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Encyclopedia > Late Tokugawa shogunate

History of Japan ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century CE. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...

Glossary The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Namban trade(Japanese: 南蛮貿易, nanban-bōeki, southern barbarian trade) or The Nanban trade period (Japanese: 南蛮貿易時代, nanban-bōeki-jidai, southern barbarian trade period) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor of Japan  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 10, 1945  - San Francisco Peace Treaty September 8, 1951 At the end of the Second World War... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... It has been suggested that Updated Japan News be merged into this article or section. ... The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: 幕末 Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. It is at end of the Edo period and preceded the Meiji era. The major ideological/political factions during this period were divided into the pro-imperialist Ishin Shishi (nationalist patriots) and the shogunate forces, including the elite shinsengumi (newly selected corps) swordsmen. Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other factions attempted to use the chaos of Bakumatsu to seize personal power.[1] Furthermore there were two other main driving forces for dissent; first, growing resentment of tozama daimyo (or outside lords), and second, growing anti-western sentiment following the arrival of Perry. The first related to those lords who had fought against Tokugawa forces at Sekigahara (in 1600 AD) and had from that point on been exiled permanently from all powerful positions within the shogunate. The second was to be expressed in the phrase sonnō jōi, or "revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians". The turning point of the Bakumatsu was during the Boshin War and the Battle of Toba-Fushimi when pro-shogunate forces were defeated.[2] The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Summary: The Ishin Shishi were so called patriots who helped start the Meiji period in Japanese history and who were at odds with the anti-imperialist, pro-bakufu Shinsengumi police force. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... The Shinsengumi (Japanese: 新選組 or 新撰組) were a special police force of the late shogunate period. ... Tozama were outside daimyo (lords) in Edo period Japan, not remotely belonging to the band of warriors, not connected to Tokugawa Ieyasu and not involved in the politics which concerned the Tokugawa government. ... The Battle of Sekigahara was a decisive battle on September 15, 1600 (on the ancient Chinese calendar, October 21 on the modern calendar) that cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu. ... Sonnō jōi (尊皇攘夷) is a Japanese political philosophy and a social movement, which was derived from Neo-Confucianism; it was also a political slogan in 1850s-60s, meaning Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians, or being commonly translated as The origin of the philosophy can be seen in Takenouchi Shikibu... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Japanese:鳥羽・伏見の戦い) occurred between pro-Imperial and Shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. ...

Contents

Treaty of Peace and Amity (1854)

When Commodore Matthew C. Perry's four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay (Tokyo Bay) in July 1853, the bakufu (shogunate) was thrown into turmoil. The chairman of the senior councillors, Abe Masahiro (1819–1857), was responsible for dealing with the Americans. Having no precedent to manage this threat to national security, Abe tried to balance the desires of the senior councillors to compromise with the foreigners, of the emperor who wanted to keep the foreigners out, and of the feudal daimyo rulers who wanted to go to war. Lacking consensus, Abe decided to compromise by accepting Perry's demands for opening Japan to foreign trade while also making military preparations. In March 1854, the Treaty of Peace and Amity (or Treaty of Kanagawa) maintained the prohition on trade but opened three ports (Nagasaki, Shimoda, Hakodate) to American whaling ships seeking provisions, guaranteed good treatment to shipwrecked American sailors, and allowed a United States consul to take up residence in Shimoda, a seaport on the Izu Peninsula, southwest of Edo. PD photo of Matthew C. Perry, collected from http://www. ... PD photo of Matthew C. Perry, collected from http://www. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Commodore is a rank of the United States Navy with a somewhat complicated history. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tokyo Bay from space Tokyo Bay ) is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Abe Masahiro (阿部正弘)(1819-1857) was the chief senior councillor (rōjÅ«) in the Japanese government at the time of the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Shimoda is the name of several places or a character. ... View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ... Shimoda is the name of several places or a character. ... Location. ...


Political troubles and modernization

The resulting damage to the bakufu was significant. Debate over government policy was unusual and had engendered public criticism of the bakufu. In the hope of enlisting the support of new allies, Abe, to the consternation of the fudai, had consulted with the shinpan and tozama daimyo, further undermining the already weakened bakufu. A fudai daimyo (譜代大名) was a daimyo who was a hereditary vassal of the Tokugawa in Edo period Japan. ...

