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Encyclopedia > Larynx
Larynx
Endoscopic image of larynx

The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. The larynx houses the vocal folds, and is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus Image File history File linksMetadata Larynx_endo_2. ... Endoscopy means looking inside and refers to looking inside the human body for medical reasons. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Windpipe redirects here. ... The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ...

Contents

Function

Sound is generated in the larynx, and that is where pitch and volume are manipulated. The strength of expiration from the lungs also contributes to loudness, and is necessary for the vocal folds to produce speech [1]. Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... For expiration as part of respiration, see Exhalation. ...


Fine manipulation of the larynx is used in a great way to generate a source sound with a particular fundamental frequency, or pitch. This source sound is altered as it travels through the vocal tract, configured differently based on the position of the tongue, lips, mouth, and pharynx. The process of altering a source sound as it passes through the filter of the vocal tract creates the many different vowel and consonant sounds of the world's languages. Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ...


During swallowing, the backward motion of the tongue forces the epiglottis over the laryngeal opening to prevent swallowed material from entering the lungs; the larynx is also pulled upwards to assist this process. Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex to protect the lungs. For the Bush song, see Swallowed (song). ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... For other uses, see Reflexive (disambiguation). ...


The vocal folds can be held close together (by adducting the arytenoid cartilages), so that they vibrate (see phonation). The muscles attached to the arytenoid cartilages control the degree of opening. Vocal fold length and tension can be controlled by rocking the thyroid cartilage forward and backward on the cricoid cartilage, and by manipulating the tension of the muscles within the vocal folds. This causes the pitch produced during phonation to rise or fall. In most males the vocal cords are longer, producing a deeper pitch. In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... The cartilages of the larynx. ... The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid, is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...


The vocal apparatus consists of two pairs of mucosal folds. These folds are false vocal cords(vestibular folds) and true vocal cords(folds). The false vocal cords are covered by respiratory epithelium, while the true vocal cords are covered by stratified squamous epithelium. The false vocal cords are not responsible for sound production, but rather for resonance. These false vocal cords do not contain muscle, while the true vocal cords do have skeletal muscle.


Innervation

The larynx is innervated by branches of the vagus nerve (CN X) on one side. Sensory innervation to the glottis and supraglottis is by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle. Motor innervation to all other muscles of the larynx and sensory innervation to the subglottis is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The Superior Laryngeal Nerve arises from the middle of the ganglion nodosum and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic. ... The cricothyroid muscle attaches to the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid and the inferior cornu and lower lamina of the thyroid cartilage, tilting the thyroid forwards and lengthening the vocal cords. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ...


Injury to the external laryngeal nerve causes weakened phonation because the vocal cords cannot be tightened. Injury to one of the recurrent laryngeal nerves produces hoarseness, if both are damaged the voice is completely lost and breathing becomes difficult. Dysphonia is the medical term for hoarseness or other phonation disorders. ...


Muscles associated with the larynx

Notably, the only muscle capable of separating the vocal cords for normal breathing is the posterior cricoarytenoid. If this muscle is incapacitated on both sides, the inability to pull the vocal cords apart (abduct) will cause difficulty breathing. Bilateral injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve would cause this condition. The cricothyroid muscle attaches to the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid and the inferior cornu and lower lamina of the thyroid cartilage, tilting the thyroid forwards and lengthening the vocal cords. ... The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles allow the rima glottidis to be opened; they therefore have the opposite effect to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. ... The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles allow the rima glottidis to be closed, protecting the airway; they therefore have the opposite effect to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. ... The Thyreoarytænoideus (Thyroarytenoid) is a broad, thin, muscle which lies parallel with and lateral to the vocal fold, and supports the wall of the ventricle and its appendix. ... The Arytenoid is a single muscle, filling up the posterior concave surfaces of the arytenoid cartilages. ...


Descended larynx

In most animals, including infant humans and apes, the larynx is situated very high in the throat — a position that allows it to couple more easily with the nasal passages, so that breathing and eating are not done with the same apparatus. However, some aquatic mammals, large deer, and adult humans have descended larynges. An adult human cannot raise the larynx enough to directly couple it to the nasal passage. A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... This article is about the ruminant animal. ...


