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Encyclopedia > Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). The Late Middle Ages were preceded by the High Middle Ages, and followed by the Early Modern era (Renaissance). Domenico di Michelino Dante and His Poem (1465) fresco, in the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (Florences cathedral). ... Domenico di Michelino Dante and His Poem (1465) fresco, in the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (Florences cathedral). ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Michelinos fresco Dante and his Work in the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Around 1300, centuries of European prosperity and growth came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as the Great Famine of 1315-1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population perhaps by half. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. France and England experienced serious peasant risings (the Jacquerie and the Peasants' Revolt), and the Hundred Years' War. The unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Great Schism. Collectively it is sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Great Famine of 1315-1317 (or to 1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century, causing millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marking a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411) The Black Death, or Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The Jacquerie in Froissarts chronicles The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years War. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... Around 1300 started a process that made centuries of European prosperity and growth came to a halt. ...


On the other hand, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences. The rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman texts led to what has later been termed the Renaissance – the rebirth. This process had started already through contact with the Arabs during the Crusades, but accelerated with the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy. Meanwhile, the invention of printing was to have great effect on European society. This facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning, one end result of which for the Catholic Church would eventually be the Protestant Reformation. The growth of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 (incidentally also the year counted as the end of the Hundred Years' War), cut off trading possibilities with the east. But Columbus’s discovery of America in 1492, and Vasco da Gama’s circumnavigation of Africa in 1498, opened up new trade routes, strengthening the economy and power of European nations. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... For other articles which might have the same name, see Print (disambiguation). ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Dom Vasco da Gama (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, c. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


All these developments taken together make it convenient to talk of an end to the Middle Ages, and the beginning of the modern world. It should be noted that the division will always be a somewhat artificial one, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society, and therefore there is a certain continuity between the Classical and the Modern age. Also, some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the 14th century Renaissance as a direct transition to the Modern Era. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...

Contents

Historical events and politics

Britain

Main article: Britain in the Middle Ages

The Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 effectively ended English aspirations of subjugating Scotland, and the Scottish were able to develop a strong state under the Stuarts. From 1337, England’s attention was largely directed towards France in the Hundred Years' War. Henry V’s victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 briefly paved the way for a unification of the two kingdoms, but his son Henry VI soon squandered all previous gains. Almost immediately upon the end of the war, in 1453 followed the dynastic struggles of the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485). The war ended in the accession of Henry VII, and the strong, centralized Tudor monarchy. While England’s attention was thus directed elsewhere, Ireland was allowed to develop virtual independence under English overlordship. The British Isles in the year 802 Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 23–June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War (c. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). 5/6 longbowmen, 1/6 dismounted men-at-arms. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Lancaster York For other uses see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation) The Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) were a series of civil wars fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... ... no changes . ... // Events August 5-7 - First outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: ) was a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ...


Scandinavia

Main articles: Denmark, Norway, Sweden

After the failed union of Sweden and Norway of 1319-1365, the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union was instituted in 1397. The Swedes were reluctant members of the Danish-dominated union, and broke away for good in 1523, after the Stockholm Bloodbath in 1520. Norway, on the other hand, became an inferior party, and remained united with Denmark until 1814. Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... Events Foundation of the University of Vienna Births John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (died 1394) Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (died 1399) Deaths May 17 - Louis VI the Roman, elector of Brandenburg (born 1328) July 27 - Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (born 1339) Categories: 1365 ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Stockholm Bloodbath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... mary elline m. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Norwegian colony on Greenland died out under mysterious circumstances in the 15th century.


Western and Central Europe

Main articles: France in the Middle Ages, History of Germany
Joan of Arcpainting from between 1450 and 1500
Joan of Arc
painting from between 1450 and 1500

The French House of Valois, which followed the House of Capet in 1328, was at its outset virtually marginalized in its own country, partly by the English invading forces of the Hundred Years’ War, partly by the powerful Duchy of Burgundy. The appearance of Joan of Arc on the scene changed the course of war in favour of the French, and under Louis XI Burgundy was also subjugated. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Download high resolution version (508x768, 119 KB) Image of Joan of Arc, painted between 1450 and 1500 (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490). ... Download high resolution version (508x768, 119 KB) Image of Joan of Arc, painted between 1450 and 1500 (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490). ... It has been suggested that Name of Joan of Arc be merged into this article or section. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... It has been suggested that Name of Joan of Arc be merged into this article or section. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ...


