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Encyclopedia > Last stand
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Last stand is a loose military term used to describe a body of troops holding a defensive position in the face of overwhelming odds. The offensive force usually takes very heavy casualties, on occasion is completely destroyed, and, with rare exceptions such as Rorke's Drift, ultimately defeated. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... A troop is a military unit. ...


The situation can arise in one of two ways. Sometimes, perhaps because of geography or lack of supplies or support, the troops in question cannot retreat from their position without being instantly destroyed by the enemy. At other times, the troops in question are forced to follow orders and cannot consider retreat, even though the moral choice is open to them. In both cases, surrender to the enemy is an option but either the group as a whole, or their commanding officer, decides instead to "go down fighting". In some cases the soldiers may consider that surrender may also result in their deaths, and that to fight to their death is a better choice in the circumstances. Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ...


A siege will often lead to a last stand by the defenders of the besieged city. However, while sieges are generally characterised by a lengthy engagement, last stands are generally brief and decisive. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Famous last stands

Name Date Defending army Attacking army Ratio Details
Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC 300 Spartans and 6,700 other Greeks 60,000 to 300,000 Persian army (modern estimates)[1][2]

800,000 to 2,100,000 Persian army (ancient sources - exaggerated)

1:21 to 1:29

1:114 to 1:300
King Leonidas and his Spartan bodyguards, accompanied by a force of allied Greek city states, held back a much larger Persian force under Xerxes for three days in one of the most memorable and eulogized last stands in classical antiquity.
*Historical ranges vary (see Battle of Thermopylae).
Battle of the Persian Gate 330 BC 700[3] to 40,000[4] Persians 10,000 to 17,000 Macedonians[3] 4:1 to 1:25 Ariobarzanes led the Persian resistance at the Persian Gate, in a last stand against Alexander the Great and killed a large number of Alexander's Macedonian troops. Despite Ariobarzanes' skillful tactics, Alexander defeated him and burned Persepolis to the ground.
Battle of the Hydaspes River 326 BC 22,000 Pauravas 41,000-135,000 Macedonian army 1:2 to 1:6 Porus' smaller Paurava Indian army fell against Alexander the Great's large army near the Hydaspes in Punjab, where Alexander's army suffered up to 12,000 casualties in another Pyrrhic victory. Alexander was impressed and spared Porus' life.
Siege of Numantia 134-133 b.c.e. 60,000 legionaires ~4,000 militia ~8 to 16 months The culminating and pacifying action of the long-running Numantine War between the forces of the Roman Republic and those of the native Celtiberian population of Hispania Citerior. The city refused to surrender and starvation set in. Cannibalism ensued and eventually some began to commit suicide with their whole families. The remnant population finally surrendered only after setting their city on fire. Scipio took it and had its ruins levelled.
Catiline Conspiracy 62 BC Unknown Unknown Unknown Catiline and his army were annihilated at Pistoria (now Pistoia). "[L]eave to your enemies a bloody and mournful victory."
Siege of Masada 73 1,000 Jews 15,000 Romans 1:15 Jewish zealots committed mass suicide rather than face the prospect of surrender to the Roman army at Masada
Battle of Nihawānd 642 30,000 100,000[5]-150,000[6] 1:3 to 1:5 The Sassanid Empire fought its final battle against the Arab conquerors. The Arabs outmaneuvered and defeated the Sassanid force, effectively ending the empire.
Battle of Karbala 680 73 30,000+ 1:410 Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali- (Husayn, Son of Ali) with 71 men, and a military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph, numbering in the thousands, fought in Battle of Karbala, in which Husayn and all his men died.
Battle of Roncevaux Pass 778 Roland and his warriors fought to the last man against the Basques.
Battle of Maldon 10 August 991 approximately 200 Anglo-Saxons 2,000-4,000 Vikings 1:10 to 1:20 A handful of Anglo-Saxon warriors lead by Byrhtnoth fought and were eventually overwhelmed by a force of 2,000 - 4,000 Vikings.
Sack of Baghdad 1258 50,000 Baghdadis 120,000 Mongol army 1:2 to 1:3 The defending army of Baghdad under Caliph Al-Musta'sim made a last stand against Hulagu Khan's large invading army. The destruction of Baghdad brought an end to the Abbasid Caliphate and the Islamic Golden Age.
Battle of Posada November 1330 10,000 30,000+ 1:3 After having agreed to an armistice, Basarab's guides led the 30,000-strong Hungarian army into an ambush; the Hungarians were slaughtered by the 10,000-strong Wallachian army led by Basarab I. When the Hungarian king Charles I Robert saw his knights being killed, he gave his royal insignia to one of his captains (who was subsequently killed) and fought his way back to Hungary in disguise.
