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Encyclopedia > Late Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a period in a civilization's development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. The bronze age is part of the three-age system for prehistoric societies. In that system, it follows the neolithic in some areas of the world. In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, the neolithic is directly followed by the 'iron age'. The word civilization (or civilisation) has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic brown Atomic mass 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age // Origin Its formal introduction is attributed to the Dane Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1820s in... The term prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is usually used to describe the period before written history became available. ... The Neolithic (or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Neolithic (or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

Contents


Origins

The earliest evidence of bronze metalworking dates to the mid 4th millennium Maykop culture in the Caucasus. From there, the technology spread rapidly to the Near East and after some time to the Indus Valley Civilization (see Meluhha). (3rd millennium – 4th millennium – 5th millennium – other millennia) The fourth millennium is a period of time which will begin on Thursday, January 1, 3001 and will end on Sunday, December 31, 4000. ... The Maykop culture, ca. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Full extent of the civilization. ... Meluhha refers to one of ancient Sumers prominent trading partners, but precisely which one remains an open question. ...


Near Eastern Bronze Age

The Bronze Age in the Near East is divided into three main periods (the dates are very approximate):

  • EBA - Early Bronze Age (c.3500-2000 BC)
  • MBA - Middle Bronze Age (c.2000-1600 BC)
  • LBA - Late Bronze Age (c.1600-1200 BC)

Each main period can be divided into shorter subcategories such as EB I, EB II, MB IIa etc.


Metallurgy developed first in Anatolia, modern Turkey. The mountains in the Anatolian highland possessed rich deposits of copper and tin. Copper was also mined in Cyprus, Egypt, the Negev desert, Iran and around the Persian Gulf. Copper was usually mixed with arsenic, yet the growing demand for tin resulted in the establishment of distant trade routes in and out of Anatolia. The precious copper was also imported by sea routes to the great kingdoms of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Ruins in the Negev desert This article is about the region of Israel, for the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Ancient Egypt was a civilization located along the Lower Nile, reaching from the Nile Delta in the north to as far south as Jebel Barkal at the time of its greatest extension (15th century BC). ... Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan between rivers; Aramaic name being Beth Nahrain house of rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...


The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanization into organized city states and the invention of writing (the Uruk period in the fourth millennium BC). In the Middle Bronze Age movements of people partially changed the political pattern of the Near East (Amorites, Hittites, Hurrians, Hyksos and possibly the Israelites). The Late Bronze Age is characterized by competing powerful kingdoms and their vassal states (Ancient Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Hittites, Mitanni). Extensive contacts were made with the Aegean civilization (Ahhiyawa, Alashiya) in which the copper trade played an important role. The Uruk period is a protohistoric sequence in the history of Mesopotamia which stretches from 4100 to 3300 BC, before the apparition of a writing system. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire “Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite Hattushash) where today is the village of BoÄŸazköy in north-central Turkey... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Ancient Egypt was a civilization located along the Lower Nile, reaching from the Nile Delta in the north to as far south as Jebel Barkal at the time of its greatest extension (15th century BC). ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th c. ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire “Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite Hattushash) where today is the village of BoÄŸazköy in north-central Turkey... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Syria during the later 2nd millennium BC. The name was later used as a geographical term for the area between the Khabur and Euphrates rivers in Neo-Assyrian times. ... Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece and the Aegean. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... Alashiya was an important state during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. ...


Iron began to be worked already in Late Bronze Age Anatolia. The transition into the Iron Age c.1200 BC was more of a political change in the Near East rather than of new developments in metalworking.


Asia

China's bronze age began from around 2100? BC during the Xia dynasty. In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC [1]. This article is about the extremely ancient Chinese dynasty whose existence has yet to be thoroughly confirmed by archaeology. ... Ban Chiang (Thai บ้านเชียง) is an archeological site located in the Udon Thani province, Thailand, at 17°32′55″N, 103°21′30″E. It is listed in the UNESCO world heritage list since 1992. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... I archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 BC – 2080 BC — Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt. ...


The Erlitou culture, Shang Dynasty and Sanxingdui culture of early China used bronze vessels for rituals as well as farming implements and weapons [2]. The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... Shang Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝) or Yin Dynasty (殷代) (1600 BC - 1046 BC) is the first historic Chinese dynasty and ruled in the northeastern region of China proper. ... Sanxingdui (三星堆 san1 xing1 dui1) is an archaeological site, about 40 kilometres from Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China. ...


The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production circa [700-600?] BC after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artefacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula (circa 900-700 B.C.). Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until AD 100. The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ...


Aegean Bronze Age

Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.
Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.