In Germany, the Holy Roman Empire passed to the Habsburgs in 1438, where it remained until its dissolution in 1806. The Empire, however, remained fragmented, and much real power and influence was held by financial institutions such as the Hanseatic League and the Fugger family. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Fugger family was a historically prominent group of European bankers. ...


Southern Europe

Main articles: Spain in the Middle Ages, Italy in the Middle Ages, History of Portugal

The 1469 marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon led to the creation of modern-day Spain. In 1492 Granada was captured from the Moors, thereby completing the Reconquista. Portugal had during the 15th century gradually explored the coast of Africa, and in 1498 Vasco da Gama found the sea route to India. The Spanish monarchs met the Portuguese challenge by financing Columbus’s attempt to find the western sea route to India, leading to the discovery of America in the same year as the capture of Granada. After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... This is the history of Italy during the Middle Ages. ... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I of England The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including present day Gibraltar, Spain and Portugal) as well as the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. ... Conquista redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dom Vasco da Gama (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, c. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


In Italy, Florence grew to prominence among the city-states through financial business. The dominant Medici family became important promoters of the Renaissance through their patronage of the arts. With the return of the Papacy to Rome in 1378, that city once more became a political and cultural metropolis. Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ...


Eastern Europe

The Byzantine Empire had for a long time dominated the Eastern Mediterranean in politics and culture. By the time of the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, it had almost entirely collapsed into a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, centred on the city of Constantinople and a few enclaves in Greece. From this point on the area was firmly under Turkish control, and remained so until the tide turned at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI†, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 Greek militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries [2] 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Greek defenders, some mercenaries[3], approximately 4,000 civilians[4] unverified The Fall of... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Map of Constantinople. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


In the north, the main development was the enormous growth of the Lithuanian (later Polish-Lithuanian) kingdom. Further east, the defeat of the Mongols, at Kulikovo in 1380 established the principality of Muscovy as a regional power, following the decline of the state of Kievan Rus'. Ivan III, the Great, laid the foundations for a Russian national state. Other Eastern European states also saw growth, such as Hungary and Bohemia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength About 80,000 About 125,000 Casualties About 40,000 able body men left Unknown The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ), also called Battle on the Snipes Field (Кулик means snipe), was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of...


Climate and agriculture

Around 1300-1350 the Medieval Warm Period gave way to the Little Ice Age. The colder climate resulted in reduced agricultural output; famine, plague and endemic warfare followed. Most notable are the Great Famine of 1315-1317, the Black Death, and the Hundred Years' War. As the population of Europe was reduced by perhaps as much as half, land became more plentiful for the survivors, and labour consequently more expensive. Attempts by landowners to forcibly reduce wages, such as the English 1351 Statute of Laborers, were doomed to fail. The result was the virtual end of serfdom over great parts of Western Europe. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, there were few large cities with a viable bourgeoisie to act as a counterweight to the great landowners, and these were able to force the pesantry into even more repressive bondage. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads across a large region (example a continent), or even worldwide. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Great Famine of 1315-1317 (or to 1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century, causing millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marking a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411) The Black Death, or Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders May 1 Zürich joins the Swiss Confederation. ... The Statute of Laborers was the reaction of landlords in England when labor prices shot up after the Black Death. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Military developments

