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Encyclopedia > Last meal
This article is part of the
Capital punishment series
Issues

Capital punishment debate
Religion and capital punishment
Wrongful execution Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Wrongful execution or is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. ...

By region

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More... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...

Methods

Decapitation
Electrocution
Firing squad
Gas chamber
Hanging
Lethal injection
More... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ...

The last meal is a traditional part of a condemned prisoner's last day. The day before the appointed time of execution, the prisoner will be given the meal, as well as religious rites, if he or she desires. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


In many countries the prisoner may have the luxury of selecting what the last meal will be (within reason), and the authorities do their best to provide a prisoner with the requested meal.

Contents

History

Although the history of the tradition of giving a prisoner condemned to capital punishment a last meal is difficult to assess, most modern governments which execute prisoners subscribe to it. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


The ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Romans all had a tradition of giving the condemned man a final meal. The Aztecs fed their human sacrifices for up to a year before their death. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In pre-modern Europe, the ritual of granting the condemned a last meal has its seeds in common superstition: a meal was a highly symbolic social act. Accepting food, which was offered freely, meant to make one's peace with the host - the guest agreed tacitly to take an oath of truce and symbolically abjured all vengeance. Consequentially, in accepting the last meal the condemned was believed to forgive the executioner, the judge, and the witnessing mob. The ritual was supposed to prevent the delinquent from haunting those people, who were responsible for his or her killing, as a ghost or a revenant. The meal was therefore mainly a superstitious precaution and - following that logic - the better the food and the drinks, the safer the condemned's oath of truce. Last meals were often public and all parties which were involved in the penal process took part. World map showing the location of Europe. ... In the Middle Ages, revenants were legendary animated corpses which rose from the grave to haunt the living. ...


There were some practical side effects of a peaceful last meal as well - it was crucial for the authorities that a public execution was a successful spectacle. In the eyes of the contemporaries the violated law could only be restored by mirroring the crime via retaliative penalties (see lex talionis). However, if the mob had the impression that something was wrong and the chief character of the show was reluctant to play his or her role, things could get out of hand and place the malefactor's guilt in doubt. Hence it was most important for the authorities that the condemned met his or her fate calmly. Apart from having been constantly coerced since the death sentence, the poor sinner's solemn last meal was a significant symbol for the mob that he or she finally accepted the punishment. Additionally, delinquents were often served large quantities of alcoholic beverages to soothe them and bar them from execrating the authorities while ascending the scaffold - which would have been considered a bad omen. Lex talionis (literally the Latin for law as retaliation) or law of retaliation is the belief that one of the purposes of the law is to provide retaliation for an offended party. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


Restrictions

In the United States of America most states give the meal a day or two prior to execution, and use the euphemism "special meal". Alcohol or tobacco is usually denied. An unorthodox or unavailable request will be replaced with a substitute. Some states place tight restrictions: all food must come from within the prison system. Maryland does not offer the condemned a special last meal [citation needed]. Texas[1] limits last meals to food available within the prison system, though occasionally brings in food "from the free world". Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29...


Famous last meal requests

This represents the items reported requested but does not, in all cases, necessarily represent what the prisoner actually received.

