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Encyclopedia > Large Hadron Collider

Coordinates: 46°14′N 06°03′E / 46.233, 6.05 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and Hadron collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. It is currently in the final stages of construction, and commissioning, with some sections already being cooled down to its final operating temperature of ~2K (−271°C). The first beams are due for injection mid June 2008 with the first collisions planned to take place 2 months later.[1] The LHC will become the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator.[2] The LHC is being funded and built in collaboration with over two thousand physicists from thirty-four countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... A hadron, in particle physics, is a subatomic particle which experiences the nuclear force. ... A collider is a type of a particle accelerator with two opposite beams of the particles. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


When activated, it is theorized that the collider will produce the elusive Higgs boson, the observation of which could confirm the predictions and "missing links" in the Standard Model of physics and could explain how other elementary particles acquire properties such as mass.[3][2] The verification of the existence of the Higgs boson would be a significant step in the search for a Grand Unified Theory, which seeks to unify the three fundamental forces: electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force. The Higgs boson may also help to explain why gravitation is so weak compared to the other three forces. In addition to the Higgs boson, other theorized novel particles that might be produced, and for which searches[4] are planned, include strangelets, micro black holes, magnetic monopoles and supersymmetric particles[5]. The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... The term mass in special relativity can be used in different ways, occasionally leading to confusion. ... Grand unification, grand unified theory, or GUT is a theory in physics that unifies the strong interaction and electroweak interaction. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... Gravity redirects here. ... Strange matter (also known as quark matter) is an ultra-dense phase of matter that is theorized to form inside particularly massive neutron stars. ... A micro black hole in physics is a black hole of small mass around which quantum mechanical effects play an important role. ... In physics, magnetic monopole is a term describing a hypothetical particle that could be quickly clarified to a person familiar with magnets but not electromagnetic theory as a magnet with only one pole. In more accurate terms, it would have net magnetic charge. Interest in the concept stems from particle... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Technical design

Superconducting quadrupole electromagnets are used to direct the beams to four intersection points where interactions between protons will take place.
Superconducting quadrupole electromagnets are used to direct the beams to four intersection points where interactions between protons will take place.

The collider is contained in a circular tunnel with a circumference of 27 kilometres (17 mi) at a depth ranging from 50 to 175 metres underground.[6] The tunnel, constructed between 1983 and 1988,[7] was formerly used to house the LEP, an electron-positron collider. Schematic quadrupole magnet(four-pole) used to focus particle beams in a particle accelerator. ... An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The LEP tunnel at CERN, now being filled with magnets for the LHC The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) is one of the largest particle accelerators finished so far. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ...


The 3.8 metre diameter, concrete-lined tunnel crosses the border between Switzerland and France at four points, although the majority of its length is inside France. The collider itself is located underground, with many surface buildings holding ancillary equipment such as compressors, ventilation equipment, control electronics and refrigeration plants.


The collider tunnel contains two pipes enclosed within superconducting magnets cooled by liquid helium, each pipe containing a proton beam. The two beams travel in opposite directions around the ring. Additional magnets are used to direct the beams to four intersection points where interactions between them will take place. In total, over 1600 superconducting magnets are installed, with most weighing over 27 tonnes. Helium exists in liquid form only at very low temperatures. ... Superconducting magnets are electromagnets that are built using superconducting coils. ...


The protons will each have an energy of 7 TeV, giving a total collision energy of 14 TeV. It will take around ninety microseconds for an individual proton to travel once around the collider. Rather than continuous beams, the protons will be "bunched" together, into approximately 2,800 bunches, so that interactions between the two beams will take place at discrete intervals never shorter than twenty-five nanoseconds apart. When the collider is first commissioned, it will be operated with fewer bunches, to give a bunch crossing interval of seventy-five nanoseconds. The number of bunches will later be increased to give a final bunch crossing interval of twenty-five nanoseconds.[citation needed] A TeV is a teraelectronvolt, i. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10−6 seconds and 10−5 seconds (1. ...

LHC Accelerators
LHC Accelerators

Prior to being injected into the main accelerator, the particles are prepared through a series of systems that successively increase the particle energy levels. The first system is the linear accelerator Linac2 generating 50 MeV protons which feeds the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). Protons are then injected at 1.4 GeV into the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at 26 GeV. Finally the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) can be used to increase the energy of protons up to 450 GeV. Image File history File links LHC.svg‎ PNG version. ... Image File history File links LHC.svg‎ PNG version. ... A Linear particle accelerator is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. ... The PS Booster is the first and smallest proton circular accelerator in the CERN LHC injection complex [1]. It takes 50MeV protons from the linear accelerator Linac2 and accelerates them up to 1. ... The surface above the PS at CERN. With more than 45 years to be smoothed out and have buildings built around it, the ring-shaped hill containing the accelerator is not completely obvious--but it can be seen curving around on the left side of the image. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ...


