as simply a link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by...


Notes

  1. ^ : In 1986 Tomas Rokicki printed his first page with dvisw, an early DVI printer driver for the Amiga, on a QMS SmartWriter using AmigaTeX by Radical Eye Software. A link to a relic info about milestones of LaTeX history is available at this external site.
  2. ^ : Description of Amiga system used by Tomas Rokicki in an article on TUG official review Tugboat: TUGboat, volume 9, (1998) n.1; Site Reports "The Commodore Amiga: A Magic Machine" by Tomas Rokicki, also available in PDF format at this external site

Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Quality Management Systems (QMS) are the outgrowth of work done by W. Edwards Deming, a statistician, after whom the Deming Prize for quality is named. ...

References

  1. ^ Leslie Lamport (April 23, 2007). The Writings of Leslie Lamport: LaTeX: A Document Preparation System. Leslie Lamport's Home Page. Retrieved on 2007-04-27.
  2. ^ Frank Mittelbach, Chris Rowley (January 12, 1999). The LaTeX3 Project. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  • Mittelbach, Frank; Goosens, Michel (2004). The LaTeX Companion, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-36299-6. 
  • Lamport, Leslie (1994). LaTeX: A document preparation system: User's guide and reference, illustrations by Duane Bibby, 2nd edition, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-52983-1. 
  • Kopka, Helmut; Daly, Patrick W. (2003). Guide to LaTeX, 4th edition, Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-321-17385-6. 
  • Griffiths, David F.; Highman, David S. (1997). Learning LaTeX. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ISBN 0-898-71383-8. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leslie Lamport Dr. Leslie Lamport (born 1941) is an American computer scientist. ...

External links

Free software Portal
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
LaTeX
Look up LaTeX in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Official LaTeX project site website for open development of LaTeX (has links to and documentation for LaTeX2e and to experimental prerelease code which may be used in LaTeX3)
  • CTAN – The Comprehensive TeX Archive Network Latest (La)TeX-related packages and software
  • The UK TeX FAQ maintained by Robin Fairbairns
  • The TeX Users Group has extensive links to other information, including meetings, conferences, typesetting, the TUGboat journal, and local user groups in many countries
  • Comparison of Word and LaTeX in scientific writing - efficiency, layout, costs, compatibility, figures, references

  Results from FactBites:
 
NIOSH/latex alert (0 words)
The amount of latex exposure needed to produce sensitization or an allergic reaction is unknown; however, reductions in exposure to latex proteins have been reported to be associated with decreased sensitization and symptoms [Tarlo et al.
Latex allergy should be suspected in anyone who develops certain symptoms after latex exposure, including nasal, eye, or sinus irritation; hives; shortness of breath; coughing; wheezing; or unexplained shock.
Latex allergy in the workplace can result in potentially serious health problems for workers, who are often unaware of the risk of latex exposure.
LATEX ALLERGY (3007 words)
Latex is used in the medical literature as a description of either the sap of the Brazilian rubber tree (Hervea brasiliensis) or to products made by dipping forms into the sap (gloves, balloons, condoms).
Those subjects who were latex positive had significantly greater history of bronchial asthma, reported significantly more symptoms when using latex gloves (urticaria, rash, itching, sneezing, nasal congestion, itchy watery eyes and cough), and were significantly more likely to test positive for common allergens (pollen, cat epidermis and dust mites).
Frequency of exposure to latex thus raised the likelihood of sensitisation 19-fold (from 0.37% to 6.85%) in nonatopic subjects and 4-fold (from 9.44% to 36.4 %) in atopic subjects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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