The Aegean bronze age civilisations established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (1264x803, 352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1264x803, 352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti; see Wiktionary: Crete for the name in other languages) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece and the Aegean. ... A fruit stand at a market. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic brown Atomic mass 63. ... Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus - but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded until a method was discovered (or perhaps rediscovered) to determine longitude around 1750. There are several traditions of navigation. ... Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex...


The Minoan civilization appears to have coordinated and defended its bronze-age trade. Map of Minoan Crete The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, prior to Helladic or Mycenaean culture (i. ...


One crucial lack in this period was that modern methods of accounting were not available. Numerous authorities believe that ancient empires were prone to misvalue staples in favor of luxuries, and thereby perish by famines created by uneconomic trading. Staples can refer to several things: The common office and woodworking material, a staple fastener. ... A luxury good is a good at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. ...


How the bronze age ended in this region is still being studied. There is evidence that Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy. Evidence also exists that supports the assumption that several Minoan client-states lost large portions of their respective populations to extreme famines and/or pestilence, which in turn would indicate that the trade network may have failed at some point, preventing the trade that would have previously relieved such famines and prevented some forms of illness (by nutrition). It is also known that the bread-basket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea, also suddenly lost significant portions of its population, and thus probably some degree of cultivation in this era. Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of Bronze Age Greece, is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of ancient Greece. ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


Recent research has discredited the theory that exhaustion of the Cypriot forests caused the end of the bronze trade. The Cypriot forests are known to have existed into later times, and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late bronze age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years. Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents of animal and vegetable substances. ...


One theory says that as iron tools became more common, the main justification of the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it once did. The individual colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought, famine, war, or some combination of these three factors, and thus they had no access to the far-flung resources of an empire by which they could easily recover. General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ...


Another family of theories looks to the volcanic explosion of Thera, which occurred shortly before the end of the bronze age. Thera is about 40 miles north of Crete, which was at the time the capital of the Minoan empire. Some authorities speculate that a tsunami from Thera destroyed Cretan cities. Others say that perhaps a tsunami destroyed the Cretan navy in its home harbor, which then lost crucial battles with the Mycenaean navy, so that a former colony took over the empire. View from the top of Thira Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, 75 km south-east of the Greek mainland, (latitude: 35. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti; see Wiktionary: Crete for the name in other languages) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of WW1 A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Mycenae (ancient Greek: , IPA, , in modern Greek: Μυκήνες, , U.S. English: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is an archaeological site in Greece, located about 90km south-west of Athens, in the north-eastern Peloponnese. ... In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distant state. ...


Yet another theory looks to the possible loss of Cretan expertise in administering the Empire. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, and simply became discredited by military failure, then the Mycenaeans may have made crucial political and commercial mistakes when administering their empire. Mycenaean can have the following meanings: coming from or belonging to the ancient town of Mycenae in Pelloponese in Greece; belonging to the culture of the Mycenaean period of the eastern Mediterranean in the late Bronze Age; the Mycenaean language, an ancient form of Greek, known from inscriptions in Linear...


All of these theories are persuasive, and aspects of all of them may have some validity in describing the end of the bronze age in this region.


British Bronze Age

In Great Britain, the bronze age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 700 BC. Immigration brought new people to the islands from the continent, recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early bronze age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the immigrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker people displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people and cultural change was significant although integration is thought to have been peaceful as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers. The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating, where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the bronze age continued, forcing the population away from easily-defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. Large livestock ranches developed in the lowlands which appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the 'Middle Bronze Age' (c. 1400-1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. Cornwall was a major source of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales. Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 BC – 2080 BC — Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt. ... (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Assyria conquers Damascus and Samaria Nineveh destroyed (789 BCE) First recorded Olympic Games held in Greece (776 BCE) Zhou Dynasty moved its capital to Luoyang (771 BC); The Spring and Autumn Period (771-481 BCE) began. ... Stonehenge Stonehenge is a Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monument located near Avebury in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury. ... The Beaker people (or `Beaker folk) were an archaeological culture present in prehistoric Europe, defined by a pottery style -- a beaker with a distinctive bell-shaped profile -- that many archeologists believe spread across the western part of the Continent during the 3rd millennium BC. The pottery is particularly prevalent in... The Neolithic (or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... The Wessex culture is a name given to the predominant prehistoric culture of southern Britain during the early Bronze Age. ... The Deverel-Rimbury culture was a name given to an archaeological culture of the British Middle Bronze Age. ... (Redirected from 1400 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... Motto: Onen hag oll (Cornish: One and all) Geography Status Ceremonial and (smaller) Non-metropolitan county Region South West England Population - Total (2004 est. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic brown Atomic mass 63. ... The Great Orme (a. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ...