  • Adolf Eichmann: He declined a special meal, preferring a bottle of Carmel, a dry red Israeli wine. He drank about half of it.[2]
  • Aileen Wuornos: She declined a special meal, but had a hamburger and other snack food from the prison's canteen. Later, she drank a cup of coffee.[3]
  • Ángel Nieves Díaz: He declined a special meal. He was then served the regular prison meal for that day, but he declined that as well.[4]
  • Billy Bailey: Steak well-done, a baked potato with sour cream and butter, buttered rolls, peas, and vanilla ice cream.[citation needed]
  • Bruno Richard Hauptmann: Celery, olives, chicken, French fries, buttered peas, cherries, and a slice of cake.[2]
  • Desmond Keith Carter: He declined a special meal, but had two cheeseburgers, a steak sub, and two Cokes from the prison canteen, for which he paid $4.20 from his prison account.[3]
  • Dobie Gillis Williams: Twelve candy bars and some ice cream.[5]
  • Edward Hartman: A Greek salad, linguini with white clam sauce, cheese cake with cherry topping, garlic bread, and a Coke.[6]
  • Gary Gilmore: A hamburger, hard-boiled eggs, a baked potato, a few cups of coffee, and three shots of whiskey.[2][7][8]
  • Gary M. Heidnik: Two slices of a cheese pizza and two cups of black coffee.[9]
  • Henry Martinez Porter: Flour tortillas, T-bone steak, refried beans, tossed salad, jalapeño peppers, ice cream, and chocolate cake.[10]
  • James Edward Smith: A small cup of yogurt.[10]
  • John Wayne Gacy: A dozen deep-fried shrimp, a bucket of original recipe chicken from KFC, French fries, and a pound of strawberries.[7]
  • Karla Faye Tucker: Banana, peach, and garden salad with ranch dressing.[10]
  • Leon Jerome Moser: A large cheese pizza, cheese slices, cold cuts, pasta salad, iced cup cakes, and a 2-liter bottle of Coca-Cola.[citation needed]
  • Morris Mason: Four McDonalds Big Macs, two large fries, two hot fudge sundaes, a hot apple pie, and two large soft drinks.[citation needed]
  • Perry Smith and Richard Hickock: Shrimp, French fries, garlic bread, ice cream, and strawberries with whipped cream.[2]
  • Philip Workman: He declined a special meal for himself, but he asked for a large vegetarian pizza to be given to a homeless person in Nashville, Tennessee. This request was denied.[11][12]
  • Rainey Bethea: Fried chicken, pork chops, mashed potatoes, pickled cucumbers, cornbread, lemon pie, and ice cream.[13]
  • Robert Alton Harris: A 21-piece bucket of Kentucky Fried Chicken, two large Domino's pizzas (no anchovies), ice cream, a bag of jelly beans, a six-pack of Pepsi, and a pack of Camel cigarettes.[14][15]
  • Ted Bundy: He declined a special meal, so he was given the traditional steak (medium-rare), eggs (over-easy), hash browns, toast, milk, coffee, juice, butter, and jelly.[2][16]
  • Timothy McVeigh: Two pints of Ben & Jerry's mint chocolate-chip ice cream.[17][18]
  • Velma Barfield: She declined a special meal, having a bag of Cheez Doodles and a can of Coca-Cola instead.[19]
  • Victor Feguer: A single olive with the pit still in it.[20]
  • Wesley Baker: The State of Maryland does not offer special meals; Baker had the regular meal of breaded fish, pasta marinara, green beans, orange fruit punch, bread, and milk.[21]
  • William Bonin: Two pepperoni and sausage pizzas, three servings of chocolate ice cream, and fifteen cans of Coca-Cola.[22][23]

Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Carmel Winery is a vineyard and winery in Israel. ... Aileen Carol Wuornos (born Aileen Carol Pittman) (February 29, 1956 – October 9, 2002) was an American prostitute and convicted serial killer who was sentenced to death by the state of Florida in 1992. ... Ángel Nieves Díaz (August 31, 1951 - December 13, 2006) was a Puerto Rican convict that was executed by lethal injection on 2006 in Starke, Florida. ... Billy Bailey (1947? - January 25, 1996) was a convicted murderer hanged in 1996. ... Bruno Richard Hauptmann (November 26, 1899 _ April 3, 1936) was a German carpenter and criminal, sentenced to death and executed for the Lindbergh kidnapping, the abduction and murder of Charles Augustus Lindbergh III, the 20-month old son of famous pilot Charles Lindbergh. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... A cherry is both a tree and its fleshy fruit, a type known as a drupe with a single hard pit enclosing the seed. ... Categories: Stub | 1967 births | 2002 deaths ... This article needs to be updated. ... A Twix bar, broken in half Candy bar is the most popular term in the U.S. for confectionery usually packaged in a bar or log form, often coated with chocolate, and sized as a snack for one person. ... Categories: People stubs | 1964 births | 2003 deaths ... Gary Mark Gilmore (December 4, 1940 – January 17, 1977) was an American career criminal who gained international notoriety as the first person executed in the United States after the death penalty was reinstated in 1976 after Gregg v. ... Gary Michael Heidnik (November 22, 1943 – July 6, 1999) was an American criminal who kidnapped women and kept them prisoner in his Philadelphia basement. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Karla Faye Tucker (November 18, 1959–February 3, 1998) was convicted of murder in 1984 and sentenced to death. ... Morris Odell Mason (March 28, 1954 - June 25, 1985) was a convicted rapist and murderer who called himself the killer for the Eastern Shore. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants [1]. Although McDonalds did not invent the hamburger or fast food, its name has become nearly synonymous with both. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A thick, creamy slice of Russian fudge Fudge is a type of sweet, usually extremely rich and flavored with cocoa. ... A strawberry sundae. ... Perry Edward Smith (October 27, 1928 – April 14, 1965) was one of two ex-convicts who murdered four members of the Clutter family in Holcomb, Kansas on November 15, 1959, a crime made infamous by Truman Capote in his 1966 non-fiction novel In Cold Blood. ... Kansas State Penitentiary mug shot of Richard Hickock in March 1958, the year before the murders. ... Philip Ray Workman (1953 - 9 May 2007) was a death row inmate executed in Tennessee on May 9, 2007. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Nickname: Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: , Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Government  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area  - City  526. ... Rainey Bethea (October 16, 1909 – 14 August 1936) was the last person to be publicly executed in the United States. ... This article is about the food. ... Cornbread or Johnny cake is a generic name for any number of quick breads (a bread leavened chemically, rather than by yeast) containing cornmeal. ... Robert Alton Harris (January 15, 1953–April 21, 1992) was an American career criminal and murderer who was executed in San Quentins gas chamber in 1992. ... Theodore Robert Ted Bundy (November 24, 1946 – January 24, 1989) is one of the most infamous serial killers in U.S. history. ... Timothy James McVeigh (April 23, 1968 – June 11, 2001), commonly referred to as the Oklahoma City bomber, was convicted of eleven federal offenses and ultimately executed as a result of his role on the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing. ... Ben and Jerrys factory in Waterbury, Vermont Ben and Jerrys is a brand of ice cream, frozen yogurt, sorbet, and novelty products, manufactured by Ben & Jerrys Homemade, Inc. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Velma Margie Barfield was born on October 29, 1932. ... Cheez Doodles Puffed cheese snack. ... Victor Feguer (1935 - March 15, 1963) was the last federal inmate in the United States before Timothy McVeigh to be executed, and the last person put to death in the state of Iowa. ... Wesley Eugene Baker (March 26, 1958 – December 5, 2005) was a convicted murderer executed by the U.S. state of Maryland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Famous fictional last meals