Main article: Medieval warfare

Through battles such as Battle of Courtrai (1302), Bannockburn (1314), and Grandson (1476), it became clear to the great territorial princes of Europe that the great military advantage of the feudal cavalry was lost, and that a well equipped infantry was preferable. The English held a great advantage over the French in the Hundred Years’ War through the deployment of their highly efficient English longbows, originally a Welsh invention. In the long run this development, along with economic and political considerations, would lead to a preference for mercenary forces over the feudal levy. Swiss soldiers were in particularly high demand. Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... The Battle of the Golden Spurs (Dutch: De Guldensporenslag, French: bataille des éperons dor) was fought on July 11, 1302, near Kortrijk in Flanders. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 23–June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish... The Battle of Grandson, took place on 2 March 1476, was part of the Burgundian Wars (Burgundy Wars), and resulted in a major defeat for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in long, 105 lbf draw force. ... This article is about the country. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Swiss mercenaries crossing the Alps (Luzerner Schilling) Swiss mercenaries were soldiers notable for their service in foreign armies, especially the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of the European Enlightenment. ...


The introduction of gunpowder changed the conduct of war significantly. Not through the use of firearms in the field of battle, where they would still long remain insignificant, but as siege weapons. The efficiency of cannons to bring down castles meant that the territorial power of the feudal lord was no longer as absolute. Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ...


Both these developments taken together contributed to breaking down the feudal system, and paved the way for the strong, centralized nation state. The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Religion

The Great Schism

Main article: Western Schism

From the early 14th century, the Papacy came more and more under the dominance of the French crown, culminating in its transference to Avignon in 1309. When the Pope decided to return to Rome in 1377, different popes were elected in Avignon and Rome, resulting in the Great Schism (1378-1417). The Schism was as much of a political as a religious nature; while England supported the Pope in Rome, her military opponents France and Scotland stood behind the Avignon Papacy. Historical map of the Western Schism. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime...


At the Council of Constance (1414-1418) the Papacy was once more united in Rome. Even though the unity of the Western Church was to last for another hundred years, and though the Papacy was to experience greater material prosperity than ever before, the Great Schism had done irreparable damage. The internal struggles within the Church had promoted anti-clericalism among the people and their rulers, and the split had opened up the possibility of reform movements. The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ...


Reform movements

John Wyclif

Main article: John Wyclif

Though the Catholic Church had long fought against heretic movements, in the Late Middle Ages it started to experience demands for reform from within. The first of these came from the Oxford professor John Wyclif in England. Wyclif held that the Bible should be the only authority in religious questions, and spoke out against transubstantiation, celibacy and indulgences. He also made an English translation of the Bible. In spite of influential supporters among the English aristocracy, such as John of Gaunt, Wyclif’s supporters, the Lollards, were eventually suppressed in England. Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wyclif (also Wycliffe or Wycliff) (c. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wyclif (also Wycliffe or Wycliff) (c. ... The Bible is the collection of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ...


Jan Hus

Main article: Jan Hus

The teachings of the Czech priest Jan Hus were based on those of John Wyclif, and had little originality. Yet his followers, the Hussites, were to have a much greater political impact than the Lollards. Hus gained a great following in Bohemia, and when he was burned as a heretic in 1415 it caused a popular uprising. The subsequent Hussite Wars did not result in religious or national independence for the Czechs, but both the Church and the German element within the country were weakened. Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Hussite War Wagons and Hand Cannoneers Hussite Crossbowman and Shield Carrier Hussite War Wagons The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. ...


Martin Luther

Main article: Martin Luther
Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach
Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach

Though technically outside the time-period of the Middle Ages, the Protestant Reformation of Martin Luther ended the unity of the Western Church - one of the distinguishing characteristics of the medieval period. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Luther, a German monk, started the Reformation by the posting of the 95 theses on the castle church of Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. The immediate provocation behind the act was Pope Leo X’s renewing the indulgence for the building of the new St. Peter's Basilica in 1514. Luther was challenged to recant his heresy at the Diet of Worms in 1521. When he refused, he was placed under the ban of the Empire by Charles V. Receiving the protection of Frederick the Wise, he was then able to translate the Bible into German. The 95 Theses. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524 Frederick III (January 17, 1463 – May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ...