The LHC can also be used to collide heavy ions such as lead (Pb) with a collision energy of 1,150 TeV. The ions will be first accelerated by the linear accelerator Linac 3, and the Low-Energy Injector Ring (LEIR) will be used as an ion storage and cooler unit. The ions are then further accelerated by the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Heavy-ion refers to ion of atom which is usually heavier than carbon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... The surface above the PS at CERN. With more than 45 years to be smoothed out and have buildings built around it, the ring-shaped hill containing the accelerator is not completely obvious--but it can be seen curving around on the left side of the image. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ...


Six detectors are being constructed at the LHC. They are located underground, in large caverns excavated at the LHC's intersection points. Two of them, ATLAS and CMS, are large, "general purpose" particle detectors.[2] ALICE is a large detector designed to search for a quark-gluon plasma in the very messy debris of heavy ion collisions. The other three (LHCb, TOTEM, and LHCf) are smaller and more specialized. A seventh experiment, FP420 (Forward Physics at 420 m), has been proposed which would add detectors to four available spaces located 420 m on either side of the ATLAS and CMS detectors.[8] ATLAS experiment detector under construction in October 2004 in its experimental pit; the current status of construction can be seen here. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is an example of a large particle detector. ... ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the five detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is optimized to study heavy ion collisions. ... A QGP is formed at the collision point of two relativistically accelerated gold ions in the center of the STAR detector at the relativistic heavy ion collider at the Brookhaven national laboratory. ... The LHCb (standing for Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of four large particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. LHCb is a specialist b-physics experiment, particularly aimed at measuring the parameters of CP violation in the interactions of b-hadrons... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... The LHCf (standing for Large Hadron Collider forward) experiment is one of six particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. ...


The size of the LHC constitutes an exceptional engineering challenge with unique safety issues. While running, the total energy stored in the magnets is 10 GJ, and in the beam 725 MJ. Loss of only 10−7 of the beam is sufficient to quench a superconducting magnet, while the beam dump must absorb an energy equivalent to a typical air-dropped bomb. For comparison, 725 MJ is equivalent to the detonation energy of approximately 157 kilograms (350 lb) of TNT, and 10 GJ is about 2.5 tons of TNT. Look up gigajoule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A quench refers to a rapid cooling. ... Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of electrical resistance and the damping of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... A beam dump is a device that absorbs a beam. ... A general-purpose bomb is an air-dropped bomb intended as a compromise between blast damage, penetration, and fragmentation in explosive effect. ... Unit of energy commonly used to quantify laerge amounts of energy. ...


Research

A Feynman diagram of one way the Higgs boson may be produced at the LHC. Here, two quarks each emit a W or Z boson which combine to make a neutral Higgs.
A Feynman diagram of one way the Higgs boson may be produced at the LHC. Here, two quarks each emit a W or Z boson which combine to make a neutral Higgs.
A simulated event in the CMS detector, featuring the appearance of the Higgs boson.
A simulated event in the CMS detector, featuring the appearance of the Higgs boson.

When in operation, about seven thousand scientists from eighty countries will have access to the LHC, the largest national contingent of seven hundred being from the United States. Physicists hope to use the collider to test various grand unified theories and enhance their ability to answer the following questions: Image File history File links BosonFusion-Higgs. ... Image File history File links BosonFusion-Higgs. ... In this Feynman diagram, an electron and positron annihilate and become a quark-antiquark pair. ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++ In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Grand unification, grand unified theory, or GUT is a theory in physics that unifies the strong interaction and electroweak interaction. ...

This box:      The Higgs mechanism, also called the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism, Higgs-Kibble mechanism or Anderson-Higgs mechanism, was proposed in 1964 by Robert Brout and Francois Englert [1], independently by Peter Higgs [2] and by Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and Tom Kibble [3] following earlier work by... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... CP-symmetry is a symmetry obtained by a combination of the C-symmetry and the P-symmetry. ... In physics, Kaluza-Klein theory (or KK theory, for short) is a model that seeks to unify the two fundamental forces of gravitation and electromagnetism. ... In physics, the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that transmits the force of gravity in most quantum gravity systems. ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory This box:      String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero... For other uses, see Dark matter (disambiguation). ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... A fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. ...

