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Encyclopedia > Lateral consonant
Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Plosive
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
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Laterals are "L"-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Affricate consonants begin like stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, a couple languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A sibilant, or a strident fricative, is a type of fricative, made by speeding up air through a narrow channel and directing it over the sharp edge of the teeth. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a member of a class of speech sounds that are continuants produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by an open configuration of the vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure above the glottis. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...


Most commonly the tip of the tongue makes contact with the upper teeth (see dental consonant) or the upper gum (the alveolar ridge) just behind the teeth (see alveolar consonant). The most common laterals are approximants and belong to the class of liquids. Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ...

Contents


Laterals in various languages

English has a lateral approximant phoneme /l/, which in many accents has two allophones. One, found before vowels as in lady or fly, is called clear l, pronounced as the alveolar lateral approximant [l] with a "neutral" position of the body of the tongue. The other variant, so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally, as in bold or tell, is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ] with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape with its back part raised, which gives the sound a [w]- or [ɰ]-like resonance. In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (also known as dark l) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


In many British accents (e.g. London English), dark [ɫ] may undergo vocalization through the reduction and loss of contact between the tip of the tongue the alveolar ridge, becoming a rounded back vowel or glide. This process turns tell into something like [tɛɰ]. Something similar has happened in Brazilian Portuguese, resulting in /w/; a similar process affected Old French, producing Modern French sauce as compared with Spanish salsa. In animals, vocalization is a means of communication generated in many cases by their primitive versions of vocal chords. ... Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... French (français, spelled françois until 1835, both pronounced in standard French, but often heard pronounced ), or French language (langue française, formerly langue françoise, both pronounced ), is the third of the Romance languages in terms of number of speakers, after Spanish and Portuguese. ...


The Italian gli and Castilian Spanish ll are the palatal lateral approximant [ʎ], which is present as well in Catalan ll, French ill- (in some dialects), Portuguese lh, Quechua ll. The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... Catalan (Català) or Valencian (Valencià) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and co-official in several regions of Spain. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ...


Many aboriginal Australian languages have a series of three or four lateral approximants, as do various dialects of Irish. Rarer lateral consonants include the retroflex laterals that can be found in most Indic languages; and the sound of Welsh ll, the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ] that is also found in Zulu and many Native American languages. (Note that the voiceless laterals in Tibetan are voiceless approximants, not fricatives.) Many of these languages also have lateral affricates. Some languages have palatal or velar voiceless lateral fricatives or affricates, such as Dahalo and Zulu, or retroflex lateral flaps, but the IPA has no symbols for these sounds. However, appropriate symbols are easy to make by adding a lateral-fricative belt or retroflex hook to the symbol for the corresponding lateral approximant (see below). Failing that, raising and devoicing diacritics are added to the approximant. The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Zulu, also known as isiZulu, is a language of the Zulu people with about 9 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The Tibetan language is typically classified as member of the Tibeto-Burman which in turn is thought by some to be a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Dahalo is an endangered South Cushitic language spoken by about 400 people in Kenya. ... Zulu, also known as isiZulu, is a language of the Zulu people with about 9 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ...


A large number of lateral click consonants, 17, occur in !Xóõ. Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... !Xóõ is a Khoisan language with a very large number of phonemes, the most of any known language. ...


List of laterals

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (also known as dark l) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Toda language has a voiceless retroflex lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a retroflex lateral approximant. ... Toda is a minor Dravidian language well known for its many fricatives and trills. ... The Bura language of the Chadic family has a voiceless palatal lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a palatal lateral approximant. ... Dahalo is an endangered South Cushitic language spoken by about 400 people in Kenya. ... The Archi language of the Dagestani family has a voiceless velar lateral fricative that is clearly a fricated, although further forward than velars in many languages, and might better be called pre-velar. ... The lateral alveolar flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a common sound in the languages of western North America. ... Hadza is a language of Tanzania. ... Dahalo is an endangered South Cushitic language spoken by about 400 people in Kenya. ... Hadza is a language of Tanzania. ... Zulu, also known as isiZulu, is a language of the Zulu people with about 9 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ...

Other symbols

The symbol for the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative forms the basis for the occasional ad hoc symbols for other voiceless lateral fricatives: retroflex, palatal, velar (the latter two only known from affricates): The Toda language has a voiceless retroflex lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a retroflex lateral approximant. ... The Bura language of the Chadic family has a voiceless palatal lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a palatal lateral approximant. ... The Archi language of the Dagestani family has a voiceless velar lateral fricative that is clearly a fricated, although further forward than velars in many languages, and might better be called pre-velar. ...


Image:Lateral fricatives.png Image File history File links Lateral_fricatives. ...


The symbol for the alveolar lateral flap is the basis for the expected symbol for the retroflex lateral flap: The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ...


Image:Lateral flaps.png Image File history File links The official IPA symbol for the alveolar lateral flap is easily extended to an unofficial retroflex lateral flap. ...


Such symbols are rare, but are becoming more common now that font-editing software has become accessible. Note however that since they are not sanctioned by the IPA, there are no Unicode values for them. Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ...


See also



A acoustic phonetics affricate airstream mechanism Alfred C. Gimson allophone alveolar approximant alveolar consonant alveolar ejective fricative alveolar ejective alveolar flap alveolar nasal alveolar ridge alveolar trill alveolo-palatal consonant apical consonant approximant consonant articulatory phonetics aspiration auditory phonetics B back vowel bilabial click bilabial consonant bilabial ejective bilabial nasal...

  Consonants (List, table) See also: IPA, Vowels  
Pulmonics Bilabial Lab'den. Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglottal Glottal   Non-pulmonics and other symbols
Nasals m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ  Clicks  ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ  Implo­­sives  ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Fricatives ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ  Ejec­­tives 
   Approximants    β̞ ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Other laterals  ɺ ɫ
Trills ʙ r ʀ Co-articulated approximants  ʍ w ɥ
Flaps & Taps ɾ ɽ Co-articulated fricatives  ɕ ʑ ɧ
Lat. Fricatives ɬ ɮ Affricates  ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ
Lat. Appr'mants l ɭ ʎ ʟ Co-articulated stops  kp ɡb ŋm
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged impossible.

  Results from FactBites:
 
lateral – Dictionary Definition of lateral | Encyclopedia.com: FREE Online Dictionary (1237 words)
In phonetics, (pertaining to) a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue touching the alveolar ridge, allowing the airstream to pass on one or both sides of this central obstruction.
Face lateral and withdrawal resistances of staple joints in furniture-grade pine plywood.
Lateral asymmetries in the development of the overarm throw.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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