To many secular rulers, the Protestant reformation was a welcome opportunity to expand their wealth and influence. The Reformation was met by the Catholic Counter Reformation. Europe was split into a northern Protestant and a southern Catholic part, resulting in the Religious Wars of the 16th and 17th centuries. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Trade and commerce

Several changes took place in the patterns of European trade in this period. While the Hanseatic League retained their control of the Baltic and North Sea, the Champagne fairs became less important in the north-south trade. Instead the sea route was preferred between Flanders and Italy. Furthermore, English wool merchants more and more started exporting cloth rather than wool, to the detriment of the Dutch cloth manufacturers. Most importantly, the replacement of the Byzantine Empire with the Ottoman Empire made the Levant trade more difficult. As an alternative, new trade routes were opened up – south of Africa to India, and across the Atlantic Ocean to America. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


On the financial field, European nations saw the emergence of trading companies – corporations that would finance large-scale trade and manufacture, often receiving special privileges and monopolies from the state. The greatest financiers, a role previously often held by Jews, would finance the wars of the rulers. Families like the Fuggers in Germany, the Medicis in Italy and the de la Poles in England would achieve great political, as well as economic power. A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... A privilege—etymologically private law or law relating to a specific individual—is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or a government. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Financier (IPA: /ËŒfi nãn ˈsjei/) is an elegant term for a person who handles large sums of money, usually involving money lending, financing projects, large-scale investing, or large-scale money management. ... The Fugger family was a historically prominent group of European bankers. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... The title of Earl of Suffolk has been created several times in the Peerage of England, most recently in 1603 for Thomas Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Walden. ...


Science and technology

Main articles: History of science in the Middle Ages, Medieval technology

The philosopher William of Occam, and his principle known as Occam's Razor, led to a decline in fruitless scholastic debates, and paved the way for experimental science. According to Occam, philosophy should only concern itself with subjects on which it could achieve real knowledge, a principle often referred to as parsimony. Precursors of an experimental science in the Middle Ages can be seen already in the rediscovery of Aristotle, and the works of Roger Bacon. The final challenge to scholasticism was presented by Nicholas Cusanus, whose writings anticipated Copernicus’ heliocentric worldview. The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... During the 12th and 13th century in Europe there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions During the 12th and 13th century in Europe there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic... William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... William of Ockham Occams razor (also spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Look up parsimony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401– August 11, 1464) was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, a philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and an astronomer. ... It has been suggested that Copernicus and coin reform be merged into this article or section. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the idea that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ...


Most European technical innovations of the 14th and 15th centuries were not original, but more often of Chinese or Arab origin. The revolutionary aspect lay not in the inventions themselves, but in their application. Though gunpowder had long been known to the Chinese, it was the Europeans who fully realized its military potential, allowing the European expansion and world domination of the Modern Era. Also significant in this respect were advances within the fields of navigation. The compass, astrolabe and sextant, along with advances in shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans. Gutenberg’s printing press made possible not only the Reformation, but also a dissemination of knowledge that would lead to a gradually more egalitarian society. Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blackpowder. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...


Culture

Art

Main article: Medieval art
Michelangelo’s Pieta
Michelangelo’s Pieta

The visual arts experienced a tremendous development in the Late Middle Ages; a precursor of the Renaissance can be seen already in the early 13th-century works of Giotto. In painting one speaks of a northern Renaissance, centred on the Low Countries, and an Italian Renaissance with Florence as its hub. While northern art was more concerned with textures and surfaces, as can be seen in the paintings of Jan van Eyck, Italian painters also explored such subjects as anatomy and geometry. The discovery of single-point perspective, attributed to Brunelleschi, was an important step towards optically realistic art. The Italian Renaissance reached its zenith in the art of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Statue of Giotto di Bondone, close to the Uffizi. ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (c. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... A cube in two-point perspective. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


Architecture

Main article: Medieval architecture

While the gothic cathedral very much remained in vogue in Northern European countries, this style of building never really caught on in Italy. Here, renaissance architects were inspired by classical buildings, and the crowning work of the period was Brunelleschi’s dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian architect and one of the first architects to be associated with the Italian Renaissance in Florence. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...