These last meals were featured in various forms of media, including film, books, and television.

The Life of David Gale is a 2003 motion picture that tells the fictional story of a philosophy professor, David Gale, who was dedicated to the abolition of the death penalty and who was sentenced to death for the rape and murder of a colleague and fellow abolitionist. ... Lincoln Burrows, played by Dominic Purcell, is a protagonist of the American television series, Prison Break. ... Prison Break is an American serial drama television series that premiered on the Fox Network on August 29, 2005. ... Species See text. ... The Green Mile has several different meanings, including: The Green Mile, a 1996 book by Stephen King. ... Binomial name (L.) Moench Okra (American English: , British English ), also known as ladys finger, bhindi and gumbo, is a flowering plant valued for its edible green fruits. ... Apple Cobbler Cobbler is a traditional American baked dish, usually a dessert. ... The Green Mile has several different meanings, including: The Green Mile, a 1996 book by Stephen King. ... Dead Man Walking is a 1995 film based on the book of the same name, which tells the story of Sister Helen Prejean (played by Susan Sarandon), who establishes a special relationship with Matthew Poncelet, a prisoner on death row (played by Sean Penn). ... Time is running out. ... A moon pie is a modern-day pastry food, invented during the first half of the 20th century. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... A cup of coffee. ... True Crime is a 1999 film starring (and directed by) Clint Eastwood. ... Oz was the first one-hour dramatic television series to be produced by HBO. The show, which aired for six seasons (1997-2003), was created by Tom Fontana and produced by Barry Levinson. ... Fluffernutter before assembly. ...

Miscellany

  • Artist Julie Green, paints a series called "The Last Supper". This is an on-going series of painted porcelain plates illustrating final meals of United States death row inmates [1]
  • In the episode Reborn to be Wild of the Fox animated series King of the Hill; Dale, Bill, Boomhauer and Kahn briefly created a "last meal club" in the realization that a condemned prisoner ate better than they did. They were eventually frightened away by the morbid nature of the meal and a feeling that they were tempting fate.
  • An episode of the 1972 series The ABC Comedy Hour featured a sketch with Frank Gorshin imitating James Cagney as a condemned prisoner and Rich Little imitating James Stewart as a prison warden. When Little (as Stewart) told Gorshin he could have anything he wanted for his last meal, Gorshin (as Cagney) ordered "about a thousand" hummingbird tongues.
  • With the advent of the Internet, a number of people seemed to become interested in what the typically requested last meals were. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice used to make available the list of the requested last meal of recent inmates, and whether the request was fulfilled. The list has since been terminated but most of the entries can still be accessed at The Memory Hole.
  • In the movie Frankie and Johnny, Al Pacino plays an ex-prisoner/chef who used to make prison dinners and last meals for deathrow inmates.
  • On The Simpsons, Homer ate Hans Moleman's last meal, lobster tail and raspberry tart.
  • In an episode of Da Ali G Show, Ali G asked Newt Gingrich if a prisoner can order an all-you-can-eat buffet as his last meal to keep eating and never get executed.