Defence of Meerut Fort January 1399 Much smaller Much larger The army of Tamerlane was stopped by Ilyaas Awaan, the military commander of Meerut Fort in northern India. Tamerlane's experienced army vastly outnumbered Awaan's small defending force, but Awaan stopped Tamerlane for two months. It was only after the death of Awaan that Tamerlane's army was able to take the fort. Tamerlane developed great respect for Awaan and openely praised his bravery and courage. He later mentioned Awaan in his memoirs as the opponent who gave him the fiercest resistance with an extremely small force.
First Siege of Krujë June 1450 1,500 Albanians 150,000 Ottomans 1:100 After leaving a protective garrison of 1,500 men under his trusted lieutenant Vrana Konti (also known as Kont Urani), Skanderbeg harassed the Ottoman camps around Krujë and attacked the supply caravans of Sultan Murad II's army. By September, the Ottoman camp was in disarray, as morale sank and disease ran rampant. The Ottoman army acknowledged that the castle of Krujë would not fall by strength of arms, and lifted the siege and made their way to Edirne.
Battle of Agincourt 25 October 1415 6-9,000 English 12-36,000 French 2:3 to 1:6 The English army, with no means of retreat, but with technological superiority, defeated the numerically superior French army.
Fall of Constantinople May 1453 7,000 Byzantine Greeks and Latin allies 80-200,000 Ottomans[7] 1:11 to 1:21 Constantinople was captured by Turks under Mehmed II, and Emperor Constantine XI died in battle, signaling the end of the Byzantine Empire.
Battle of Szigetvár August 1566 2,300 Croats and Hungarians 90,000 Turks 1:39 All but seven defenders under the leadership of Croatian ban Nicholas Šubić Zrinski were killed or captured, while the Ottoman Turks suffered up to 25,000 killed.[citation needed]
Battle of Myeongnyang October 26, 1597 13 Korean panokseon battleships 333 Japanese fleet 1:25 During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598), Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin held off a fleet of 333 Japanese ships with only 13 ships, using cannons and hwacha.
Battle of Pavan Khind 1660 150 Marathas under Baji Prabhu Deshpande Bijapuri Army (15,000+) 1:100 Baji Prabhu Deshpande defended Pavan Khind, a small pass and huge cliffs between Kolhapur and Satara, with 150 men against the Bijapur army for more than 14 hours, allowing Shivaji to escape to a safer place.
Battle of Culloden 16 April 1746 5,400 Jacobites 9,000 British troops roughly 1:2 The last battle between the Jacobite forces under Prince Charles Edward Stuart (aka "Bonnie Prince Charlie") and the forces of King George II ended the Rising of the '45.
Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón May 2 1808 37 Spanish soldiers Hundreds of French soldiers ? Pedro Velarde y Santillán led the defence of the artillery barracks in Madrid during the spontaneous popular uprising against Napoleon. Hundreds were killed, among them Velarde and nearly all of his troops.
Battle of the Alamo March 1836 183-250 defenders 1,400-1,600 Mexican assaulters 1:6 to 1:7 The Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution was the first and last stand for the Coahuila y Tejas, The Texans held out for 12 days. On the last day, every single armed defender was killed in the battle.
Battle of Blood River 16 December 1838 470 Voortrekkers defenders 10-20,000 Zulu attackers 1:21 to 1:43 470 Boer Voortrekkers successfully defended an impromptu laager of wagons against 10,000 Zulus.
Battle of Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Niños Héroes - Six Mexican cadets fought to the last man, after General Bravo ordered them to fall back during the Siege of Chapultepec; one of the last events of the Mexican-American War
Battle of Camarón 30 April 1863 65 Legionnaires 1600 Mexican attackers 1:25 The French Foreign Legion's stand at Camerone (Spanish: Camarón), Mexico.
Battle of Port Hudson May 23-July 9 1863 4,652-6,800 CS troops 30-40,000 US troops 1:6 Major General Franklin Gardner defended the last Confederate bastion on the Mississippi River against two major attacks by the Union Army of the Gulf, commanded by Major General N P Banks and a Union flotilla led by Admiral David G Farragut. It was the longest siege in US military history, with the highest casualty rate suffered by Union Army during the Civil War. The Union flotilla was severely damaged, making it the worst defeat suffered by Farragut during the war.
Battle of Ringgold Gap 27 November 1863 10-20,000 CS troops 30-60,000 US troops 1:3 The division of Confederate Major General Patrick Cleburne held the pass of Ringgold Gap in Northwest Georgia to cover the retreat of the Confederate Army of Tennessee against the entire Union Army corps of Joseph Hooker of the Army of the Potomac, taking approximately the same number of casualties as their enemy while outnumbered 3:1. Just two days before, the same division had successfully held Tunnel Hill, the north end of Missionary Ridge, against the four divisions of Major General William T. Sherman's corps on the third day of the Third Battle of Chattanooga, only to have that victory nullified when the center of the line across ridge two miles south, under the direct command of Gen. Braxton Bragg collapsed under assault by the troops of George Henry Thomas.