As an ion collider

The LHC physics program is mainly based on proton-proton collisions. However, shorter running periods, typically one month per year, with heavy-ion collisions are included in the programme. While lighter ions are considered as well, the baseline scheme deals with lead (Pb) ions.[10] This will allow an advancement in the experimental programme currently in progress at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. ...


Proposed upgrade

CMS detector for LHC
CMS detector for LHC

After some years of running, any particle physics experiment typically begins to suffer from diminishing returns; each additional year of operation discovers less than the year before. The way around the diminishing returns is to upgrade the experiment, either in energy or in luminosity. Construction of one detector (called CMS ) of the LHC at CERN I took the picture 2003-10-10, when I visited CERN. It shows the new LHC they are building there. ... Construction of one detector (called CMS ) of the LHC at CERN I took the picture 2003-10-10, when I visited CERN. It shows the new LHC they are building there. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... In economics, diminishing returns is the short form of diminishing marginal returns. ...


A luminosity upgrade of the LHC, called the Super LHC, has been proposed,[11] to be made after ten years of LHC operation. The optimal path for the LHC luminosity upgrade includes an increase in the beam current (i.e., the number of protons in the beams) and the modification of the two high luminosity interaction regions, ATLAS and CMS. To achieve these increases, the energy of the beams at the point that they are injected into the (Super) LHC should also be increased to 1 TeV. This will require an upgrade of the full pre-injector system, the needed changes in the Super Proton Synchrotron being the most expensive. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC) is a proposed upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider to be made around 2015. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ...


Cost

The construction of LHC was originally approved in 1995 with a budget of 2.6 billion Swiss francs, with another 210 million francs (140 M€) towards the cost of the experiments. However, cost over-runs, estimated in a major review in 2001 at around 480 million francs (300 M€) in the accelerator, and 50 million francs (30 M€) for the experiments, along with a reduction in CERN's budget pushed the completion date out from 2005 to April 2007.[12] 180 million francs (120 M€) of the cost increase has been the superconducting magnets. There were also engineering difficulties encountered while building the underground cavern for the Compact Muon Solenoid, due to, in part, the allegedly "faulty" parts lent to CERN by fellow laboratory and home to the world's largest particle accelerator, (until CERN finishes the Large Hadron Collider) Argonne National Laboratory, or FermiLab, located in Batavia, Illinois, outside of Chicago.[13] The total cost of the project is anticipated to be between $5 and $10 billion (US Dollars).[2] ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ...


[email protected]

Main article: [email protected]

The distributed computing project [email protected] was started to support the construction and calibration of the LHC. The project uses the BOINC platform to simulate how particles will travel in the tunnel. With this information, the scientists will be able to determine how the magnets should be calibrated to gain the most stable "orbit" of the beams in the ring. [email protected] is a distributed computing project using the BOINC framework, run by CERN in Switzerland. ... Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a non-commercial middleware system for volunteer computing, originally developed to support the [email protected] project, but intended to be useful for other applications in areas as diverse as mathematics, medicine, molecular biology, climatology, and astrophysics. ...


Safety concerns

Concerns have been raised that performing collisions at previously unexplored energies might unleash new and disastrous phenomena. These include the production of micro black holes, and strangelets. Such issues were raised in connection with the RHIC accelerator, both in the media[14][15] and in the scientific community;[16] however, after detailed studies, scientists reached such conclusions as "beyond reasonable doubt, heavy-ion experiments at RHIC will not endanger our planet"[17] and that there is "powerful empirical evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet production."[18] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A strangelet or strange nugget is a hypothetical object, consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks. ... The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a heavy-ion collider located at and operated by the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York. ...


One simple argument against such fears is that collisions at these energies (and higher) have been happening in nature for billions of years apparently without hazardous effects, as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays impact Earth's atmosphere and other bodies in the universe.[19] A concern against this cosmic-ray argument is that, if dangerous strangelets or micro black holes were created at LHC, a proportion would have less than the Earth's escape velocity (of 11.2km/s), and therefore would be captured by the Earth's gravitational field, whereas those created by high-energy cosmic rays would leave the planet at high speed, due to the laws of conservation of momentum at relativistic speeds[citation needed]. Unsolved problems in physics: Why is it that some cosmic rays appear to possess energies that are theoretically too high? In high-energy physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray (subatomic particle) which appears to have extreme kinetic energy, far beyond both its rest mass... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ...