Kankō Maru, Japan's first steam warship, 1855.
Kankō Maru, Japan's first steam warship, 1855.

In the Ansei Reform (1854–1856), Abe then tried to strengthen the regime by ordering Dutch warships and armaments from the Netherlands and building new port defenses. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the Shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, which was used for training, and opened the Nagasaki Naval Training Center with Dutch instructors, and a Western-style military school was established at Edo. In 1857, it acquired its first screw-driven steam warship, the Kanrin Maru. Scientific knownledge was quickly expanded from the pre-existing foundation of Western knowledge, or "Rangaku". Image File history File links NagasakiNavalTrainingCenter. ... Image File history File links NagasakiNavalTrainingCenter. ... The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Dejima, also Deshima (出島, literally protruding island) in modern Japanese, Desjima in Dutch, often latinised as Decima, was a fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch trading post during Japans self-imposed isolation (sakoku) of the Edo period, from 1641 until 1853. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Kankō Maru (Jp:観光丸) was Japans first steam warship. ... The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima. ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ...


Opposition to Abe increased within fudai circles, which opposed opening bakufu councils to tozama daimyo, and he was replaced in 1855 as chairman of the senior councillors by Hotta Masayoshi (1810–1864). At the head of the dissident faction was Tokugawa Nariaki, who had long embraced a militant loyalty to the emperor along with antiforeign sentiments, and who had been put in charge of national defense in 1854. The Mito school—based on neo-Confucian and Shinto principles—had as its goal the restoration of the imperial institution, the turning back of the West. Hotta Masayoshi Hotta Masayoshi )(1810-1864) was the Shoguns advisor (rōjÅ«) from 1837 to 1843, and again from 1855 to 1858. ... Tokugawa Nariaki (徳川 斉昭 Tokugawa Nariaki, April 4, 1800 - September 29, 1860) was a prominent daimyo in the Mito domain, now Ibaraki prefecture, who contributed to the rise of nationalism and the Meiji restoration. ...


Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1858)

Townsend Harris negociated the "Treaty of Amity and Commerce" in 1858, opening Japan to foreign influence and trade, under "unequal" conditions.
Townsend Harris negociated the "Treaty of Amity and Commerce" in 1858, opening Japan to foreign influence and trade, under "unequal" conditions.

Following the nomination of Townsend Harris as US Consul in 1856 and two years of negociation, the "Treaty of Amity and Commerce" was signed in 1858 and put into application from mid-1859. The most important points were: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 752 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 752 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Townsend Harris (1804–1878) was a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. ... The Treaty of Peace and Commerce between the United States and Japan was signed July 29, 1858. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Townsend Harris (1804–1878) was a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. ... The Ryōsen-ji Temple in Shimoda, where the Treaty of Amity and Commerce was signed. ...

  • exchange of diplomatic agents.
  • Edo, Kobe, Nagasaki, Niigata, and Yokohama’s opening to foreign trade as ports.
  • ability of United States citizens to live and trade at will in those ports (only opium trade was prohibited).
  • a system of extraterritoriality that provided for the subjugation of foreign residents to the laws of their own consular courts instead of the Japanese law system.
  • fixed low import-export duties, subject to international control, thus depriving the Japanese government control of foreign trade and protection of national industries (the rate would go as low as 5% in the 1860s.)

Japan was also forced to apply such conditions to any other foreign nation, under the "most favoured nation" provision. Soon several foreign nation followed suit and obtained treaties with Japan (Great Britain, France, Russia..). Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Kobe ) is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Niigata is the name of several places, times and things: Niigata City Niigata Prefecture This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ...


Trading houses were quickly set in the open ports.


Crisis and conflict

Political crisis

Hotta Masayoshi (1810-1864).
Hotta Masayoshi (1810-1864).