Battle of Acosta Ñu 16 August 1869 6,000 mostly children 20,000+ Brazilian troops 1:3 During the Triple Alliance War, while retreating from Asuncion, a Paraguayan army of mostly children held back a Brazilian regiment, until being massacred.
Battle of the Little Bighorn 25 June 1876 650 Americans 950-1200 Lakota roughly 1:2 Custer's famous last stand.
Battle of Shipka Pass 21 August 1877 5000 Russian soldiers and Bulgarian Opalchentsi 30,000 Turkish soldiers 1:6 5000 Russian soldiers and Bulgarian Opalchentsi lead by General Darozhinsky repelled 30,000 troops commanded by Suleiman Pasha at the Battle of Shipka Pass.
Battle of Shiroyama 24 September 1877 300-400 samurai under Satsuma 300,000 troops of the Imperial Japanese Army 1:750 to 1:1000 300 samurai faced 300,000 troops of the Imperial Japanese Army at the Battle of Shiroyama.
Battle of Isandlwana 22 January 1879 1,400 British soldiers 22,000 Zulu troops 1:16 A British force of 1,400 men was overwhelmed by a 22,000 strong Zulu army at the Battle of Isandlwana and suffered over 1300 dead.
Rorke's Drift 22 January 1879 139 British infantry 4,000-5,000 Zulu warriors 1:29 to 1:36 150 British soldiers successfully defend the supply station at Rorke's Drift against 4,000 Zulu warriors. This engagement resulted in the largest number of Victoria Crosses ever awarded a regiment in a single battle.
Battle of Tomochic 20 October 1892 In the last battle of the Tomochic revolt, 100 serrano riflemen stood against 1200 Federal troops for seven days in the Tomochic forest and finally in the town itself.
Shangani Patrol 3 December 18934 December 1893 34 British South Africa Police 3,000 Matabele warriors 1:88 The Shangani Patrol was a group of white Rhodesian settlers killed in battle on the Shangani River in Zimbabwe. The incident achieved a lasting, prominent place in Rhodesian colonial history as part of the mythology of white conquest.
Battle of Saragarhi 12 September 1897 21 Sikhs 10,000 Afghan and Orakzai troops 1:476 The Battle of Saragarhi was fought between 21 Sikhs of the 4th Battalion (then 36th Sikhs) of the Sikh Regiment of India, defending an army post, against 10,000 Afghans and Orakzai tribesmen.
Battle of San Juan Hill July 1, 1898 800 Spanish 15,000 Americans, 4,000 Cubans 1:24 The Americans suffered almost three times as many losses compared to the Spaniards.
Battle of El Caney July 1, 1898 500 Spanish 8,500 Americans, 1,000 Cubans 1:19 The Spanish army held off the more heavily armed Americans for 12 hours while waiting in vain for reinforcements.
The Surround of Baler [1898]-[1899] 50 Spaniards Between 300 and 2,000 Filipinos grossing as the siege advanced 1:6 to 1:40 Fifty Spanish soldiers and four officers defended this site, surrounded for a whole year, not knowing that the Filipino-Spanish war was over.
Siege of Mafeking October 1899 - May 1900 2000 UK Combatants 8000 Boer Combatants 1:4 The Siege of Mafeking was the most famous British action in the Second Boer War. It took place at the town of Mafeking (now Mafikeng) in South Africa over a period of 217 days, from October 1899 to May 1900, and turned Robert Baden-Powell, who went on to found the Scouting movement, into a national hero. The lifting of the Siege of Mafeking was a decisive victory for the British and a crushing defeat for the Boers.
Battle of Tirad Pass 2 December 1899 60 Filipino troops 500 American soldiers 1:8 The stand of 60 Filipino soldiers under General Gregorio del Pilar covered the retreat of President Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine-American War.
Battle of Doiran 18 September 1918 35,000 Bulgarian troops (1 Division) at least 75,000 British and Greek troops (6 Divisions) 1:2,5-3 The stand of the Bulgarian 9th Infantry Division on the fortified position around Doiran under General Vladimir Vazov against superior Allied forces. The Bulgarians inflicted 59,000 casualties on the enemy while losing 494 killed. The Bulgarian victory saved the country from an Allied occupation.
Lost Battalion 27 October 1918 An American battalion under Major Charles White Whittlesey held out in the Argonne Forrest.
Defense of Sihang Warehouse 26 October1 November 1937 414 Chinese 414 Chinese soldiers defended the Sihang Warehouse against Japanese forces.