CERN's review concludes, after detailed analysis, that "there is no basis for any conceivable threat" from strangelets, black holes, or monopoles.[20][21] However, the concern about the verity of Hawking radiation was not addressed, and another study was commissioned by CERN in 2007 for publication on CERN's web-site by the end of 2007.[citation needed] In physics, Hawking radiation (also known as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation) is a thermal radiation thought to be emitted by black holes due to quantum effects. ...


The risk of a doomsday scenario was indicated by Sir Martin Rees, with respect to the RHIC, as being a one in fifty million chance[22], and by Professor Frank Close, with regards to (dangerous) strangelets, that 'the chance of this happening is like you winning the major prize on the lottery 3 weeks in succession; the problem is that people believe it is possible to win the lottery 3 weeks in succession'.[23]. Accurate assessments of these risks are impossible due to the currently incomplete, or even hypothetically flawed, standard model of particle physics (see also a list of unsolved problems in physics). Sir Martin John Rees (born June 23, 1942) has been Astronomer Royal since 1995 and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge since 2004. ... Frank Close OBE is currently Professor of Physics at the University of Oxford. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... This is a list of some of the unsolved problems in physics. ...


Micro Black Holes

Although the Standard Model of particle physics predicts that LHC energies are far too low to create black holes, some extensions of the Standard Model posit the existence of extra spatial dimensions, in which it would be possible to create micro black holes at the LHC [24][25][26] at a rate on the order of one per second. According to the standard calculations these are harmless because they would quickly decay by Hawking radiation. The concern from opposing civil society movements[27] is that, among other disputed factors, Hawking radiation (which is still debated[28]) is not yet an experimentally-tested or naturally observed phenomenon. Thus, the above mentioned opponents to LHC consider that micro black holes produced in a terrestrial laboratory might not decay as rapidly as calculated, or might even not be prone to decay and, if unable to rapidly evaporate, they could start interacting, grow larger and potentially be disastrous to Earth itself.[29] The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In physics, Hawking radiation (also known as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation) is a thermal radiation thought to be emitted by black holes due to quantum effects. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Strangelets

Main article: Strangelet

Strangelets are a hypothetical form of strange matter that contains roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and are more stable than ordinary nuclei. If strangelets can actually exist, and if they were produced at LHC, they could conceivably initiate a runaway fusion process (reminiscent of the fictional ice-nine) in which all the nuclei in the planet were converted to strange matter, similar to a strange star. A strangelet or strange nugget is a hypothetical object, consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks. ... A strangelet or strange nugget is a hypothetical object, consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++ In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... Cats Cradle (ISBN 038533348X) is a 1963 science fiction novel by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... A strange star or quark star is a hypothetical type of star composed of strange matter. ...


Legal Challenge

On 21st March 2008 a complaint requesting an injunction against the LHC's startup was filed before the US District Court of Hawaii[30][31] by a group of seven concerned individuals. This group includes Walter L. Wagner who notably was unable to obtain an injunction against the much lower energy RHIC for similar concerns. See: RHIC - Fears among the public The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. ...


The restraining order[32] is a demand for an injunction of 4 months time after issuance of the LHC Safety Assessment Group's (LSAG) Safety Review originally promised by January 1, 2008, to review the LHC's most recent safety documentation, after it has been issued, and a permanent injunction until the LHC can be demonstrated to be reasonably safe within industry standards.


Construction accidents and delays

On October 25, 2005, a technician, José Pereira Lages, was killed in the LHC tunnel when a crane load was accidentally dropped.[33][34] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 27, 2007, there was an incident during a pressure test involving one of the LHC's inner triplet magnet assemblies provided by Fermilab and KEK. No people were injured, but a cryogenic magnet support broke. Fermilab director Pier Oddone stated 'In this case we are dumbfounded that we missed some very simple balance of forces.' This fault had been present in the original design, and remained during four engineering reviews over the following years.[35] Analysis revealed that its design, made as thin as possible for better insulation, was not strong enough to withstand the forces generated during pressure testing. Details are available in a statement from Fermilab, with which CERN is in agreement.[36][37] is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... For other uses, see KEK (disambiguation). ...


