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Encyclopedia > Lateran Treaties

The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. The treaties were negotiated between Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri on behalf of the Holy See, and Benito Mussolini, the Fascist leader, as Prime Minister of Italy. There are three treaties: February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in Southern Europe. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... Pietro Cardinal Gasparri (May 5, 1852-November 18, 1934) was Roman Catholic archbishop, diplomat and politician in the Roman Curia. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives...

  • A treaty recognising the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City. It declared the following to be extra-territorially a part of the Vatican city-state: the basilicas and buildings of St. John Lateran [Coelian hill], St. Mary Major [Esquiline hill], St. Paul-outside-the-Walls [~2 km South of Rome], and the Holy Apostles [Quirinal hill], and the churches of Saint Andrea-della-Valle [NE of Campo De' Fiore] and San Carlo-ai-Catinari [SE of Campo De' Fiore] with their adjoining buildings, the palace of San Callisto [Trastevere] and the papal summer residence, Castel Gandolfo [Alban Hills, ~20 km SE of Rome].
  • A concordat defining the civil and religious relations between the government and the church within Italy (summarised in the motto: "free church in free State").
  • A financial convention providing the Holy See with compensation for its losses in 1870.

Through the concordat, the Pope agreed to submit candidates for bishop and archbishop to the Italian government, to require bishops to swear allegiance to the Italian state before taking offices, and to forbid the clergy from taking part in politics. Italy agreed to submit its rules on marriage and divorce to make them conformable to the rules of the Roman Catholic Church, and to exempt clergy from military conscription. The treaties granted the Roman Catholic Church the status of the established church in Italy. They also gave the Roman Catholic Church substantial control over the Italian educational system. A concordat is an agreement between the pope and a government or sovereign on religious matters. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Catholic Church. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by... Marriage is a relationship and bond between individuals (termed spouses -- a male spouse is a husband and a female spouse, a wife) that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Establishment of religion refers to investing political power in a particular religious faith or body. ...


The treaties were revised in 1985, primarily to remove the establishment of the Catholic Church in Italy. 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ...


See also

A prisoner in the Vatican is the description given to the popes from Pope Pius IX through Pius XI, after the invading armies of King Victor Emmanuel II, captured the Papal States and ended the millenial temporal rule of the popes. ... Properties of the Holy See, as agreed in the 1929 Lateran Treaty. ...

External links

  • Full text of the treaties

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lateran treaties (215 words)
The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City.
The treaties were negotiated between Cardinal Pietro Gasparri[?] for on behalf of the Vatican, and Benito Mussolini, the Fascist leader, as Prime Minister of Italy.
The treaties granted the Roman Catholic Church the status of the established church in Italy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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