Battle of Westerplatte 1 September7 September 1939 182 Polish soldiers 25 civilians 3,500 German soldiers plus

47-70 Stuka dive bombers For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: IPA: ) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: IPA: ) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Leonidas can refer to: Leonidas I, king of Sparta, ruled c. ... Xerxes the Great (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Combatants Macedonian Empire Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Ariobarzan † Strength 17,000[1][2] 700[1] Casualties Thousands[1] 700[1] The Battle of the Persian Gate was fought northeast of todays Yasuj in Iran between a group of Persian patriots led by Ariobarzan against the large invading Macedonian... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: IPA: ) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Ariobarzan also spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan was a great Iranian (Persian) commander. ... Persian Gates: ancient name of the pass now known as Tang-e Meyran, north of modern Yasuj in Iran. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Persepolis aerial view. ... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava (Punjabi Indian kingdom) Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 20,000 infantry,[7] 2,000 cavalry,[7] 85 war elephants,[8][9] 60 chariots[10] Casualties 4... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC - 326 BC - 325 BC 324 BC 323... The pauravas was the name given to the many petty kingdoms and tribes of ancient NW India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The Pauravas were all situated on or near the Indus river where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab and dominions extending to Hyphasis[1]. Its capital may have been near the current city of Lahore [2... The pauravas was the name given to the many petty kingdoms and tribes of ancient NW India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The Pauravas were all situated on or near the Indus river where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... Combatants Roman Republic Celtiberians Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Avarus Strength 60,000 legionnaires 4,000 militia Casualties next to none almost all The Siege of Numantia was the culminating and pacifying action of the long-running Numantine War between the forces of the Roman Republic and those of the native Celtiberian... Term for a member of a foreign legion. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The Numantine War[1] (from Bellum Numantinum in Appians Roman History) was the last conflict of the Celtiberian Wars fought by the Romans to subdue those people along the Ebro. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... During the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro valley of modern Spain. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59... Lucius Sergius Catilina (110 BC?–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. ... Pistoia (ancient Pistoria) is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km (18 mi) west and north of Florence. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... This article is about the year 73. ... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... Combatants Muslim Arabs Sassanid Empire The Battle of Nihawānd was fought in 642 between Arab and Sassanid. ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... It has been suggested that Orlando (character) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... The Battle of Maldon took place in 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Ethelred the Unready. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Byrhtnoth (Byrhtnoþ, also spelled Byrhtnoð, Byrihtnoð, Brihtnoþ, Beorhtnoþ, Beorhtnoð, Baeorhtnoð), Anglo-Saxon name, composed of beorht bright and noth courage. Name of the leader of the Anglo-Saxon defence force in the Battle of Maldon in 991. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, , Hulegu and Halaku) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Wallachia Commanders Charles I Robert Basarab I Strength 30,000 possibly 10,000 Casualties Almost all killed minimum The Battle of Posada (November, 1330) was a battle between the Wallachian Prince Basarab I and Charles I Robert, which resulted in a major Wallachian victory. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Posada Battle Basarab I was an early ruler of the principality of Wallachia, known as ÃŽntemeietorul (The Founder) (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The First Siege of Krujë took place in June 1450 when an Ottoman army of approximately 150,000 men laid siege to Krujë in Albania. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Battle of Szigetvár (also Battle of Siget) was a siege of the small fort located in Szigetvár, Hungary between 6 August and 8 September 1566, fought between the defending forces of the Habsburg Monarchy under the leadership of the Hungarian Zrínyi Miklós croatian ban and... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Combatants Fleet of Toyotomi Hideyoshi Joseon navy Commanders Todo Takatora Kurushima Michifusa† Katō Yoshiaki Wakisaka Yasuharu Yi Sunsin Kim Eokchu Strength 133 warships and at least 200 logistical ships [1] 13 Panokseon. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ... Panokseon (board roofed or superstructured ships) was the main type of warship used by the Korean Joseon Dynasty during the late 16th century, and was first constructed in 1555. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hwacha or Hwacha [1] was an anti-personnel saltpeter weapon used in Korea, inspired by Chinese fire arrows. ... Battle of Pavankhind was a rear guard battle that took place on July 13, 1660 at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu and Siddi Masud of Adilshah. ... Baji Prabhu Deshpande Baji Prabhu Deshpande 2 Baji Prabhu Deshpande (Marathi: बाजी प्रभू देशपांडे) (died 1660) was one of the lieutenants (also known as sardar) of Chattrapati Shivaji, founder of the Maratha empire. ... Baji Prabhu Deshpande Baji Prabhu Deshpande 2 Baji Prabhu Deshpande (Marathi: बाजी प्रभू देशपांडे) (died 1660) was one of the lieutenants (also known as sardar) of Chattrapati Shivaji, founder of the Maratha empire. ... Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापुर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Combatants British Army Jacobites Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength 8,000 ca. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... George II King of Great Britain and Ireland George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón by Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida depicts Pedro Velardes last stand. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack (1,800 in assault-see below) 183 to 250 Casualties 370 to 600 total 70 to 200... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... A laager is a defensive formation of vehicles. ... This article is about the African ethnic group. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nicolás Bravo (September 10, 1786 – April 22, 1854) was a Mexican politician and soldier. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants Mexico France Commanders Colonel Milan Capitaine Danjou † Strength 800 cavalry, 1200 infantry 65 Casualties 300-500 62 killed, 3 captured The Battle of Camarón took place on (30 April 1863) between the French Foreign Legion and the Mexican army. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Legionnaire” redirects here. ... Combatants Mexico France Commanders Colonel Milan Capitaine Danjou † Strength 800 cavalry, 1200 infantry 65 Casualties 300-500 62 killed, 3 captured The Battle of Camarón took place on (30 April 1863) between the French Foreign Legion and the Mexican army. ... Battle of Port Hudson Conflict American Civil War Date May 21-July 9, 1863 Place East Baton Rouge Parish and East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana Result Union victory The Siege of Port Hudson occurred in 1863 when 30,000 Union Army troops surrounded the Mississippi River town of Port Hudson, Louisiana. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Confederate Major General Franklin Gardner Franklin Gardner (January 29, 1823 – April 29, 1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War, best noted for his service at the Siege of Port Hudson. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Patrick Cleburne Strength Three Divisions One Division Casualties 507 221 The battle of Ringgold Gap was a battle in the American Civil War, fought in Northwest Georgia. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Patrick Cleburne Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Franklin. ... Ringgold may refer to: Ringgold, Georgia Ringgold, Louisiana Ringgold County, Iowa Cadwallader Ringgold This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Missionary Ridge is a geographic feature in Chattanooga, Tennessee, site of the Battle of Missionary Ridge, a battle in the American Civil War, fought on November 25, 1863. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... Four battles were fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire for control over the crucial Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Opalchentsi (опълченци) are Bulgarian voluntary army units, who took part in the Serbo-Turkish War of 1876 and the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). ... Opalchentsi (опълченци) are Bulgarian voluntary army units, who took part in the Serbo-Turkish War of 1876 and the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). ... For other uses, see Suleiman Pasha (disambiguation) Suleiman Pasha (c. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Samurai of Satsuma Commanders Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori† Strength 300,000 troops 350-400 samurai Casualties unknown 350 (Approximate) The Battle of Shiroyama (Japanese:城山の戦い) took place on September 24, 1877, in Kagoshima, Japan. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pulleine. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders John Chard Gonville Bromhead Prince Dabulamanzi Strength 139 4,000–5,000 Casualties 17 killed, 10 wounded Around 500-600 dead found in 500 foot perimeter Rorkes Drift was a mission station in Natal, South Africa, situated near a natural ford (drift) on the... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders John Chard Gonville Bromhead Prince Dabulamanzi Strength 139 4,000–5,000 Casualties 17 killed, 10 wounded Around 500-600 dead found in 500 foot perimeter Rorkes Drift was a mission station in Natal, South Africa, situated near a natural ford (drift) on the... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Victoria Cross, Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Victoria Cross (official post-nominal letters VC) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service and civilians under military command. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A panel from the Shangani Memorial at Worlds View in Zimbabwe, c1905. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the break-away colony of (Southern) Rhodesia , today Zimbabwe. ... The appearance of a Sikh soldier The Battle of Saragarhi was fought during the Tirah Campaign on 12 September 1897 between twenty one Sikhs of the 4th Battalion (then 36th Sikhs) of the Sikh Regiment of British India, defending an army post, and 10,000 [1]Afghan and Orakzais tribesmen... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Response International, United Kingdom has recently about to initiate training workshops on Child Health promotion in Orakzai Agency. ... The appearance of a Sikh soldier The Battle of Saragarhi was fought during the Tirah Campaign on 12 September 1897 between twenty one Sikhs of the 4th Battalion (then 36th Sikhs) of the Sikh Regiment of British India, defending an army post, and 10,000 [1]Afghan and Orakzais tribesmen... The Sikh Regiment is the highest decorated regiment of the Indian Army, with 72 Battle Honours, 15 Theatre Honours and 5 COAS Unit Citations and 1596 other gallantry awards. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Spain Commanders William Rufus Shafter Joseph Wheeler Arsenio Linares Strength 15,000 regulars 4,000 guerrilleros 12 field guns 4 Gatling guns 800 regulars 5 field guns Casualties 124 dead 817 wounded 58 dead 170 wounded 39 captured The Battle of San Juan Hill... Battle of El Caney Conflict Spanish-American War Date July 1, 1898 Place El Caney, Cuba Result Indecisive The Battle of El Caney was fought on July 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War. ... Combatants United Kingdom Boers Commanders Robert Baden-Powell Colonel B T Mahon General Piet Cronje Strength 2,000 8,000 Casualties 212 dead 600 wounded Unknown but significantly higher than British The Siege of Mafeking was the most famous British action in the Second Boer War. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Combatants United Kingdom Boers Commanders Robert Baden-Powell Colonel B T Mahon General Piet Cronje Strength 2,000 8,000 Casualties 212 dead 600 wounded Unknown but significantly higher than British The Siege of Mafeking was the most famous British action in the Second Boer War. ... Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (February 22, 1857 - January 8, 1941) was a soldier, writer and founder of the world scouting movement. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders Major P.C. March Gregorio del Pilar Strength 500 60 Casualties 2 dead and 9 wounded 52 dead and wounded The Battle of Tirad Pass, sometimes referred to as the Philippine Thermopylae was a battle in the Philippine-American War fought on December 2, 1899... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gregorio del Pilar c. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. ... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead, 3,000 wounded 2,000 killed, dead, or wounded suffered by the Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... Combatants Great Britain, Greece Bulgaria Commanders George Milne Vladimir Vazov Strength - English: 4 divisions, Greeks: 2 divisions - 9-th Infantry division, with parts of 11-th Infantry division and the Mountain Division (Total: 34,500) Casualties English: 47,000 Greeks: 12,000 494 The Battle of Doiran was fought from... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Vladimir Minchev Vazov is a Bulgarian officer, lieutenant-general. ... The Lost Battalion is the name given to eight American units of the 77th Division, roughly 550 men, isolated by German forces during World War I after an American attack in the Argonne Forest in October 1918. ... October 2nd is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Combatants 524th Regiment, 88th Division, National Revolutionary Army 3rd Division, Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Xie Jinyuan Iwane Matsui Strength 414 men including 16 officers Unknown, but far more than the Chinese Casualties 27 wounded, 10 killed More than 200 killed The Defense of Sihang Warehouse (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Westerplatte Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date September 1 to September 7, 1939 Place Westerplatte peninsula in Gdańsk Result ? Westerplatte is a peninsula in Gdańsk, at an estuary of the Dead Vistula (one of the Vistula delta estuaries), in the Gdańsk harbour channel. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

1:18 The Polish garrison held out for a week against the German invaders. The exact number of German losses remains unknown or undisclosed, but are estimated to be in range of several hundred. Polish casualties were much lower - 15 killed and 53 wounded.
Battle of Moscow October 1941 - January 1942 Defense of the Soviet 316th Rifle Division under command of General Ivan Panfilov at Dubosekovo near Volokolamsk during the Battle of Moscow.
Defence of Brest Fortress 22 June30 July 1941 3,500-4,000 Soviet soldiers 30,000-40,000 German soldiers roughly 1:10 The defenders were cut off from the outside world and ran out of food, water and ammunition, but still fought and counter-attacked to the very end.
Battle of Dražgoše 9 January11 January 1942 ~200 Slovenian partisans ~2000 Wermacht troops with supporting artillery 1:10 In the first confrontation between Slovenian partisans and occupying German forces, the village of Dražgoše was razed to the ground following three days of ferocious fighting, in which nine partisans and more than 100 German soldiers were killed. Following the partisan retreat, Germans rounded up the locals, executed adult males and older boys on site and interned the rest of the population to concentration camps.
Battle of Pasir Panjang 13 February 1942 1,400 Malay, British, Indian and Australian soldiers 13,000 Japanese troops 1:9 Soldiers from the Royal Malay Regiment, The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment, the British 2nd Loyals Regiment, the 44th Indian Brigade and the 22nd Australian Brigade made a futile attempt to stop the advancing Japanese towards the centre of Singapore. In the final hours of battle, a Malay soldier, 2nd Lieutenant Adnan Bin Saidi, led a 42-man platoon against thousands of invaders, leaving a sole survivor. The Japanese suffered a disproportionately high number of casualties, and tortured Adnan before executing him.
Battle of Corregidor 5 May6 May 1942 13,000 American and Filipino soldiers 75,000 Japanese troops 1:6 The 4th Marine Regiment fell under the advance of the Imperial Japanese Army's final assault at the Battle of Corregidor.
Battle of Buna-Gona 16 November 1942 – 22 January 1943 Japanese defence of the Papuan beachheads at the Battle of Buna-Gona.
Battle of Ramou (臘猛) May14 September 1944 1,260 Japanese Troops 50,000 Chinese (Nationalist) Troops 1:40 One Japanese regiment fought five Chinese divisions in South China, near Burma. Three Japanese soldiers were ordered by Major Kanemitsu, the officer commanding, to report to headquarters after their position fell and became the only survivors. There was no air cover or supply.
Battle of Angaur. 20 September30 September 1944 1,400 Japanese Troops 15,000 American Troops 1:10 The Japanese defense of Angaur.