Literature

Main article: Medieval literature

The most important development of late medieval literature was the ascendancy of the vernacular languages over Latin. A popular genre was the romance, mostly taking its themes from the legends of the Holy Grail. Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For historical artifacts associated with the cup of the Last Supper, see Holy Chalice. ...


The writer who more than any other heralds the new age is Dante Alighieri. His Divine Comedy, written in Italian, describes a medieval religious world-view, but does so in a style based on classical ideals. Other promoters of the Italian language were Petrarch, whose Canzoniere are considered the first modern lyric poems, and Boccaccio with his Decameron. In England Geoffrey Chaucer helped establish English as a literary language with his Canterbury Tales. Like Boccaccio, Chaucer was concerned with everyday life rather than religious or mythological themes. In Germany, it was Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible that was to serve as the basis for written German. Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... From the c. ... After printing, early versions of the Canzoniere were illuminated with pictures. ... Lyric poetry is the purest form of poetry, which does not attempt to tell a story, as do epic poetry and dramatic poetry. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Illustration from a copy of The Decameron, ca. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ...


Music

Main article: Medieval music

In early fourteenth-century France emerged the music known as Ars nova. This represented the introduction of polyphony into secular music, and its main originators were the composers Philippe de Vitry and Guillaume de Machaut. The most popular form was the chanson, which was poetry set into special patterns of music. In Italy, the corresponding period goes under the name of Trecento, led by composers like Francesco Landini and Jacopo da Bologna. The Italian madrigal of the Trecento, with its verse/refrain-like form, is not to be confused with its 16th century counterpart. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ars nova was a stylistic period in music of the Late Middle Ages, centered in France, which encompassed the period from the publication of the Roman de Fauvel (1310 and 1314) until the death of Machaut (1377). ... Philippe de Vitry (October 31, 1291 – June 9, 1361) was a French composer, music theorist and poet. ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ... Chanson is a French word for song, and in English-language contexts is often applied to any song with French words, particularly a cabaret song. ... Landini, the most famous composer of the trecento, playing a portative organ (illustration from the 15th century Squarcialupi Codex) The trecento was a period of vigorous activity in Italy in the arts, including painting, architecture, literature, and music. ... for the tractor manufactorer, see Landini (tractor) Landini playing a miniature organ (illustration from the 15th century Squarcialupi Codex) Francesco Landini or Landino (around 1325 – September 2, 1397) was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet and instrument maker. ... Jacopo da Bologna (fl. ... The Madrigal is an Italian musical form of the 14th century. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


The beginning of the Renaissance in music can be traced, unlike most other art forms, to England. John Dunstaple and his use of the interval of the third can be seen as an important step towards the music of the modern period. John Dunstable or Dunstaple (c. ...


Timeline

Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... The Great Famine of 1315-1317 (or to 1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century, causing millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marking a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity... March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War (c. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411) The Black Death, or Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... Events and Trends Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI†, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 Greek militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries [2] 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Greek defenders, some mercenaries[3], approximately 4,000 civilians[4] unverified The Fall of... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dom Vasco da Gama (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, c. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...

Further reading

  • The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 6: c. 1300 - c. 1415, Michael Jones (ed.) (Cambridge, 1998)
  • The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 7: c. 1415 - c. 1500, Christopher Allmand (ed.) (Cambridge, 2000)
  • C. Warren Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York, 1964)
  • Carlo M. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy, 1000-1700 (London, 1976)
  • M.H. Keen, England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1973)

External links


History of Europe
Prehistoric Europe | Classical antiquity | Late antiquity | Middle Ages | Renaissance | Early modern Europe | Modern Times | Contemporary history

  Results from FactBites:
 
Middle Ages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3073 words)
The Middle Ages of Western Europe are commonly dated from the end of the Western Roman Empire (5th century) until the rise of national monarchies, the start of European overseas exploration, the humanist revival, and the Protestant Reformation starting in 1517.
The Early Middle Ages are characterized by the urban control of bishops and the territorial control exercised by dukes and counts.
The "High Middle Ages" describes the expansionist culture and intellectual revival from the late 11th century to the beginning of the 14th.
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