Hotta lost the support of key daimyo, and when Tokugawa Nariaki opposed the new treaty, Hotta sought imperial sanction. The court officials, perceiving the weakness of the bakufu, rejected Hotta's request and thus suddenly embroiled Kyoto and the emperor in Japan's internal politics for the first time in many centuries. When the shogun died without an heir, Nariaki appealed to the court for support of his own son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), for shogun, a candidate favored by the shinpan and tozama daimyo. The fudai won the power struggle, however, installing Naosuke Ii, arresting Nariaki and Keiki, executing Yoshida Shoin (1830–1859, a leading sonnō-jōi intellectual who had opposed the American treaty and plotted a revolution against the bakufu), and signing treaties with the United States and five other nations, thus ending more than 200 years of seclusion. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hotta Masayoshi Hotta Masayoshi )(1810-1864) was the Shoguns advisor (rōjÅ«) from 1837 to 1843, and again from 1855 to 1858. ... Hotta Masayoshi Hotta Masayoshi )(1810-1864) was the Shoguns advisor (rōjÅ«) from 1837 to 1843, and again from 1855 to 1858. ... Tokugawa Nariaki (徳川 斉昭 Tokugawa Nariaki, April 4, 1800 - September 29, 1860) was a prominent daimyo in the Mito domain, now Ibaraki prefecture, who contributed to the rise of nationalism and the Meiji restoration. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Tozama were outside daimyo (lords) in Edo period Japan, not remotely belonging to the band of warriors, not connected to Tokugawa Ieyasu and not involved in the politics which concerned the Tokugawa government. ... Ii Naosuke (井伊直弼, 1815 - March 3, 1860) was Tairo of Japan from April 23, 1858 until his death. ... Yoshida Shoin (吉田 松陰 Yoshida Shōin, 1830-1859) is a Japanese scholar and teacher. ...


Economic crisis and upheaval

Foreign ships in Yokohama harbor.
Foreign ships in Yokohama harbor.
A foreign trading house in Yokohama in 1861.
A foreign trading house in Yokohama in 1861.

The opening of Japan to uncontrolled foreign trade brought massive economic instability. While some entrepreneurs prospered, many other went bankrupt. Unemployment rose, as well as inflation. Coincidentally, major famines also increased the price of food drastically. Incidents occurred between brash foreigners, qualified as "the scum of the earth" by a contemporary diplomat, and the Japanese. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 239 pixelsFull resolution (2012 × 600 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 239 pixelsFull resolution (2012 × 600 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 385 pixelsFull resolution (1248 × 600 pixel, file size: 309 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 385 pixelsFull resolution (1248 × 600 pixel, file size: 309 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Japan's monetary system also broke down. Traditionally, Japan's exchange rate between silver and gold was 1:5, whereas International rates were of the order of 1:15. This led to massive purchases of gold by foreigners, and ultimately forced the Japanese authorities to devalue their currency.[3]


Foreigners also brought cholera to Japan (probably from India), leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths[4] Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


During the 1860s peasant uprisings (hyakushō ikki) and urban disturbances (uchikowashi) multiplied. "World renewal" movement appeared (yonaoshi ikki), as well as feverish hysteric movements such as the Eejanaika ("Ain't it great!"). Ee ja nai ka dancing scene, 1868. ...


Efforts at diplomatic conciliation

The son of Nadar, photographed with members of the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe in 1863. Photographed by Nadar.
The son of Nadar, photographed with members of the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe in 1863. Photographed by Nadar.

Several missions were sent abroad by the Bakufu, in order to learn about Western civilization, revise unequal treaties, and delay the opening of cities and harbour to foreign trade. These efforts towards revision remained largely unsuccessful. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1067 × 1417 pixel, file size: 781 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1863 photograph by Nadar of his son with two members of the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1067 × 1417 pixel, file size: 781 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1863 photograph by Nadar of his son with two members of the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe. ... Nadar (self-portrait). ... Nadar (self-portrait). ...


A Japanese Embassy to the United States was sent in 1860, onboard the Kanrin Maru and the USS Powhattan. A First Japanese Embassy to Europe was sent in 1862, and a Second Japanese Embassy to Europe in 1863. This last mission was sent in order to obtain European support to reinstate Japan's former closure to foreign trade, and especially stop foreign access to the harbor of Yokohama. It ended in total failure. The Embassy at the Washington D.C. shipyard. ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Members of the First Japanese Embassy to Europe, in 1862, around Shibata Sadataro, head of the mission staff (seated). ... Ikeda Nagaoki, governor of Chikugo Province, was the head of the mission. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ...


Murder of foreigners and open conflict

Attack of the British legation in Edo, 1861.
Attack of the British legation in Edo, 1861.