Battle of Iwo Jima. 19 February26 March 1945 22,000 Japanese Troops 110,000 American Troops 1:5 The Japanese defended Iwo Jima against a combined land, sea, and air assault by the United States.
Battle for Berlin 16 April8 May 1945 Last stand of the German army against Soviet forces in the German capital.
Bukit Kepong Incident 23 February 1950 25 police and auxiliary police personnel 200 Communists 1:8 A police station near Muar, Malaysia was besieged by Communist guerrillas.
Battle of Chosin Reservoir 26 November 1950December 13 1950
Battle of the Imjin River 22 April25 April 1951 The Gloucestershire Regiment at the Battle of the Imjin River.
Battle of Dien Bien Phu 13 March7 May 1954 10,800 French 63,000 Vietnamese 1:5 The final battle of the First Indochina War pitted French colonial forces against Viet Minh revolutionary forces under General Vo Nguyen Giap.
Battle of Rezang La/Chushul 18 November 1962 The 13th Battalion, Kumaon Regiment at Rezang La (Sino-Indian War).
Battle of Ia Drang 14 November17 November 1965 'C' Coy 13 Kumaon (123) Chinese Army (6000) 1:50 The 1st Battalion/7th Cavalry, the 2nd Battalion/7th Cavalry, and the 1st Battalion/5th Cavalry at the Battle of Ia Drang.
Battle of Long Tan 18 August19 August 1966 Australian Army (108) North Vietnamese Army, Viet Cong (1,500-2,650) 1:15 The Battle of Long Tần is arguably the most famous battle fought by the Australian Army during the Vietnam War. It was fought in a rubber plantation near the village of Long Tần, about 4 km north-east of Vung Tau, South Vietnam on August 18–19, 1966.
Battle of Longewala 05 December06 December 1971 1 Indian Company (120) 1 Pakistani Armoured Brigade (3,000) 1:20 The Indian 'A' company of 120 odd soldiers of the 23rd Battalion, Punjab Regiment, managed to hold a 2,000-3,000 strong assault force of the 51st Infantry Brigade of the Pakistani Army, backed by the 22nd Armoured Regiment, before the Indian Air Force flew in.
Battle of Khe Sanh 21 January8 April 1968 6,000 Marines 20,000 North Vietnamese roughly 1:3 6,000 U.S. forces, primarily Marines, successfully defended this base against 20,000 North Vietnamese forces.
22 October 1973 The Barak Armored Brigade defending the southern Golan Heights during the Yom Kippur War.
Battle of Xuan Loc April 1975 6,000 ARVN soldiers 40,000 North Vietnamese 1:7 During last major battle of the Vietnam War, the Battle of Xuan Loc, the vastly outnumbered ARVN 18th Division stood and fought at Xuan Loc.
Battle of Vukovar August 25 and November 18, 1991 2,000 Croatian National Guard 36,000 Mixture of verious Serb forces 1:18
Battle of Mogadishu October 3 and 4, 1993 160 USSOF and UNOSOM II 2,000+ Somali National Alliance - affiliated militias 1:13
Battle of Hill 776 29 February01 March 2000 85 Russian paratroopers ~2,000 Chechen mujahideen ~1:24 During one of the last major battles of the Second Chechen War, a vastly outnumbered company of Russian airborne troops stood and fought against an assault by Chechen rebels on Hill 776 near Ulus-Kert in the Chechen Republic. All but one of the 85 Russians died - 400 rebels were killed.

Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... Soviet redirects here. ... Ivan Panfilov (Панфилов Иван Васильевич) (1892—1941) - a Russian general, Hero of the Soviet Union 1942 (posthumously). ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... A stretch of the ring barrack of the Citadel with projecting semi-tower on the left Brest Fortress in Brest, Belarus, formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress (the Polish name of the city was Brześć Litewski), is one of the most important Soviet WWII war monuments marking the heroic and... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Battle of DražgoÅ¡e was a Second World War battle between Slovenian partisans and German troops, which took place between January 9 and January 11, 1942, in the village of DražgoÅ¡e. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants 18th “Chrysanthemum” Division, 56th Infantry Regiment Royal Malay Regiment, British 2nd Loyals Regiment, 5th Bttn. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Malay Regiment (Malay: Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) is one of two infantry regiments in the Malaysian Army. ... The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, first raised in 1688. ... ġσ Ï‚ Lt. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 4th Marines Insignia courtesy of www. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The... Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Angaur Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 17 September 1944 – 30 September 1944 Place Angaur, Palau Islands Result American victory The battle of Angaur was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Angaur in the Palau Islands from... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Iwo Jima – Okinawa – Ten-Go... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the capture of Berlin in 1945. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Indera Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 25 dead including non-combatants Bukit Kepong Incident was a historic armed encounter which took place on the February 23, 1950 between the police and... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... District Muar District Area  - Total (District) 2346. ... Combatants United Nations Great Britain United States Peoples Republic of China Commanders Oliver Smith Song Shi-Lun Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 frostbite casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frostbite casualties The Battle of Chosin... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Peoples Volunteer Army United Nations forces: - United States, - United Kingdom Commanders General Peng Dehuai General Matthew Ridgway [1] Strength 10,000 (+ Divisions in waiting) 700 of the British 29th Infantry Brigade Casualties ~20,00 Chinese; 63rd Army pulled out of action. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gloucestershire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kumaon Regiment is one of the most decorated regiments of the Indian Army. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States Commanders Nguyen Huu An Thomas W. Brown Harold G. Moore (X-Ray) Robert McDade (Albany) Strength More than 4,000 (Albany and X-Ray) Over 1,000 (Albany and X-Ray) Casualties X-Ray: Est. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Distinctive Unit Insignia, US 7th Cavalry The United States 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... The 5th Cavalry Regiment is a historical unit of the United States Army that began its service in the decade prior to the American Civil War and continues in modified organizational format in the modern army. ... Combatants Australia, New Zealand, United States Viet Cong, North Vietnam Commanders Harry Smith Nguyen Thanh Hong Strength 108 1,500-2,650[1] Casualties 18 killed, 21 wounded Estimates range from about 50 killed, to 800 casualties total. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Indian Army and later Indian Air Force Pakistan Army Commanders Major Kuldip Singh Chandpuri Brigadier Tariq Mir Strength 120 troops 2 Recoilless Guns 2000+ troops 65 Tanks 5 Field guns 3 Anti-aircraft guns 138 Military vehicles Casualties 2 men, 1 jeep mounted recoiless gun 200 soldiers. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders David E. Lownds (local), William C. Westmoreland (theater) Tran Quy Hai (local), Vo Nguyen Giap (theater) Strength 6,000 ~30,000 Casualties 730 killed in action, 2,642 wounded, 7 missing[2] Unknown; estimated between 10,000 and 15... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Barak Armored Brigade is today an Israeli tank brigade and one of the regular armored brigades of the Northern Command. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria, br/>  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung General Hieu Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 3 Divisions destroyed 30% of total strength The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major battle of the Vietnam War. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung General Hieu Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 3 Divisions destroyed 30% of total strength The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major battle of the Vietnam War. ... The 18th Division was an infantry division in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. ... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties Unofficial Serbian figures: 1... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Croatian National Guard (Croatian: Zbor Narodne Garde, ZNG) was the name of the first modern Croatian military force. ... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000-4,000 Casualties U.S. 19 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians At least 500[1] killed (U.S. est. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Special Operations Forces is the official category where the U.S. Department of Defense lists the U.S. military units that have a training specialization in unconventional warfare and special operations. ... Operation Restore Hope was an American military operation with the support of the United Nations which was formed to deliver humanitarian aid and restore order to the African nation of Somalia which was suffering from a severe famine, general anarchy, and domination by a number of warlords following the collapse... The Somali National Alliance was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. ... The Battle of Hill 776, also known as the Battle of Ulus-Kert, was a controversial battle in the Second Chechen War that saw a company of Russian paratroopers wiped out near the Argun Gorge, over the course of several days. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... VDV flag. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: , ; Turkish: , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 79th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th _ est. ...

References

  1. ^ Thomas Kelly (University of Minnesota) (2003), "Persian Propaganda - A Neglected Factor in Xerxes' Invasion of Greece and Herodotus", Iranica Antiqua 38, p. 198, gives 60,000 to 300,000 as a common range of modern estimates.
  2. ^ Philip De Souza, The Greek and Persian Wars, 499-386 BC, p. 41, gives 150,000 to 200,000 as a modern consensus.
  3. ^ a b Aryo Barzan, Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  4. ^ Nicholas Hammond, Sources for Alexander the Great: An Analysis of Plutarch's Life and Arrian's Anabasis Alexandrou
  5. ^ An Encyclopedia of Battles: Accounts of Over 1,560 Battles from 1479 B.C. to the Present By David Eggenberger, pg 305
  6. ^ Age of Faith, Durrant
  7. ^ Edwin Pears, The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks

This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ...

See also


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BBC News | AFRICA | Botswana Bushmen's last stand (959 words)
Away from the prying eyes of the world, the last remaining Kalahari Bushmen, or San people of Botswana, are being starved of food and water in a bid to force them off the land their forefathers have roamed for the past 30,000 years.
This is the final chapter in a 17-year saga which has seen the relocation of some 2,200 San out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) into resettlement camps by the Botswana Government.
The special game permits which enabled the San, the last remaining hunter-gatherers in Africa, to hunt a limited quota of wild animals, and gather veldt foods and fruits have been withdrawn.
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