Repairing the broken magnet and reinforcing the eight identical copies used by LHC, in addition to a number of other small delays, caused a postponement of the planned November 26, 2007 startup date [38] to May 2008.[39] is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


See also

The International Linear Collider is a proposed linear particle accelerator. ... The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was a ring particle accelerator which was planned to be built in the area around Waxahachie, TX. It was planned to have a ring circumference of 87 km (54 miles) and an energy of 20 TeV per beam, potentially enough energy to create a Higgs... Tevatron is a circular particle accelerator (or synchrotron) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ The CERN Bulletin - A word from the DG: The home straight
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Achenbach, Joel (2008-03-01). "The God Particle". National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  3. ^ Ellis, John (19 July 2007). "Beyond the standard model with the LHC". Nature 448: 297-301. doi:10.1038/nature06079. Retrieved on 2007-11-24. “There are good reasons to hope that the LHC will find new physics beyond the standard model, but no guarantees. The most one can say for now is that the LHC has the potential to revolutionize particle physics, and that in a few years' time we should know what course this revolution will take.” 
  4. ^ I.F. Ginzburg, A. Schiller, “Search for a heavy magnetic monopole at the Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC”, Phys. Rev. D57 (1998) 6599-6603, arXiv:hep-ph/9802310; A. Angelis et al., "Formation of Centauro and Strangelets in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC and their Identification by the ALICE Experiment”, arXiv:hep-ph/9908210; G. L. Alberghi, et al., “Searching for micro black holes at LHC”, IFAE 2006, Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie (Italian Meeting on High Energy Physics)
  5. ^ T. Lari, "Search for Supersymmetry with early ATLAS data" [ http://www.springerlink.com/content/t72033v31131727h/ ]
  6. ^ Symmetry magazine, April 2005
  7. ^ CERN - LEP: the Z factory
  8. ^ FP420 R&D Project
  9. ^ "...in the public presentations of the aspiration of particle physics we hear too often that the goal of the LHC or a linear collider is to check off the last missing particle of the standard model, this year’s Holy Grail of particle physics, the Higgs boson. The truth is much less boring than that! What we’re trying to accomplish is much more exciting, and asking what the world would have been like without the Higgs mechanism is a way of getting at that excitement." -Chris Quigg, Nature's Greatest Puzzles
  10. ^ Ions for LHC
  11. ^ PDF presentation of proposed LHC upgrade
  12. ^ Maiani, Luciano (16 October 2001). LHC Cost Review to Completion. CERN. Retrieved on 2001-01-15.
  13. ^ Feder, Toni (December 2001). "CERN Grapples with LHC Cost Hike". Physics Today 54 (12): 21. Retrieved on 2007-01-15. 
  14. ^ New Scientist, 28 August 1999: "A Black Hole Ate My Planet"[1]
  15. ^ Horizon: End Days, an episode of the BBC television series Horizon
  16. ^ W. Wagner, "Black holes at Brookhaven?" and reply by F. Wilzcek, Letters to the Editor, Scientific American July 1999
  17. ^ A. Dar, A. De Rujula, U. Heinz, "Will relativistic heavy ion colliders destroy our planet?", Phys. Lett. B470:142-148 (1999) arXiv:hep-ph/9910471
  18. ^ W. Busza, R. Jaffe, J. Sandweiss, F. Wilczek, "Review of speculative 'disaster scenarios' at RHIC", Rev. Mod. Phys.72:1125-1140 (2000) arXiv:hep-ph/9910333
  19. ^ Safety at the LHC
  20. ^ J. Blaizot et al, "Study of Potentially Dangerous Events During Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC", CERN library record CERN Yellow Reports Server (PDF)
  21. ^ Tiny Black Holes - Physicist Dave Wark of Imperial College, London reporting for NOVA scienceNOW
  22. ^ Cf. Brookhaven Report mentioned by Rees, Martin (Lord), Our Final Century: Will the Human Race Survive the Twenty-first Century?, U.K., 2003, ISBN 0-465-06862-6; note that the mentioned "1 in 50 million" chance is disputed as being a misleading and played down probability of the serious risks (Aspden, U.K., 2006)
  23. ^ BBC 'End Days' (Documentary) - available from the BBC, or from Youtube.
  24. ^ CERN courier - The case for mini black holes. Nov 2004
  25. ^ American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Physics News, Number 558, September 26, 2001, by Phillip F. Schewe, Ben Stein, and James Riordon
  26. ^ S. Dimopoulos and G. Landsberg, "Black holes at the LHC", Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:161602 (2001), arXiv:hep-ph/0106295
  27. ^ List of a few known civil society movements expressing concerns at their websites on LHC destructive risks: Risk Evaluation Forum, LHC Concerns, Stop CERN, LHC Legal Defense Fund
  28. ^ A. Helfer, "Do black holes radiate?", Rept. Prog. Phys. 66, 943-1008 (2003) arXiv:gr-qc/0304042
  29. ^ Cf. the previous websites on concerns about the LHC, from civil society movements upon reference.
  30. ^ Federal District Court Filings and Dockets Hawaii
  31. ^ MSNBC Cosmic Log - Doomsday Fear Sparks Lawsuit
  32. ^ List of affidavits and temporary restraining order
  33. ^ Hewett, JoAnne (25 October 2005). Tragedy at CERN (Blog). Cosmic Variance. Retrieved on 2007-01-15. author and date indicate the beginning of the blog thread
  34. ^ CERN (26 October 2005). "Message from the Director-General" (in English and French). Press release. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  35. ^ Fermilab 'Dumbfounded' by fiasco that broke magnet
  36. ^ LHC Magnet Test Failure
  37. ^ Updates on LHC inner triplet failure
  38. ^ The God Particle. www.bbc.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  39. ^ CERN (2007-06-22). "CERN announces new start-up schedule for world’s most powerful particle accelerator". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.