Violence increased against the foreigners and those who dealt with them. Ii Naosuke, who had signed the Harris Treaty and eliminated opposition to Westernization in the Ansei Purge, was murdered in March 1860. Henry Heusken, Harris' Dutch translator was killed by swordsmen in January 1861. Also in 1861, the British legation in Edo was attacked, resulting in two deaths. During that period, about one foreigner was killed every month. In September 1862 occurred the Richardson Affair which would force foreign nations to take decisive action in order to protect foreigners and guaranty the implementation of Treaty provisions. In May 1863, the US legation in Edo was torched. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 740 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (802 × 650 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 740 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (802 × 650 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Ii Naosuke (井伊直弼, 1815 - March 3, 1860) was Tairo of Japan from April 23, 1858 until his death. ... The Ansei Purge (安政の大獄 Ansei no taigoku) was a purge, in 1858 and 59, of over 100 people from the bakufu, various han, and the Japanese Imperial court. ... The Namamugi Incident, as depicted in a 19th century Japanese woodcut print. ...

Japanese cannons shooting on Western shipping at Shimonoseki in 1863. Japanese painting.
Japanese cannons shooting on Western shipping at Shimonoseki in 1863. Japanese painting.

Belligerent opposition to Western influence further erupted into open conflict when the Emperor Kōmei, breaking with centuries of imperial tradition, began to take an active role in matters of state and issued on March 11th and April 11th 1863 his "Order to expel barbarians" (攘夷実行の勅命). The Shimonoseki-based Chōshū clan, under Lord Mori Takachika, followed on the Order, and began to take actions to expel all foreigners from the date fixed as a deadline (May 10th, Lunar calendar). Openly defying the shogunate, Takachika orders his forces to fire without warning on all foreign ships traversing Shimonoseki Strait. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (868 × 559 pixel, file size: 703 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese cannons at Shimonoseki. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (868 × 559 pixel, file size: 703 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese cannons at Shimonoseki. ... Shimonoseki (下関市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Order to expel barbarians (Japanese:攘夷勅命, also 攘夷実行の勅命) was an edict issued by the Japanese Emperor Kōmei in 1863 against the Westernization of Japan following the opening of the country by Commodore Perry in 1854. ... Kanmonkyo bridge from the Moji side The Kanmon Straits (関門海峡 Kanmon Kaikyō) or Straits of Shimonoseki is the stretch of water separating two of Japans four main islands. ...


Western military retaliations (1863-1864)

Birds-eye view of the bombardment of Kagoshima by the British Navy, August 15th, 1863. Le Monde Illustré.
Birds-eye view of the bombardment of Kagoshima by the British Navy, August 15th, 1863. Le Monde Illustré.

Western nations planned an armed retaliation against armed Japanese opposition with the Bombardment of Shimonoseki. The engagement was fought from 1863-64 by naval forces of Great Britain, the Netherlands, France and the United States, against the powerful feudal Japanese warlord or daimyo Lord Mori Takachika of the Chōshū clan based in Shimonoseki, Japan. This conflict threatened to involve America, which in 1863 was already torn by civil strife, in a foreign war. Capture of a Choshu battery at Shimonoseki. ... Capture of a Choshu battery at Shimonoseki. ... Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (937 × 612 pixel, file size: 463 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bombardment of Kagoshima. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (937 × 612 pixel, file size: 463 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bombardment of Kagoshima. ... Kagoshima (鹿児島市; -shi) the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the southwest tip of the Kyushu island of Japan. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Shimonoseki (下関市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Around the same period, the Bombardment of Kagoshima took place, in retaliation for the Namamugi incident and the murder of the English trader Richardson. The British Royal Navy bombarded the town of Kagoshima and destroyed several ships. Satsuma however later negotiated and paid 25,000 pounds, but did not remit Richardson's killers, and in exchange obtained an agreement by Great Britain to supply steam warships to Satsuma. The conflict actually became the starting point of a close relationship between Satsuma and Great Britain, which became major allies in the ensuing Boshin War. From the start, the Satsuma Province had generally been in favour of the opening and modernization of Japan. Although the Namamugi Incident was unfortunate, it was not characteristic of Satsuma's policy, and was rather abusively branded as an example of anti-foreign sonnō jōi sentiment, as a justification to a strong Western show of force. The Anglo-Satsuma War (Japanese Satsu-Ei Sensou) took place in August 1863. ... The Namamugi Incident, as depicted in a 19th century Japanese woodcut print. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Kagoshima (鹿児島市; -shi) the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the southwest tip of the Kyushu island of Japan. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Sonnō jōi (尊皇攘夷) is a Japanese political philosophy and a social movement, which was derived from Neo-Confucianism; it was also a political slogan in 1850s-60s, meaning Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians, or being commonly translated as The origin of the philosophy can be seen in Takenouchi Shikibu...


