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Encyclopedia > Lateral ventricles

The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. It is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that is largely composed of water. The ventricular system serves to bathe and cushion the brain and spinal cord within their bony confines. The ventricular system consists of two large lateral ventricles in either cerebral hemisphere that extend into the temporal lobes (temporal horns) and occipital lobes (occipital horns). The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle via the interventricular foraminae (foramen of Monro). From the third ventricle, the CSF flows into the fourth ventricle, after passing through a thin canal located in the dorsal brainstem (cerebral aqueduct). CSF exits the fourth ventricle and enters the subarachnoid space through foramen of Luschka and foramen of Magendie. The subarachnoid space, which is filled with CSF, surrounds the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum and cerebral cortex. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus within the ventricles themselves and is reabsorbed into the venous system in the subarachnoid space between brain and skull. It passes through arachnoid granulations into the superior sagittal venous sinus 1. Diseases of the ventricular system include abnormal enlargement (hydrocephalus) and inflammation of the CSF-spaces (meningitis, ventriculitis) caused by infection or introduction of blood following trauma or hemorrhage. In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The temporal lobe is part of the cerebrum. ... The occipital lobes are the visual processing center of mammalian brains. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Silvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the thalamus (or diencephalon) to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... General features * Location: It is found at the bottom rear of the head (the hindbrain), directly above the brainstem. ... Location of the Cerebral cortex Slice of the Cerebral cortex, ca. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... Arachnoid granulations (and arachnoid villi) are small protrusions of the arachnoid (the thin second layer covering the brain) through the dura (the thick outer layer). ... Inferior view of a brain with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. ...


Interestingly, scientific study of CAT scans of the ventricles in the late 1970s revolutionized the study of mental illness. Researchers found that patients with schizophrenia had enlarged ventricles compared to healthy subjects. This became the first "evidence" that mental illness was biological in origin and led to a reinvigoration of the study of such conditions via modern scientific techniques. CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ...


more information: Your brain and spinal cord are covered by a series of tough membranes called meninges, which protect these organs from rubbing against the bones of the skull and spine. For further protection, the brain and spinal cord float in a sea of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull and spine. This cushioning fluid is produced by the choroid plexus tissue, which is located within the brain, and flows through a series of cavities (ventricles) out of the brain and down along the spinal cord. The cerebrospinal fluid is kept separate from the blood supply by the blood-brain barrier.

  • Note 1: Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, Williams SM, Neuroscience (third edition). Sinauer Associates Inc, July 2004. ISBN: 0878937250

 
 

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