Joel Achenbach is a staff writer for The Washington Post and the author of six books, including The Grand Idea, Captured by Aliens and Why Things Are. ... The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ... This article is about the organization. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Physics Today magazine, created in 1948, is the flagship publication of The American Institute of Physics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Imagine waking up to the last day on Earth. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Horizon is a long-running BBC popular science and history documentary programme, notable for coining the term supervolcano. ... NOVA ScienceNOW is a newsmagazine version of the venerable PBS science program NOVA. This new series is in its second season. ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... Professor Martin Rees Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Articles

  • Energising the quest for 'big theory'
  • symmetry magazine LHC special issue
  • BBC Horizon, The six billion dollar experiment
  • New Yorker: Crash Course. The world’s largest particle accelerator (ca. 6 500 words)
  • NYTimes: A Giant Takes On Physics’ Biggest Questions (ca. 4 300 words)
  • Beam Parameters and Definitions. The chapter of the LHC Technical Design Report (TDR) that lists of all the beam parameters for the LHC.
For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ... The UA1 high energy physics experiment ran at CERN from 1981 until 1993 on the SPS collider. ... The UA2 high energy physics experiment was one of the two major experiments and collaborations at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, and codiscovered the W and Z bosons in 1983. ... The LEP tunnel at CERN, now being filled with magnets for the LHC The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) is one of the largest particle accelerators finished so far. ... ALEPH (Apparatus for LEP Physics at CERN) was one of the four detectors of the LEP collider. ... The OPAL Experiment at LEP 1989-2000 OPAL was one of the major particle physics experiments at CERN. OPAL studied particles and their interactions by collecting and analysing electron-positron collision events at LEP, the Large Electron-Positron collider. ... ATLAS experiment detector under construction in October 2004 in its experimental pit; the current status of construction can be seen here. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... The LHCb (standing for Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of four large particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. LHCb is a specialist b-physics experiment, particularly aimed at measuring the parameters of CP violation in the interactions of b-hadrons... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... The LHCf (standing for Large Hadron Collider forward) experiment is one of six particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. ... ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the five detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is optimized to study heavy ion collisions. ... A Linear particle accelerator is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. ... The PS Booster is the first and smallest proton circular accelerator in the CERN LHC injection complex [1]. It takes 50MeV protons from the linear accelerator Linac2 and accelerates them up to 1. ... The surface above the PS at CERN. With more than 45 years to be smoothed out and have buildings built around it, the ring-shaped hill containing the accelerator is not completely obvious--but it can be seen curving around on the left side of the image. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ... [email protected] is a distributed computing project using the BOINC framework, run by CERN in Switzerland. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Large Hadron Collider - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (453 words)
The Large Hadron Collider (short LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland.
The LHC is funded and being built in collaboration with over two thousand physicists from 34 countries, universities and laboratories.
The LHC will collide hadrons (protons, to be exact) in the 27 km circumference tunnel previously used by the LEP, an electron-positron collider.
[email protected] (345 words)
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator which is being built at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, the world's largest particle physics laboratory.
But the LHC will not be limited to the study of proton-proton collisions as it can also collide heavy ions, such as lead, with a collision energy of 1148 TeV.
To bend the 7 TeV protons around the ring, the LHC dipoles must be able to produce magnetic fields of 8.36 Tesla, a value which is made possible by the use of "superconductivity".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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