Some linguists have suggested that the descended larynx, by extending the length of the vocal tract and thereby increasing the variety of sounds humans could produce, was a critical element in the development of speech and language. Others cite the presence of descended larynges in non-linguistic animals, as well as the ubiquity of nonverbal communication and language among humans, as counterevidence against this claim. Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. ...


Disorders of the larynx

There are several things that can cause a larynx to not function properly. Some symptoms are hoarseness, loss of voice, pain in the throat or ears, and breathing difficulties.

  • Acute laryngitis is the sudden inflammation and swelling of the larynx. It is caused by the common cold or by excessive shouting. It is not serious. Chronic laryngitis is caused by smoking, dust, frequent yelling, or prolonged exposure to polluted air. It is much more serious than acute laryngitis.
  • Presbylarynx is a condition in which age-related atrophy of the soft tissues of the larynx results in weak voice and restricted vocal range and stamina. Bowing of the anterior portion of the vocal cords is found on laryngoscopy.
  • Vocal cord paresis is weakness of one or both vocal folds that can greatly impact daily life.
  • Idiopathic larangyal spasm
  • Laryngomalacia is a very common condition of infancy, in which the soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction.
  • The world's first successful larynx transplant took place in 1999 at the Cleveland Clinic. [2]

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ... Diagram of an endotracheal tube (10) that has been inserted into the airway of a patient. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. ... Vocal cord paresis (or paralysis) is weakness of one or both vocal folds that can greatly impact daily life. ... Laryngomalacia (literally, soft larynx) is a very common condition of infancy, in which the soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction. ... The Cleveland Clinic (formally known as the Cleveland Clinic Foundation) is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. ...

Cartilages

There are six in all, three unpaired and three paired.The cartilages of the larynx are the thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, arytenoids, corniculate, and the cuneiforms. The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid, is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. ... The epiglottis is a lid-like flap of fibrocartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. ... The arytenoid cartilages are a pair of small pyramid-shaped cartilages, at the upper rear of the larynx, to which the vocal cords are attached. ... The corniculate cartilages (cartilages of Santorini) are two small conical nodules consisting of yellow elastic cartilage, which articulate with the summits of the arytenoid cartilages and serve to prolong them backward and medialward. ... The cuneiform cartilages of the larynx (cartilages of Wrisberg) are two small, elongated pieces of yellow elastic cartilage, placed one on either side, in the aryepiglottic fold, where they give rise to small whitish elevations on the surface of the mucous membrane, just in front of the arytenoid cartilages. ...


Images

See also

Look up Larynx in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Attached to the posterior border of the hard palate is a thin, firm fibrous lamella called the Palatine Aponeurosis, which supports the muscles and gives strength to the soft palate. ... The buccopharyngeal fascia is attached to the prevertebral layer by loose connective tissue only, and thus an easily distended space, the retropharyngeal space, is found between them. ...

References

  1. ^ Titze, I.R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0137178933.
  2. ^ University Circle Inc

Speech and Hearing Science: Anatomy and Physiology 3rd edition. Willard R. Zemlin. 1988. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. ISBN 0-13-827429-0


  Results from FactBites:
 
Larynx (1661 words)
The larynx is a special part of the body that functions as an airway to the lungs as well as providing us with a way of communicating (vocalizing).
The thyrohyoid membrane was seen in the study of the neck and is pierced by the internal laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal artery.
The cricothyroid muscle lies anterior and external to the larynx and was identified in the study of the muscular triangle of the neck.
Larynx - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (909 words)
During swallowing, the larynx (at the epiglottis and at the glottis) closes to prevent swallowed material from entering the lungs; there is also a strong cough reflex to protect the lungs.
Some linguists have suggested that the descended larynx, by extending the length of the vocal tract and thereby increasing the variety of sounds humans could produce, was a critical element in the development of speech and language.
Acute laryngitis is the sudden inflammation and swelling of the larynx.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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