These conflicts led to the realization that head-on conflict with Western nations was not a solution for Japan. As the Bakufu continued its modernization efforts, Western daimyos also started to modernize intensively in order to build a stronger Japan and to establish a more legitimate government under Imperial power.


Bakumatsu renewal and modernization

During the last years of the bakufu, or bakumatsu, the bakufu took strong measures to try to reassert its dominance, although its involvement with modernization and foreign powers was to make it a target of anti-Western sentiment throughout the country.

Kanrin Maru, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1855.

The army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855. Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto. French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Japanese navy of the shogun already possessed eight western-style steam warships around the flagship Kaiyō Maru, which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin war, under the command of Admiral Enomoto. A French Military Mission to Japan (1867) was established to help modernize the armies of the Bakufu. Japan sent a delegation and participated to the 1867 World Fair in Paris. The Kanrinmaru (1855). ... The Kanrinmaru (1855). ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan, in 1866. ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... In 1864 it was decreed by Emperor Napoleon III that an international exposition should be held in Paris in 1867. ...

Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Shogun, in French military uniform, c.1867

Revering the emperor as a symbol of unity, extremists wrought violence and death against the Bakufu and Han authorities and foreigners. Foreign naval retaliation in the Anglo-Satsuma War led to still another concessionary commercial treaty in 1865, but Yoshitomi was unable to enforce the Western treaties. A bakufu army was defeated when it was sent to crush dissent in the han of Satsuma and Chōshū in 1866. Finally, in 1867, Emperor Kōmei died and was succeeded by his second son, Mutsuhito, as Emperor Meiji. Download high resolution version (407x745, 91 KB)Tokugawa Yoshinobu, in French military uniform. ... Download high resolution version (407x745, 91 KB)Tokugawa Yoshinobu, in French military uniform. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... The Anglo-Satsuma War (Japanese Satsu-Ei Sensou) took place in August 1863. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


Keiki reluctantly became head of the Tokugawa house and shogun following the unexpected death of Tokugawa Iemochi, previously in mid-1866. He tried to reorganize the government under the emperor while preserving the shogun's leadership role, a system known as kōbu gattai. Fearing the growing power of the Satsuma and Chōshū daimyo, other daimyo called for returning the shogun's political power to the emperor and a council of daimyo chaired by the former Tokugawa shogun. With the threat of an imminent Satsuma-Chōshū led military action, Keiki moved pre-emptively by surrendering some of his previous authority. Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Tokugawa Iemochi (徳川 家茂; 1846–1866) was the 14th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office 1858 to 1866. ...


End of the Bakufu

Shogunal troops in 1864.Illustrated London News.
Shogunal troops in 1864.Illustrated London News.

After Keiki had temporarily avoided the growing conflict, anti-shogunal forces instigated widespread turmoil in the streets of Edo using groups of rōnin. Satsuma and Chōshū forces then moved on Kyoto in force, pressuring the Imperial Court for a conclusive edict demolishing the shogunate. Following a conference of daimyo, the Imperial Court issued such an edict, removing the power of the shogunate in the dying days of 1867. The Satsuma, Chōshū, and other han leaders and radical courtiers, however, rebelled, seized the imperial palace, and announced their own restoration on January 3, 1868. Keiki nominally accepted the plan, retiring from the Imperial Court to Osaka at the same time as resigning as shogun. Fearing a feigned concession of the shogunal power to consolidate power, the dispute continued until culminating in a military confrontation between Tokugawa and allied domains with Satsuma, Tosa and Chōshū forces, in Fushimi and Toba. With the turning of the battle toward anti-shogunal forces, Keiki then quit Osaka for Edo, essentially ending both the power of the Tokugawa, and the shogunate that had ruled Japan for over 250 years. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (915 × 404 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bakumatsu shogunal troops in 1864. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (915 × 404 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bakumatsu shogunal troops in 1864. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imperial Palace Garden Imperial Palace Garden Defensive wall and building above moat surrounding Kōkyo Nijubashi, a bridge within the grounds of the Kokyo Kokyo (皇居, Kōkyo) is the Japanese Imperial palace in the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Following the Boshin war (1868–1869), the bakufu was abolished, and Keiki was reduced to the ranks of the common daimyo. Resistance continued in the North throughout 1868, and the bakufu naval forces under Admiral Enomoto Takeaki continued to hold out for another six months in Hokkaidō, where they founded the short-lived Republic of Ezo. This defiance ended in the Battle of Hakodate, after one month of fighting. Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Ezo Republic Commanders Kuroda Kiyotaka Enomoto Takeaki Strength 7,000 combatants 10 steam warships 3,000 combatants 11 steam warships Casualties 770 casualties 1 ship sunk 1 ship destroyed 1,300 killed 400 wounded 1,300 captured 2 ships sunk 3 ships captured 3 ships lost...