This article is about the television program. ... Dale Alvin Gribble (voiced by Johnny Hardwick) is a character in the animated series King of the Hill. ... Bill Dauterive Guillaume Fontaine Delatour Bill D’Auterive (voiced by Stephen Root) is a character in the animated series King of the Hill. ... Information Gender Male Age Early 40s Date of birth 1959 c. ... Information Gender Male Age 41 Spouse(s) Minh Souphanousinphone (wife) Children Connie Souphanousinphone (daughter) Portrayed by Toby Huss Kahn Souphanousinphone, Sr. ... Frank Gorshin as the Riddler, from the Batman TV series. ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... Rich Little performing (as George Burns) in 2004 Richard Caruthers Rich Little (born November 26, 1938) is a Canadian comedian best known for his celebrity impersonations. ... James Maitland Stewart (May 20, 1908 – July 2, 1997) was an iconic, Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his self-effacing screen persona. ... The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (DCJ) is a department of the government of the state of Texas. ... Frankie and Johnny is a 1991 motion picture directed by Garry Marshall. ... Alfredo James Pacino (born April 25, 1940) is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, AFI, Bafta, Emmy Award, and Tony Award-winning American stage and film actor who played such iconic roles as Michael Corleone in The Godfather Trilogy and Tony Montana in the 1983 film Scarface. ... The Simpsons. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Da Ali G Show was the name of two related satirical TV series starring British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen and featuring the character Ali G. The original (single season) series was made by Channel 4 in the UK, and the second (two season) series by HBO in the US. The... Information Aliases Ali G Gender Male Age 30s Occupation Interviewer Family Nana (grandmother) Spouse(s) Julie (aka me Julie) (girlfriend) Portrayed by Sacha Baron Cohen Created by Sacha Baron Cohen Ali G (Alistair Leslie Graham)1 is a satirical fictional character invented and played by English comedian Sacha Baron Cohen. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich (born June 17, 1943), Ph. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Brian Price (March/April 2004). The Last Supper. Legal Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e No Seconds. TIME Magazine (1994-05-23). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  3. ^ a b Last Meals on Death Row (2002). Dead Man Eating. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  4. ^ Last Meals on Death Row (2006). Dead Man Eating. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  5. ^ Jessica Wehrman (2000-03-05). Last meal for condemned criminals an old tradition. Scripps Howard News Service.
  6. ^ Last Meals on Death Row (2003). Dead Man Eating. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  7. ^ a b John Peck (2006-01-05). Last Meals. Tucson Weekly. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  8. ^ Katherine Ramsland. Gary Gilmore: Death Wish. Crime Library. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  9. ^ Wolcott, Martin Gilman (2004). "Page 286", The Evil 100. Citadel, p. 286. ISBN 0-806-52555-X. 
  10. ^ a b c Final Meal Request. Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Archived from the original on 2003-12-02. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  11. ^ Ashley Fantz (2007-05-09). Killer orders pizza for homeless as last meal. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  12. ^ Last Meals on Death Row (2007). Dead Man Eating. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  13. ^ Ryan, Perry T. (1992). "24. Final Preparations for the Hanging", The Last Public Execution in America. Ryan, Perry T.. ISBN 0-9625504-5-0. 
  14. ^ Capital Punishment - Harris, Robert Alton. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  15. ^ Lance Morrow (1992-05-04). Television Dances With the Reaper. TIME Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  16. ^ Paula Tully Bryant. Timeline: 1989 - A History of Corrections in Florida. Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  17. ^ Catherine Quayle (2001-06-11). Execution of an American Terrorist. Court TV. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  18. ^ Rita Cosby (2001-06-12). Timothy McVeigh Put to Death for Oklahoma City Bombings. FOX News. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  19. ^ William E. Schmidt (1984-11-03). First Woman Is Executed in U.S. Since 1962. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  20. ^ Federal govt.'s last execution was in Iowa in 1963. USA Today (2001-06-20). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  21. ^ Last Meals on Death Row (2005). Dead Man Eating. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  22. ^ Mark Gribben. William Bonin: The Freeway Killer. Crime Library. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  23. ^ William Bonin - The Freeway Killer. Rotten dot com. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Richard van Dülmen (1990). Theatre of Horror : Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Germany. Cambridge. ISBN 0-745-60616-4. 
  • Michel Foucault (1977). Discipline & Punish : The Birth of the Prison. ISBN 0-679-75255-2. 
  • Hans von Hentig (1973). Punishment - Its Origin, Purpose, and Psychology. ISBN 0-87585-147-9. 

External links


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