Also, the burial of dead (which until this period had usually been communal) became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the 'Early Bronze Age' saw people buried in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as Tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. A chambered cairn is a burial monument, usually constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a cairn of stones inside which a sizeable (usually stone) chamber was constructed. ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ... Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. ... A cist (IPA ) is a small stone-built coffin-like box used to hold the bodies of the dead (notably during the Bronze Age in Britain and occasionally in Native American burials). ... A cairn to mark the way along a glacier A cairn is a manmade pile of stones. ...


Bronze Age boats

North Ferriby is a village in the East Riding of Yorkshire, on the North bank of the River Humber, approximately 8 miles to the West of Hull city centre. ... Map sources for Dover at grid reference TR315415 Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ... Map sources for Dover at grid reference TR315415 Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ...

Central European Bronze Age

Bronze age weaponry
Bronze age weaponry

In Central Europe, the early bronze age Unetice culture (1800-1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubingen, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle bronze age (1600-1200 BC) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early bronze age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures. Image File history File links Bronze_age_weapons_Romania. ... Image File history File links Bronze_age_weapons_Romania. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Unetice, or more properly ÚnÄ›tice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ... (17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC - other centuries) (1600s BC - 1590s BC - 1580s BC - 1570s BC - 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC - 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC - 1500s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700 - 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests... (17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC - other centuries) (1600s BC - 1590s BC - 1580s BC - 1570s BC - 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC - 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC - 1500s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700 - 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... The Tumulus culture which followed the Únêtice, and from which they descended, dominated central Europe during much of the second part of the second millenium B.C.E.. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow-in-Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... Körös is a Hungarian toponym with several meanings: Körös or CriÅŸ, a river that flows into Tisza, was used for an archeological site of the Starcevo-Körös culture Hungarian name for Križevci, was used for the historic Belovár-Körös county... The Ottomány culture in eastern Hungary is a local middle Bronze age culture (1600-1200 BC) near the village of Ottomány. ...


The late bronze age urnfield culture, (1300 BC-700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland ((1300-500 BC) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European bronze age is followed by the iron age Hallstatt culture (700-450 BC). The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia (in older articles described also as Czechoslovakia) and parts of Ukraine. ... (Redirected from 1300 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC...


Important sites include: This is a list of archaeological sites is sorted by country. ...

Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... Nebra is a small city in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Zug : also the name of a character from childrens series TUGS Location within Switzerland Zug, capital of the Swiss canton of that name, is a picturesque little town at the northeastern corner of the lake of Zug, and at the foot of the Zugerberg (3255 ft. ...

Nordic Bronze Age (1500-500 BC)

Main article: Nordic Bronze Age

In northern Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, bronze age inhabitants manufactured many distinctive and beautiful artifacts, such as the pairs of lurer horns discovered in Denmark. Some linguists believe that a proto-Indo-European language was probably introduced to the area around 2000 BC, which eventually became the ancestor of the Germanic languages. This would fit with the evolution of the Nordic bronze age into the most probably Germanic pre-Roman iron age. Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... See Lurs for other uses Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind musical instrument. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 – 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...


The age is divided into the periods I-VI according to Oscar Montelius. Period Montelius V already belongs to the Iron Age in other regions. Oscar Montelius (9 September 1843–4 November 1921) was a Swedish archaeologist who refined the concept of seriation, a relative chronological dating method. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Bibliography

  • Pernicka, E., G.A. Wagner, et al. "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean." in Troia and the troad: scientific approaches. Berlin, London: Springer; 2003. pp. 143-172. ISBN 3540437118

External links


Three-age system: Stone Age | Bronze Age | Iron Age The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age // Origin Its formal introduction is attributed to the Dane Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1820s in... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


List of archaeological periods The following is a refined listing of archeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions and extension into the modern historical period. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bronze Age - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1428 words)
The Bronze Age in the Near East is considered as beginning around 3300 BC with the increasing use of bronze and the rise of complex urban civilisation (to varying degrees and in varying forms) in the main cultural centres of the region, Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The end of the Bronze Age in the Near East is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population movements in the 12th century BC and the rise of new technologies and political formations, characterised as the start of the Iron Age.
The late Bronze age urnfield culture, (1300 BC-700 BC) is characterized by cremation burial.
Uluburun Shipwreck Excavation (2689 words)
A bronze female figurine, partly clad in gold, is similar to those of Syro-Palestinian origin and may have served as the ship's protective deity.
C. Pulak, A Hull Construction of the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Uluburun, @ INA Quarterly 26.4 (2000) 16-21.
J.S. Mills and R. White, "The Identity of the Resins from the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Ka Õ)," Archaeometry 31.1 (1989) 37-44.
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