Notes

  1. ^ Shinsengumi, The Shogun's Last Samurai Corps, Romulus, Hillsborough, Tuttle Publishing, 2005
  2. ^ Last Samurai - The Life and Battles of Saigo Takmori, Mark Ravina, John Wiley & Sons, 2004
  3. ^ Dower, "Chaos"
  4. ^ Dower, "Chaos"

References

  • "Foreigners in Treaty-Port Japan (1859-1872)", John W. Dower. Available online
  • Shinsengumi, The Shogun's Last Samurai Corps, Romulus, Hillsborough, Tuttle Publishing, 2005
  • Last Samurai - The Life and Battles of Saigo Takmori, Mark Ravina, John Wiley & Sons, 2004

See also

Prominent figures

Less known figures of the time: Statue of ÅŒmura Masujirō, at Yasukuni Shrine. ... Sakamoto Ryōma (坂本 龍馬 Sakamoto Ryōma January 3, 1836 - December 10, 1867) was born in Kochi, of Tosa han. ... Kondo Isami Kondo Isami (近藤 勇 Kondō Isami, 1834 - 1868) was a chief of the Shinsen-gumi, an armed special security team in Kyoto during the late shogunate period. ... Takasugi Shinsaku (高杉 晋作 1839-1867) is a samurai who contributed to the Meiji restoration. ... Matsudaira Katamori (松平容保), (February 15, 1836−December 5, 1893) was a samurai that lived in the last days of the Edo period and the early Meiji period. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Yoshida Shoin (吉田 松陰 Yoshida Shōin, 1830-1859) is a Japanese scholar and teacher. ... Kido Takayoshi (木戸孝允), also referred as Kido Koin (1833-77) was a Japanese politician during the Late Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Hayashi Daigaku no kami (Lord Rector, Confucianist)
  • Ido Tsushima no kami (Governor of Yedo, former Gov. of Nagasaki)
  • Izawa Mimasaka no kami (Gov. of Uraga, former Gov of Nagasaki)
  • Kawakami Gensai (Greatest of 4 hitokiri, active in assassinations during this time period)

Foreign observer: The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Kawakami Gensai (河上彦斎, 1834-1871), one of the four great hitokiri of the Bakumatsu period of 19th century Japan. ... Hitokiri (人斬) is a term given to four different samurai during the period of time known as the Bakumatsu in Japanese history. ...

The Right Honourable Sir Ernest Mason Satow GCMG, (June 30, 1843 - August 26, 1929) was a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Wismar, then under Swedish rule, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North...

International relations

  • Franco-Japanese relations
  • Anglo-Japanese relations
  • German-Japanese relations

The history of Franco-Japanese relations (Japanese: 日仏関係, Nichi-Futsu kankei) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome landed for a few days in Southern France, creating a sensation. ... This page describes the history of the relationship between the United Kingdom and Japan. ... Both the modern German and Japanese states were founded in the same year of 1871 – through the foundation of the German Empire under the leadership of Prussia and the “abolition of domains and foundation of prefectures” ordinance in Japan. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tokugawa shogunate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1837 words)
The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868.
The Tokugawa Shogunate came to an official end in 1868, with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa Shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu and the "restoration" ('Taisei Hōkan') of imperial rule.
Tokugawa's descendants further ensured the loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the Shogun.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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